All animals were fed whole herring (Clupea harengus harengus), and to mimic natural feeding, all fish were warmed to pool temperature as determined by inserting a temperature probe into every fish (±0.1°C; Physitemp Instruments, NJ, USA). Feeding trials were conducted between 07:00·h and 23:30·h. Animals were fed in the water and had to consume all fish within 8·min for a trial to be considered successful. Most feedings were completed in less than 2·min. For each feeding, the times of first and last fish consumption were recorded. Animals were fed exact quantities of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0·kg (±0.05·kg). Time to next feeding ranged from a minimum of 70·min to 6·h, depending on meal size and total food consumed for the day. To determine the minimum time between feedings, preliminary experiments were conducted with one captive sea lion. Time to recovery of stomach temperature was calculated and minimum time between feedings was determined as approximately two times the maximum recovery time for that animal. Based on this protocol we assumed that each feeding event was independent from previous feeds. Data from the preliminary experiments were not included in the analysis because the feeding protocol was modified for subsequent experiments. Number of feedings per day for northern elephant seals ranged from 1 to 6, with an average of 2.2±0.9. Sea lions ate on average 2.9±0.1 meals per day (range 1–6). Animals were not given access to food outside of feeding experiments.
Data recorders were attached to the dorsal feathers of the birds, between the wings, using a 1 s glue with accelerator (Loctite 422) or TESA 5020-19 textile tape (Beiersdorf). The stomach temperature pill alone was inserted into a fish and fed to the bird. For simultaneous deployments of both recorder types, the cable sensor for the oesophagus was linked by an 18–20 cm long silk thread to the stomach radio pill. The sensor pill was then placed in a fish and fed to a bird. Upon eating the fish, the bird automatically swallowed the cable sensor, which trailed the fish. The cable sensor thus lodged in the oesophagus and was held in place by the heavier pill located in the stomach. The sensor cable was secured to the corner of the beak with a small break-away dab of Loctite glue, at a distance of 20 cm from the sensor. The remainder of the cable was secured along the neck with short break-away pieces of TESA tape. This ensured that, after regurgitation of the transmitter pill and cable sensor, these two devices hung off the back of the bird without deleterious effects.
Stomach content studies usually requires that cormorants be shot or made to regurgitate (Wilson, 1984; Duffy and Jackson, 1986). The stomach contents from each bird are then considered to represent the amount of food eaten during one foraging bout. However, this also has a number of drawbacks. (1) Cormorants, when shot, may regurgitate at least part of their stomach contents (Van Dobben, 1952). (2) At the time of shooting, the stomach contents do not always represent the total amount of fish taken during one foraging trip, but rather a ‘snap-shot’ made at some point during the trip. The stomach often only contains part of the meal, either because the bird is not satiated or because some prey have already been evacuated from the stomach during digestion. (3) The number of foraging bouts per day can be highly variable (between zero and nine bouts per day in bank cormorants; Cooper, 1984). (4) The amount of food eaten during a foraging trip is also highly variable (between 0 and 294 g in bank cormorants, this study). Overall, we conclude that estimation of prey masses ingested per day can be determined reasonably accurately by stomach temperature sensors.
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This study represents the first deployment of stomach temperature sensors in free-ranging cetaceans. It demon- strates that even relatively large whales, with body mass exceeding 1,000 kg, can be handled on shore by lifting the body and mouth above sea level so that a stomach temperature sensor can be administered through an in- tubation tube. In this initial study the STPs were deployed in the esophagus or the esophageal pouch anterior to the esophageal sphincter. It is possible that the two longest- lasting STPs ended up passing through the gastro- intestinal tract whereas the STPs with short durations were regurgitated. The temperature drop caused by ingested prey is probably larger when the STP is in the upper or lower part of the esophagus than in the pyloric stomach. Nevertheless, the findings presented here sug- gest that placement of the STPs in the cardiac stomach posterior to the esophageal sphincter should be tested. This placement may extend the duration of the deploy- ment by reducing the risk of vomiting of esophageal con- tent. In the field, penetration with the intubation tube into the cardiac cavity can be detected from the return flow of stomach fluid. Deployment in the cardia will, however, require greater sensitivity to detections of temperature West Greenland
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2. Stomach peristalsis. Although the consistency of the stomach contents may theoretically play a large role in determining the rate of heat transfer between the animal and its stomach contents, the degree of stomach churning can, for the same reasons, alter the rate of heat transfer for stomach contents irrespective of their consistency. Increased stomach churning, simulated by still, shaken and kneaded balloons in waterbaths, generally resulted in decreased m-values. We found no information on gastric motility in seabirds, although preliminary studies have been conducted with some terrestrial birds species (e.g. Kuechle et al. 1987). However, it is likely that some seabirds show considerable variation in gastric motility. This arises because many species transport food to their chicks in their stomachs (e.g. Croxall, 1987), which means that normal digestion must be slowed or stopped, otherwise birds foraging at great distances from their breeding sites would arrive back at the nest with empty stomachs (Wilson et al. 1989). We have convincing evidence that delayed gastric emptying occurs in at least some species of penguins, since we continuously filmed a single Adélie penguin which was documented as still feeding its chicks 72 h after having last returned from foraging (R. P. Wilson, 45
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Background: Motion detecting archival data loggers such as accelerometers have become increasingly important in animal biotelemetry and offer unique insights into animal behavior, energetics, and kinematics. However, challenges remain for successful deployment and interpretation of data from captive and wild animals. Accelerometer sensors require being packaged in an archival tag that has a firm attachment in a fixed (known) orientation to accurately measure the relevant motion of the animal. This requirement can lead to handling stress and attachment techniques that can affect the tagged animal’s natural behavior and welfare, and lead to behavioral artifacts in the data. Acceler- ometer data also require careful interpretation to correctly identify behavioral events of interest such as foraging. For endothermic species, changes in stomach temperature can produce temperature signatures indicative of foraging events. In this paper, we present a novel method for recording foraging events in free-swimming white sharks. Methods: We used a combination of accelerometer loggers and pop-up archival transmitting (PAT) tags (MK10, Wildlife Computers) to examine the feeding and kinematics of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the wild. We validated feeding results using a captive juvenile white shark where controlled feeding experiments could be conducted in an aquarium setting at the Monterey Bay Aquarium. We fed data logger instrument packages to eight free-swimming white sharks. Deployment durations ended naturally when the package was regurgitated and ranged from 2 to 12 days. While inside the stomach, the orientation of the data logger package was arbitrary and resulted in slow shifting over time, a challenge for normal analysis routines. We present one of these datasets to illustrate a novel methodology for calibrating accelerometer orientation, and evaluate the utility of resulting data.
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Captive feeding trials to determine the relationships between the mass of food ingested, energy invested in heating ingested food, and the integral of stomach temperature fluctuations have proved useful in stomach temperature telemetry studies with birds (e.g. Wilson et al., 1992; Grémillet and Plös, 1994; Wilson et al., 1995) and mammals (e.g. Gales and Renouf, 1993; Kuhn and Costa, 2006). If these relationships are known, the integrals of stomach temperature fluctuations recorded from free-swimming animals can be used to estimate the mass of the prey ingested. Controlled feeding trials with leatherbacks were not feasible, since this species is extremely difficult to care for in captivity (see Jones, 2009), and the size of STP instruments precluded use with smaller species of sea turtle. As an alternative to captive feeding trials, we used laboratory simulations to characterize ingestions of prey and seawater (Wilson et al., 1992; Wilson et al., 1995). The use of laboratory simulation- derived data to estimate prey mass for our field data was complicated by a lack of information on the actual temperature of prey ingested, which is a necessary component to determine energy invested in heating the prey to predator body temperature. As previously mentioned, transit time in the ~2m long esophagus led to a lag time between ingestion of prey and detection by the STP3, so the actual temperature of prey was not known. An additional problem was that the fluidity of ingested prey was not known, and fluidity can have strong effects on the relationship between the integral of a stomach temperature fluctuation and energy invested to heat prey to predator body temperature. For these reason, we did not use laboratory simulations to estimate the mass of ingested prey from field data.
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We found no difference in the stomach temperature of incubating king penguins whatever the extent of their gastric content preservation, excluding temperature adjustments from those factors involved in the mechanisms of stomach food preservation. No day–night stomach temperature cycle occurred in incubating birds, in contrast to our observations for non-incubating penguins. In the latter, the diel temperature pattern observed was probably the result of movements and thus of muscular heat generation (Aschoff, 1970). Whereas incubating king penguins remain active by day as well as by night (Challet et al., 1994; Le Maho et al., 1993), they spend most of their time resting in a motionless state during the course of fasting (Challet et al., 1994). This might contribute to the constancy of stomach temperature, but more importantly, this stability can be explained by the need to hold the temperature of the egg at an adequate level for embryo development, independent of the bird’s digestive status. Indeed, the average stomach temperature (38.0°C; present study, or 38.2°C; Thouzeau et al., 2003) is identical to the brood patch temperature, which is maintained constant during incubation (Handrich, 1989). A similar absence of a distinct day–night cycle in core temperature has been observed in incubating blue petrels Halobaena caerulea (Ancel et al., 1998) and only reappeared in case of egg desertion, probably reflecting day–night bird movements. In some of our incubating birds, however, a positive correlation was observed between stomach temperature and motility (data not shown), which might
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and growing-finishing pigs. By reducing the pH in the stomach of pigs, feeding fermented liquid feed prevents the proliferation of pathogens such as coliforms and Salmonella from developing in the gastrointestinal tract. Additional benefits from liquid feeding include an in- crease in nutrient digestibility, improved intestinal morphology, a reduction in the content of various anti- nutritional factors in feeds and a reduction in dust levels in swine barns. However, liquid feeding is sometimes asso- ciated with the development of diseases such as haemor- rhagic bowel syndrome, gastric torsion, gastrointestinal tympany and gastric ulcers. In addition, the fermentation process can cause a loss of essential nutrients from the feed especially synthetic amino acids. Finally, if the feed is not properly fermented, a high concentration of yeast can result in the production of “off-flavours” and taints due to the production of compounds such as acetic acid, ethanol and amylic alcohols which make the feed less palatable. On balance, the use of fermented liquid feed appears to be a cost effective alternative to the use of antibiotic growth promoters.
Gastric metastases may be recognizable as abnormalities on gastroscopy; however as the morphology is variable there are no characteristic appearances that define meta- static disease . Likewise, the appearance on CT scans of metastatic neoplasms to the stomach are indistinguish- able from that of gastric primary malignancies, such as adenocarcinoma or lymphoma, and can also be easily confused with the appearance of food residue or inade- quate gastric distension. On barium X-ray, these lesions often are described as "target lesions" with the lesion itself depicted as a filling defect and a central collection of bar- ium within it, likely related to the ulcerated morphology seen endoscopically. Frequently, bridging mucosal folds are noted which suggest a submucosal mass. Unfortu- nately, this "bulls' eye" lesion is also in keeping with a multitude of neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions of
Conditional ablation of COUP-TFII in the gastric mesenchyme results in dysmorphogenesis and radial patterning defects of the developing stomach The size of the mutant stomach is slightly smaller when compared with the control littermate at E12.5. Histological analysis of Hematoxylin and Eosin-stained sagittal sections of Fig. 1. Expression of COUP-TFII in the stomach using lacZ knock- in model. (A). Generation of the lacZ knock-in allele and generation of floxed COUP-TFII allele. Using homologous recombination, a targeting construct containing nuclear lacZ, Neo/TK and LoxP sites were inserted into the genomic COUP-TFII locus, generating a targeted allele in ES cells. Treatment with Cre recombinase and FIAU selection resulted in a lacZ knock-in allele in which lacZ gene expression was controlled by the endogenous COUP-TFII promoter when recombination took place between the first and the third loxP sites of the targeted allele. In addition, floxed COUP-TFII ES clones that retains COUP-TFII locus but lacks selection markers were generated when recombination took place between the second and the third loxP sites. B, BamHI; H, HindIII; S, SalI; X, XbaI. (B) Cryostat sections of E12.5 heterozygous COUP-TFII/lacZ knock-in embryo were stained (for 2 hours) for lacZ activity. There is relatively high expression in the mesenchymal cells just adjacent to the epithelium. (C). The stomach from a 3-day-old heterozygous knock-in animal was dissected and whole-mount X-gal staining was performed. The boundary between stomach and duodenum is indicated by arrowhead. (D) A cryostat section of stomach from adult heterozygous knock-in animal was stained for lacZ activity (blue) and counterstained with propidium iodide (red). DBA lectin immunostaining denotes the parietal cells (green). There is strong X- gal staining in the base layer and negligible staining in the surface pit layer of the adult Zymogenic unit. m, mesenchyme; e, epithelium; fs, fore-stomach; hs, hind-stomach; d, duodenum; oe, esophagus.
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Since the last three decade many drug molecules formulated as gastroretentive drug delivery system have been patented keeping in view its commercial success 1 . Oral sustained drug delivery system is complicated by limited gastric residence times (GRTs). Rapid GI transit can prevent complete drug release in the absorption zone and reduce the efficacy of the administered dose since the majority of the drugs are absorbed in stomach or the upper part of small intestine 2, 3 .
The above statement was true because stomach has both forms of nerve supply. They are intrinsic and extrinsic pathways .Both are independent of the other and they play pivotal role in both secretory as well as motor functions. Both the right and left vagus nerves provides the external parasympathetic nerve supply of the stomach. The important neurotransmitter is the acetylcholine. The pathway of the vagus nerve starts from the nuclei belongs to the nerve, which is present in the floor of the fourth ventricle. From there, it passes through the carotid sheath in the neck. It enters the mediastinum andhereit gives off recurrent laryngeal nerve. Further it divides into several branches which winds around esophagus, and here only it forms right and left vagus nerves.
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Case 13: A 79-year-old woman presented with epigastralgia and underwent upper endoscopy. A large ulcerative tumor was identified in the upper stomach (Figure 4A). Systemic computed tomography showed multiple abdominal lymph node swellings, peritoneal thickening, and ascites. NBI-magnification endoscopy showed irregular microsurface structures, such as des- troyed or dilated gastric pits, nonstructural mucosa de- void of pits, and elongated and distorted microvessels (Figure 4B). Endocytoscopy showed dense aggregation of cellular elements with intensely stained nuclei of diverse configurations (Figure 4C). Histopathological examin- ation of targeted biopsies showed diffuse mucosal infil- tration of pleomorphic neoplastic cells (Figure 4D) of the T-cell lineage (Figure 4E). With a diagnosis of lymphoma subtype of ATLL, she was treated with com- bination chemotherapy (vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin).
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The development of oral in situ gel forming system also known as stomach specific or raft forming systems have provided a suitable way of providing the controlled drug delivery within stomach with enhanced gastro-retention . Drugs that are easily absorbed from gastro intestinal tract (GIT) and have short half life are eliminated quickly from systemic circulation. Frequent dosing of these drugs is required to achieve therapeutic activity.
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Barx1 levels. Conventional RT-PCR confirmed these trends (Fig. 2B). miR-689, miR-710 and miR-764-3p showed similar trends to miR-7a and miR-203 by sensitive qRT-PCR but their expression was too low to detect by other means (Fig. 2B and data not shown); results for miR-135a-1 were inconsistent between the two RT-PCR methods and the other candidates lacked the predicted temporal profile. As the Barx1 3 ⬘ -UTR regions that contain miR-7a and miR-203 recognition sites are also highly conserved across species (see Fig. S2 in the supplementary material), we focused on these candidates; Fig. 2C illustrates their complementarity with the 3 ⬘ - UTR of mouse Barx1. In situ hybridization indicated an abundance of miR-7a and miR-203 in E19 mouse stomach; miR-7a, in particular, gave stronger signals in the mesenchyme (Fig. 2D,E), where Barx1 is expressed. Thus, different computational algorithms predict Barx1 mRNA as a target for miR-7a and miR- 203, which are expressed in a tissue-specific and temporal pattern compatible with a role in Barx1 regulation.
Although the majority of studies on chitinase have been conducted on microorganisms , chitinase is also found and has been investigated in many other biological species, including mammals -, fish -, mollusks  , insects -, plants  , and fungi  . Since the physiological role of chiti- nase varies in these organisms, the mechanism and efficiency of chitinase degradation and the substrate specific- ity have been reported to vary. For instance, acidic mammalian chitinase expressed in the stomach of mammals , and chitotriosidase produced by macrophages   are thought to function in the digestion and absorp- tion of food and defense against pathogens. In addition, chitinase has been detected at the onset of asthma and allergies, suggesting its involvement in diseases  . In contrast, chitinase and Hex are also found in the digestive tracts of fish. The enzyme activities are generally associated with feeding habits, and their levels are high in fish that feed on organisms containing chitin  . However, the distribution of chitinase and Hex in the body of fish is not known.
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Design: This multicenter randomized controlled trial will include four acupoint treatment groups, one non-acupoint control group and one drug (positive control) group. The four acupoint treatment groups will focus on: (1) specific acupoints of the stomach meridian; (2) non-specific acupoints of the stomach meridian; (3) specific acupoints of alarm and transport points; and (4) acupoints of the gallbladder meridian. These four groups of acupoints are thought to differ in terms of clinical efficacy, according to traditional acupuncture meridians and acupoint theories. A total of 120 FD patients will be included in each group. Each patient will receive 20 sessions of acupuncture treatment over 4 weeks. The trial will be conducted in eight hospitals located in three centers of China. The primary outcomes in this trial will include differences in Nepean Dyspepsia Index scores and differences in the Symptom Index of Dyspepsia before randomization, 2 weeks and 4 weeks after randomization, and 1 month and 3 months after completing treatment.
A total of 40 adult Acipenser persicus (25 female and 15 male, Average weight: 21.4 kg; mean fork length: 139.2 m) were used in this experiment. They were randomly captured from the Caspian Sea with a 100 mm mesh size gillnet. To detect the normal location and details of the digestive system, they were autopsied primary to the study. All parts of the digestive system, from oral cavity toward rectum and anal orifice, were evaluated. The anatomical structure, morphological and relations of the different parts of the digestive system including buccal cavity, pharynx, esophagus, glandular stomach, muscular stomach, pyloric process, small intestine, spiral colon, rectum, and pancreas were described.
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Major changes have been noted in the site of gastric cancer occurrence. The West has noted a paradigm shift with a steady increase being observed in the incidence of cancers of the gastric cardia and the proximal stomach and a decline in the distal stomach. The redistribution has been attributed to the reduction in H. pylori infection and the associated atrophic gastritis. Reports from Asian countries like Japan, Korea and Iran have been conflicting. The Japanese and the Korean populations have a predominance of distal gastric cancers while the Iranians have reported a trend similar to that in the West. A recent study from Kerala showed that carcinoma of the distal stomach has remained predominant although a trend towards a proximal shift has been noted (1). Incidence rates in men are twice those in women (2).
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