and humour – sometimes explicit, sometimes subtle. Munday reminds us that if the function of a text is to amuse, but it poses difficult translation problems, “it is not unusual to find that text either eliminated altogether or else substituted with a completely different text which will be equally entertaining in the TL” (Munday, 2009, p. 196). Our research has shown that, while the Indonesian translator has achieved functional equivalence in the translation of many of those humorous elements, there are some, in particular those dependent on linguistic humours that do not readily translate or have not been translated successfully. With regard to translation loss or gain, we conclude that the Indonesian translator of Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone adopted an interpretative-communicative method of translation. In doing so, some compromises were made, particularly through reduction in complexity (Tabbert, 2002), and without the compensation required to retain the level of humour.
Harry had never in all his life had such a Christmas dinner. A hundred fat, roast turkeys; mountains of roast and boiled potatoes; platters of chipolatas; tureens of buttered peas, silver boats of thick, rich gravy and cranberry sauce -- and stacks of wizard crackers every few feet along the table. These fantastic party favors were nothing like the feeble Muggle ones the Dursleys usually bought, with their little plastic toys and their flimsy paper hats inside. Harry pulled a wizard cracker with Fred and it didn't just bang, it went off with a blast like a cannon and engulfed them all in a cloud of blue smoke, while from the inside exploded a rear admiral's hat and several live, white mice. Up at the High Table, Dumbledore had swapped his pointed wizard's hat for a flowered bonnet, and was chuckling merrily at a joke Professor Flitwick had just read him.
A tinkling bell rang somewhere in the depths of the shop as they stepped inside. It was a tiny place, empty except for a single, spindly chair that Hagrid sat on to wait. Harry felt strangely as though he had entered a very strict library; he swallowed a lot of new questions that had just occurred to him and looked instead at the thousands of narrow boxes piled neatly right up to the ceiling. For some reason, the back of his neck prickled. The very dust and silence in here seemed to tingle with some secret magic.
Despite attempts to give the books spurious deeper meanings, since the publication of the irst novel Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone in 1997, the books have gained immense popularity, critical acclaim and commercial success worldwide, leading to ilms, video games, theme parks and merchandise. he seven books published have collectively sold more than 325m copies and have been translated into more than 64 languages, including Ancient Greek and Latin.22 he seventh and last book in the series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, was released in July 2007. Publishers announced a record-breaking 12m copies for the irst print run in the us alone.23 Reputedly, the success of the novels has made J K Rowling the highest-earn- ing novelist in history.24
As suddenly as it had started, everything stopped. Harry lay facedown on the stone-cold floor, listening to Myrtle gurgling morosely in the end toilet. With difficulty, he kicked off his shoes and stood up. So this was what it felt like, being Goyle. His large hand trembling, he pulled off his old robes, which were hanging a foot above his ankles, pulled on the spare ones, and laced up Goyle's boatlike shoes. He reached up to brush his hair out of his eyes and met only the short growth of wiry bristles, low on his forehead. Then he realized that his glasses were clouding his eyes because Goyle obviously didn't need them - he took them off and called, "Are you two okay?" Goyle's low rasp of a voice issued from his mouth.
On the basis of Aixela’s work on CSIs, Davies (2003: 65-100) develops a further focus on the treatment of CSIs in her study of the translation of Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone into German and French. Davies discusses a range of procedures adopted by various translators such as ‘deletion, preservation, addition, globlisation, localization, transformation and creation’, and investigates their positive or negative effect on the text in dealing with CSIs. According to her (ibid: 79) a problematic CSI can be deleted as an act of ‘desperation’ on behalf of the translator if a TT equivalent is not found or the effort needed for rendering a CSI is unjustified by a translator. She argues that CSIs in the Harry Potter are part of a network of references that work together to achieve a ‘global impact’ (ibid; 65). Davies argues further that adopting a ‘macro perspective’ approach to investigate various procedures to sets of CSIs in the Harry Potter series will be more useful than adopting a micro level approach in dealing with CSIs individually, due to their joint contribution in the development of the whole text (ibid). Davies’ macro approach will be useful in investigating procedures i.e. deletion and omission to various CSIs and their effect on the macro level e.g. the development of the whole story in the Arabic translation of the Harry Potter novels. Thus, the way CSIs are rendered in relation to concepts discussed above, in terms of deletion and omission, will be important in providing useful tools to categorise and evaluate CSIs in the Arabic translation of the Harry Potter novels. This will be discussed in Chapters 5 and 6.
Complete removal of the stone with subsequent sterilization of the urinary tract is the treatment of choice for patients who can tolerate the procedures. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is the preferred surgical approach for most patients. At times, extracorporeal lithotripsy may be used in combination with a percutaneous approach. Open surgery is rarely required. Irrigation of the renal pelvis and calyces with hemiacidrin, a solution that dissolves struvite, can reduce recurrence after surgery. Stone-free rates of 50–90% have been reported after surgical intervention. Antimicrobial treatment is best reserved for dealing with acute infection and for maintenance of sterile urine after surgery. Urine cultures and culture of stone fragments removed at surgery should guide the choice of antibiotic. For patients who are not candidates for surgical removal of a stone, acetohydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of urease, can be used. Unfortunately, acetohydroxamic acid has many side effects, such as headache, tremor and thrombophlebitis that limit its use.
Harry S. Truman and the Election of 1948 “Thomas E. Dewey’s Election as President Is a Foregone Conclusion,” read a headline in the New York Times during the presidential election race between incumbent Democrat Harry S. Truman and his Republican challenger, Thomas E. Dewey. Earlier, Life magazine had put Dewey on its cover with the caption “The Next President of the United States” (qtd. in “1948 Truman-Dewey Election”). In a Newsweek survey of fifty prominent political writers, each one predicted Truman’s defeat, and Time correspondents declared that Dewey would carry 39 of the 48 states (Donaldson 210). Nearly every major media outlet across the United States endorsed Dewey and lambasted Truman. As historian Robert H. Ferrell observes, even Truman’s wife, Bess, thought he would be beaten (270).
properties were studied. The deformations of the stone columns were measured at every 2.5cm interval and graph was plotted between the depths versus bulging of the column. Fig. 8 and 9 shows deformed shapes of the stone columns and Fig. 10 and 11 shows the laterally deformed bulging curves of different columns for different reinforcement lengths at spacings of 5cm and 2.5cm respectively. For unreinforced column with stone aggregate, the maximum bulging of 12mm was found at the center of the column. This bulging is reduced for the stone column of slag to 11mm and is further reduced with reinforced columns. This may be due to the increased friction between the slag aggregates with rough surfaces (shown in Fig. 1(a)). The maximum bulging of 11mm, 11 mm, 10mm and 6mm were observed for unreinforced stone column with slag, reinforced stone columns for different reinforcement lengths of D, 2D and 3D/4D respectively for stone columns with spacings of 5.0cm. Whereas for 2.5cm spacing, the bugging is reduced and reached to 11mm, 10 mm, 9.5mm, 5mm and 4.5mm for unreinforced and different reinforcement lengths of D, 2D, 3D and 4D, respectively. This reduction in bulging happened due to the increased mobilization of shear resistance only by decreasing the spacing between the circular discs. For both the spacings of 5.0mm and 2.5mm, the load carrying capacity increased with embedment length when confining stresses increased. Maximum bulging was found at the center of the column for unreinforced and fully reinforced columns, whereas the maximum bulging was very much reduced by placing the full reinforcement compared to the unreinforced column. For the other reinforcement lengths, the maximum bulging was found near/just below the end of the reinforcement (shown in Fig. 8, 9, 10 and 11).
The myth of a girl and a mother, share similar characteristics, even though there is a huge age difference between girls (young children) and mothers (usually adult women), meaning that ever since they are young, girls are already conditioned to be mothers. Being loving, nurturing, or patient are exactly what their mothers do for them, shaping the belief that girls should become like their mothers, then embrace the same role when they grow up. Tarlow (1996) said, ―Caring is part of the world of women" (as cited in Arendell, p. 3). McMahon also stated that ―Mothering is a primary identity for adult women, and women's gender identity is reinforced by mother- ing‖ (as cited in Arendell, p. 4). This concept has been passed from generation to generation; it has been repeated over and over again that people believe is the truth. It becomes easy and natural for girls to take the mother role because they are already used to it ever since they are young. Thus the two myths about girls and mother that are intertwined would be utilized to analyze Hermione Granger’s, Luna Lovegood’s and Ginny Weasley’s relationship with Harry Potter.
28 – 60% of proximal calculi [3 – 6]. Hereby an increase in operative time, a decrease in stone-free rates and the need for further auxiliary procedures (i.e. shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), flexible ureterorenoscopy (fURS)) with affiliated morbidities and health-care costs have been reported [2, 7, 8]. Novel stone retrieval devices have been introduced to address the problem of accidental stone migration: Stone baskets [9, 10], suction devices , balloon catheters [12, 13] guidewire [14 – 16] and gel- based devices [17, 18] significantly reduced the incidence of stone retropulsion. On the contrary, these devices are associated with additional costs and some of them with a higher risk for ureteral injuries .
Hierdie dreigement met die Geestelike Swaard het heeltemal by die aard en die hele handelwyse van sir Harry Smith gepas, soos dit weer- spieël word in sy wyse van optrede teenoor die naturelle kapteins. Eers is hy godsdienstig en salwend, en as dit nie help nie is hy weer vol dreigemente en grootpraat en bluf. So was hy ook nadat hy tevergeefs met mooi woorde en fraaie beloftes probeer het om Andries Pretorius oor te haal om nie uit Natal weg te trek nie. In sy proklamasie waarmee hy op 3 Februarie 1848 die Vrystaat13 geannekseer het, het hy al met die uitvoering van sy dreigement begin toe hy gedekreteer het: „The expense of the Government aforesaid, shall be vested in a fund, under the control of a Commission, composed of members of the Dutch Reformed Church, appointed by Her Majesty’s High Commissioner, for the erection of churches on such spots as may be selected and sanctioned, and for the provision of ministers . . Op 29 Maart 1948 het hy in Kaapstad ’n „Manifest o f Openbare Verklaring” gepubliseer14 wat veral teen Andries Pretorius gemik was en wat moes dien as „uitleg” van sy proklamasie van 4 Februarie „van de beweegredenen welke mij noopten om een Gouvernement daar te stellen over misleide, teleurgestelde misnoegde menschen, die uit het Land hunner Vaderen zijn uitgeweken, de woningen daar zij in groot geworden zijn hebben verlaten, afgescheiden van bloed verwanten en vrienden, de gezellige omgang met wien strekte tot hun geluk,—van hunne leeraren, hunne kerken en gevolglijk ook hun G od” . Koddiger staatstuk is nooit deur ’n Goewerneur in Suid-Afrika uitgestuur nie as hierdie „Manifest of Openbare Verklaring” wat as „uitleg” van sy inlywingsproklamasie van 3 Februarie moes dien. Hy vertel daarin hoe ’n klompie Voortrekkers by hom kom kla het: „Zij schilderden den staat van ellende in welken zij verkeerden uit gebrek aan Kerken en Wetten; verklaarden dat zij in geen tien jaren eene Kerk hadden gezien; zij konden hunne dochters niet getrouwd krijgen, noch hunne dooden begraven.” 15 En dan rig hy verder die woord persoonlik tot hierdie mense wie se gebied deur hom vir die Britse kroon geannekseer is: „Gij hebt inderdaad sedert eenige jaren geen Gouvernement gehad. Zijt gij gelukkiger? Zijt gij rijker? Zijt gij betere Christenen? Gij zijt ellendig, gij zijt armen, de
screenings at the Art Cinema mentioned above, he also created ‘proto-light-shows’ – multiple-projector screenings that he re-filmed from the screen during performance (Moritz 2001). In the early 1960s, Smith presented films at the New Film-Makers' Cooperative in New York. There he created special screens for projection of his films, which he then augmented with additional projected images and coloured filters (Igliori 1996). These experiments can be seen as clear precursors of forms such as the light-show. While these practices tend to be presented as part of the trajectory of an individual artist, the focus on particular conceptualisations or methodologies should not obscure longer- term histories nor the creative genealogies from which these practices emerge. Harry Smith’s experiments must be put in the context of a centuries’ long search for forms exploring the synathesic facility and the seemingly intimate connection between light, colour and music. As documented by Barbara Kiensherf (2005), this body of theoretical experimentation and attempts to create ‘colour music’ in a performance context had been investigated for a number of centuries through a variety of inventions (such as colour organs and pyrophones) with varying degrees of success. This endeavour was largely taken up the 1920s and 1930s by film-makers such as Viking Eggeling, Hans Richter and Oscar Fischinger, the latter having collaborated with colour slide projectionist Alexander László in the 1920s and developed his own Lumigraph colour organ in the 1940s. Indeed, Fischinger is particularly important in the American context, having had a direct
By its definition, the didactic-educative function is supposed to occur when the proprium “enriches or preserves the knowledge of the reader” (Kęsikowa 1988, 81), this, however, can be applied only in relation to the reader. Nevertheless, this function emerges also in relation to the user, and it happens simply when it is the user’s knowledge that is being enriched or preserved. It arises when the user encounters names that denote historical figures (historical for the fictional world). These names may also be accompanied by pieces of information about the people they refer to or may be presented in metaphorical uses. In the Harry Potter series there are eight such names introduced without specific information: Agrippa, Ptolemy, Morgana, Hengist of Woodcroft, Alberic Grunnion, Circe, Paracelsus and Merlin and thirteen which are accompanied by some facts about their denotations: Cliodna, Wizard Baruffio, Elfric the Eager, Wendelin the Weird, Bowman Wright, Egbert the Egregious, Emeric the Evil, Godelot, Hereward, Loxias, Barnabas Deverill, Arcus and Livius.
3. Schecter and Schecter, Sacred Secrets, p. 114. Allen Weinstein, and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood (New York: Random House, 1999) p. 104, 104fn. Kathryn S. Olmsted, Red Spy Queen (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2002), pp 78-79, 91-93, 94-95, 100. Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers, pp. 204-205. Craig, Treasonable Doubt, pp. 239-245, 382 fn16, 383 fn23. Craig dismisses Gouzenko’s story but confuses the fact that Gouzenko only knew of agents by their position and his repeated denials of knowing whether Harry Dexter White, in particular, was an agent. Also, Craig gets his time line confused and assumes that the initial report to Truman was corrupted by Bentley’s statements. Bentley had only met with the FBI once before Gouzenko defected and the FBI was not interested in her underground activities at that time. Craig, Treasonable Doubt, pp. 63-64, 383-84. David Rees, Harry Dexter White: A Study in Paradox (New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1973), p. 212.
It is often the aura and authenticity of an object that will draw crowds or tourists, who want to see the real thing and experience the aura of the original. 130 According to Cornelius Holtorf, in his chapter “Authenticity,” in From Stonehenge to Las Vegas: Archaeology as Popular Culture, aura “is a property that resides in genuine artifacts and distinguishes originals from mechanical reproductions,” and the aura is derived from the object’s history. 131 In the case of the theme park, it is the object’s association with the real film set, the actors and the fictive world of Harry Potter that gives the props their aura. In a sense, the theme park can be said to be completely artificial, while simultaneously being completely authentic. This is because of the indexical and iconic trace that the props embody. When referencing the real movie set and the actors the objects have come into contact with, they are authentic. Yet, when guests see the objects as icons of things they know from the fictive and imagined world of Harry Potter, the objects are no longer seen as authentic, despite the fact that they are as authentic as materially possible. This means that although a certain magical object may not exist in real life, the replica prop is the closest it comes to being real.
The current version of Harry supports the similarity measures listed in Table 1. Included are classic string distances by Damerau (1964) and Levenshtein (1966) as well as more recent methods, such as distances by Jaro (1989) and Bennett et al. (1998). Furthermore, the tool implements string kernels as described by Shawe-Taylor and Cristianini (2004) and allows for mapping kernels to distances and vice versa. In addition to distances and kernels, Harry also implements so-called similarity coefficients, such as the Jaccard index, which assess similarity in terms of matching sets of characters or words (Sokal and Sneath, 1963).
The effects of the small amount of proteins and glycosaminoglycans present in urine are more complex. A number of them are found preferentially in stone matrix, specifically, osteopontin/uropontin, Tamm-Horsfall protein, urinary prothrombin fragment 1, and some subunits of the serum inter-α-inhibitor. As noted earlier, some of these substances may act as attachment sites—hence promoters—when expressed on the surface of cells. As will be explained below, the physico-chemical state of these substances may also determine whether they act as inhibitors of stone formation processes or promoters. Finally, it is to be expected that proteomic analysis of stone matrix may reveal other stone matrix components involved in stone formation, however, to date there are little published data 54 .
Ron and Herinione watched Harry nervously all through dintier, not daring to talk about what they'd overheard, because Percy was sitting close by them. When they went upstairs to the crowded common room, it was to find Fred and George had set off half a dozen Dungbombs in a fit of end- of-term high spirits. Harry, who didn't want Fred and George asking him whether he'd reached Hogsmeade or not, sneaked quietly up to the empty dormitory and headed straight for his bedside cabinet. He pushed his books aside and quickly found what he was looking for -- the leather-bound photo album Hagrid had given him two years ago, which was full of wizard pictures of his mother and father. He sat down on his bed, drew the hangings around him, and started turning the pages, searching, until...
Harry had been a year old the night that Voldemort -- the most powerful Dark wizard for a century, a wizard who had been gaining power steadily for eleven years -- arrived at his house and killed his father and mother. Voldemort had then turned his wand on Harry; he had performed the curse that had disposed of many full-grown witches and wizards in his steady rise to power -- and, incredibly, it had not worked. Instead of killing the small boy, the curse had rebounded upon Voldemort. Harry had survived with nothing but a lightning-shaped cut on his forehead, and Voldemort had been reduced to something barely alive. His powers gone, his life almost extinguished, Voldemort had fled; the terror in which the secret community of witches and wizards had lived for so long had lifted, Voldemort's followers had disbanded, and Harry Potter had become famous. It had been enough of a shock for Harry to discover, on his eleventh birthday, that he was a wizard; it had been even more disconcerting to find out that everyone in the hidden wizarding world knew his name. Harry had arrived at Hogwarts to find that heads turned and whispers followed him wherever he went. But he was used to it now: At the end of this summer, he would be starting his fourth year at Hogwarts, and Harry was already counting the days until he would be back at the castle again.