of strategicmanagement has developed significantly since its birth from "business policy" and "business planning" in the 1960s. Pioneering studies were essentially normative, prescriptive, and often based on in-depth case studies. The evolution of strategicmanagement into a respected field of academic study resulted from the adoption of research methods previously employed in economics. Today, research in strategicmanagement is likely to employ a mixture of methods borrowed from related and unrelated disciplines, such as political sciences, psychology, neuroscience, and behavioural economics, which can be confusing to researchers new to the field[ 13,14 ]conducted empirical research to demonstrate the existence of configurations or archetypes that exhibit internal logic, stability and integrity based on what terms the imperatives such as environment, structure, leadership and strategy. However, due to difficulties in data collection and analysis, empirical research in organizational configurations has lagged behind the development of theoretical approaches. Empirical studies of configurations used cross-validation of responses to assess reliability and convergent validity [ 13 ] Case studies are fine-grained research methodologies  Case study methodology has applications to investigate empirical phenomena in real-life contexts. A case study model can be applied to explain and describe complex causal links in real-life interventions, to describe the intervention itself and to explore some situations [ 4 ] A case study can be used to analyse by building an
Strategicmanagement assures long-run organizational viability because it is a process of predicting the future based on interpretation of today's trends and signs, which help the organizational leadership to select the right direction for stability and growth. The current paper focuses on strategicmanagement and discusses its role in comparison with the organizational leadership. This article also discusses the relations between strategicmanagement and leadership and its effect on strategic decision-making. This paper has been written with a purpose to analyze various strategicmanagement definitions, definitions of leadership, leadership styles, and theories, and it discusses the impact of strategicmanagement and leadership styles on strategic decision making. It will also bring forward the concepts pertaining to strategicmanagement and organizational leadership. This discussion will provide a better perspective on the science of strategicmanagement and leadership and their interrelationship. This paper has been organized as follows: Introduction is the first part, the second part presents some popular definitions of management, its role and strategicmanagement, the third part deals with discussion on leadership keeping in view its definition, theories, general understanding, management styles, the fourth part throws light on strategicmanagement-leadership relationship and its impact on strategic decision-making, and finally, we'll present some conclusions.
The theoretical and methodological basis of the research has been obtained by applying scientific literature, publications and online resources of the countries of the European Union, as well as Canada, Finland, Australia, and the United States of America. Modern research (2003– 2013) on leadership and communication in trade unions was evaluated. The research has a non-experimental quantitative research design comprising cross-sectional design: correlational and comparative design. The results (N=452) were obtained applying a survey questionnaire. Opinions about research issue were compared in two random sample groups: trade union officers (N=170) and members (N=282). The questionnaire was designed for the data summary and the analysis of the findings to be able to distinguish two groups of respondents: lower level trade union leaders’ group and union members’ group. The justification for such an approach was the desire to obtain an objective view about the opinion of both groups, as well as the opportunity to compare these opinions. The research sample can be classified as a combined sampling method. The general sample group was real industry/ professional and general trade union s operating in Latvia. 453 respondents participated in the survey, out of which 170 were trade union leaders and 282 were union members. Calculating according to the formula, it was concluded that the number corresponds to the required sample size. The results of the research approved that scientists focus on studying the main personality traits of leaders regarding trade union research, to what extent leadership is affected by the union members’ satisfaction with the organization, but leadership and communication contiguity is seldom studied. The findings of the survey revealed that there is a statistically significant correlation between leadership and strategicmanagement characteristics. At the same time this correlation reveals that there are strategy implementation problems in Latvian trade unions in leadership and communication with regards to information exchange. The discovered problems mark the directions for the improvement of the strategicmanagement of Latvian trade unions.
As discussed earlier, transformational leadership, organisational learn- ing and technological innovation are three main antecedents used for determining successful SMA implementation. In this study, SMA is taken to refer to the provision and analysis of management accounting data concerning a business and its competitors. SMA implementation can be used for the development and monitoring of business strategies (Simmonds, 1981). The three determinants proposed as antecedents of SMA can be a collective tool for firms to use their own business information to assess their competitive positions. SMA specifically emphasises on customers and competitors as the externally located objects of management accounting analyses. Therefore, more successful strategicmanagement accounting implementation can be derived from the assessment. SMA also contributes to good decision making. In the provision of information that supports the firm’s decisions in the long term, SMA also has a significant effect on firm performance (Jones, 1988; Turner et al., 2017). It is a technique that focusses on external and non- financial information as well as internally generated information. Firms have used SMA as the common-sense approach to deal with problems emanating from the ever changing, competitive and technological environment. Accordingly, SMA comprises three components: envi- ronmental scanning, competitor orientation and forward-looking information (Lachmann, Knauer, & Trapp, 2013). These components reflect the firm’s strategies in gaining a competitive advantage and performance. Firms with effective SMA implementation tend to have a sustainable and competitive advantage over others, thereby achieving a superior performance. As a result, SMA is likely to have a positive relationship with firm performance. Hence, the hypothesis developed is:
operational control, on p.62 (from Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, Prentice Hall) and for Fig 2.4a, Cost allocation in activity-based costing on p40, Fig 3.2a, Total life cycle costing on p.45, Fig1.2a, Measuring cashflow, on p101 and Fig 1.3a, SVA and EVA approaches, on p103 (from Atrill, P. and McLaney, E., Management Accounting for Decision Makers, Prentice Hall, 2007).
rewards are high leаderѕhiр remains one of the relevant аѕрeсtѕ of the оrgаnizаtiоnаl соntext. However, defining leаderѕhiр is challenging. “The difficulty of arriving at a simple, cut-and-dried definition of strategicleadership is underscored in the literature on the subject.” The definition of leadership varies from ѕituаtiоn to situation. Strategicleadership filters the applicable information, creating an environment where learning can take place. Strategicleadership is a combined responsibility of the leader, the follower and the organization. Leadership presents challenges that call forth the best in people, and bring them together around a shared sense of purpose. With intentionality,
Therefore, when it comes to a whole system change in a tertiary institution in Ghana, for example, there is a gap in literature on the application of leader-follower’s interactions. But it is significant for the dynamic interchange of “thinking” and “influencing”. First of all, every vision must be shared, communicated, and spread with a passion that becomes contagious (Kouzes & Posner, 2012). An institutional leadership has to think of ways to demonstrate passion and commitment to a dream for others to believe and yield to any systematic change. Whereby strategic change can only take place when people are ready and looking forward to a better alternative (Balogun & Hailey, 2008). According to the Balogun and Hailey, when it comes to strategic change, leadership plays a vital role: systems will remain, individuals are comfortable, and groups will come to inertia, if leadership does not focus on the alternative change. Where leadership is not content with traditions, they provide alternatives and “strategicmanagement methodologies can be a stimulant to strategic thinking” (Appiah-Adu & Anning, 2012, p. 262) devoid of rituals and “sacred” traditions that inhibit creativity and innovations.
The specific background of senior managers or leaders, demographics and leadership behaviors actually makes a difference in strategy formulation and organizational performance, given that authority may arise from the leadership of a senior manager. It is essential to understand the role that senior leadership behaviors play a role in formulating strategy and strategic alignment (Ireland & Hitt, 2005). SL has been a focus of research in strategicmanagement studies over the past century. It depicted SL as the process of shaping a vision for the future, communicating it to subordinates, motivating their followers, and participating in exchanges that support the strategy with their peers and subordinates (Abashe, 2016; Alalfy & Elfattah, 2014; Malkawi, Baniata, & Obeidat, 2017). SL theory focuses on those strategic leaders are a dominant coalition of the organization and usually includes a senior management team. Strategicmanagement helps clarify what is involved in strategic decisions, and the process of making and making these decisions. With reference to one of its founders, Aslan, Diken, and Sendoğdu (2011) emphasized that strategic leader’s deal with strategic decisions of the organization, not operational or daily decisions. Strategic decisions are those that answer questions related to the mission of the organization, the activities in which the organization must participate, and in which locations, and in what time frame, size, and what kind of organizational structure and business model is required and that would assist in the presentation of the strategy (Younis, 2012). Daily operational decisions are delegated to operations managers who must provide what others have decided. Thus, according to the strategy literature, the participation of the SL function means the participation of the process of making and taking strategic decisions. Strategic joint leadership is defined as the leadership of an organization, including the meaningful participation of strategic decisions and the process of making and taking them, between a dominant coalition that is launched and implemented by a central strategic leader or a small group of strategic leaders such as the CEO and Chairman of the Board (Davies & Davies, 2004; Mihavan & Aven, 2017).
In the face of this increased complexity and uncertainty, the temptation for boards is to become more conservative and risk averse in an attempt to create certainty. In practice, boards that choose to do this risk missing out on significant potential opportunities for their organisations and stakeholders. Worse still, they risk losing ground to entities with more innovative and entrepreneurial boards that are better able to steer their organisations towards the opportunities on offer. Choosing the ‘safe’ option can be a risky strategy in itself, as illustrated by companies such as IBM, which failed to capitalise on the personal computer, and Kodak, which, despite developing the digital camera, chose not to market it. Corporate governance codes and standards are also changing. In the US a major revision of the COSO Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) Guidance was completed in 2017 (COSO 2017). In the UK, revisions to the Corporate Governance Code were released for consultation in December 2017 (FRC 2017). In both cases, a closer relationship between the strategic-management and risk-
The research findings support the above assertion as well as that in the literature review that the managerial approach is a common style of leadership in the public sector and as such these leaders can be called managers. Zaleznik (1981) opined that managers are there to maintain balance of operation, to get the work done while leaders create new approaches and explore new areas thereby inspiring creativity. You find that no one can give you a clear reason of why certain things are done the way it is done. Participant T03 talked about job assignation not being done based on skill set and when I asked why, s/he said “it is the way it has always been done”. So you find that employees just meet a process and continue in the same way without questioning the status. This is descriptive of a statement by Bolman, & Deal, (2017) which asserts that “when we do not know what to do, we do more of what we know”.
When applying factor analysis and reliability analy- sis, the subscales developed on the basis of the whole survey were also assessed (controlled). The obtained rates of psychometric quality are sufficiently high or at least tolerable (see Table 2). Cronbach’s Alpha Based on Stan- dardized items of the responses was quite high: it varies from 0.65 to 0.86. On the basis of those questions and received answers, scale averages were counted that quan- titatively reflect the expression of the named dimensions. It is purposeful to approach the obtained factoriza- tions not only from the perspective of answers’ consis- tency, but also from the perspective of the content. Fac- torization of the analyzed group of questions is meaning- ful from the viewpoint of strategic theory. For instance, the first factor includes attributes (questions) that reflect enterprise resources in one way or another; the third one includes attributes that reflect the factors of long-term success; the fourth reflects the environment of enterprise activity, etc.
Leaders continually develop self-awareness; they regularly question their practice through processes of reflection and critical enquiry. They manage self and others effectively, with a commitment to collegiate practice. They build and sustain personal credibility by modelling their commitment to career-long professional learning, integrity and ethical practice, thus developing a culture of trust and respect. They display confidence and courage in the way they deal with criticism and conflict. Leaders encourage the development of leadership qualities in others and cultivate trust and respect among colleagues by fostering leadership opportunities across and beyond the school. They encourage positive relationship building with learners, colleagues, parents and other partners.
Other cost-saving measures might include improving purchasing policies and procedures, redesigning the product or service to reduce production costs, contracting out services that are not considered essential to the core business, organisational changes to reduce duplication, improving financial control systems, and so on. The difficulty is that certain types of cost-saving measures, such as improving factory layout, might require some initial expenditure, which is not possible if the organisation is already experiencing declining revenues. This exemplifies the problems caused by reactive management.
As indicated by Haggai (2001), the active role strategicleadership played in the Egyptian educational institutions which are summarizes as follows : interest in collective action, formulate a vision and message of the educational institution, put its strategic objectives and activating the participation of Foreign Affairs (parents, the community, in support of the work of educational institutions) Have been identified by almaghraby(1999), ten roles of Egyptian university leadership strategy, namely: where one leads the strategic commander legal role, and social obligations. Direct, motivate and develop subordinates, and supervision. Has a network of information, relationships and contacts at internal and external level of the educational institution. Review the performance of the educational institution using a number of indicators. The transfer of information to senior management, and subordinates. Speaks formally and transmits the information to the authorities and the people concerned. Always interested in developing the performance of employees, processes, procedures and organizational structures. The role of a reformer to take corrective action when the educational institution is exposed to conditions of emergency and sudden crises. Acts as a distributor for enterprise resources through informed study of discretionary budgets. The task of negotiating with internal and external actors and solve problems that may arise between individuals (almaghraby, 1999).
Methods: The sample consisted of 754 prosthetic and orthotic practitioners from 200 government hospitals in Thailand. The two instruments used were structured interview and questionnaires consisting of 66 items with Item- Objective Congruence (IOC) at 0.96 and the reliability of questionnaire in the form of Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.98. The content analysis, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to analyze data. Results: There were 7 components of strategicleadership among prosthetic and orthotic practitioners in Thailand which consisted of 42 factors with factor loadings as follows: relating the part to the whole (0.997), corporate spirit (0.904), strategic thinking and planning (0.899), building partnerships (0.896), developing today’ and tomorrow’s leader (0.878), making it happen (0.865), and giving direction (0.823). The validity test results of factor analysis of strategicleadership among prosthetic and orthotic practitioners in Thailand were confirmed with the empirical data. Conclusion: From the research findings, 7 components of strategicleadership should be developed among prosthetic and orthotic practitioners, particulary the first three components i.e., relating the part to the whole, corporate spirit, and strategic thinking and planning.
Strategic leader succeeds the company’s portfolio from the resource by regulating their till capacity, building companies to using the ability, and development and investigation the strategicleadership to influence these resource(Sirmon, D., Hitt, M., and Ireland, R. D., 2007).Strategicleadership is the integral ingredients from a strategic administration operation, and this a consideration as an operation the transforms a formulated strategic to the chain of action, and the outcome into including the vision, mission, strategy the goals from companies is success achieved planning(Thompson, A.A. and Strickland, A.J., 2003).Strategy leader has the roles into play in all of a mentioned strategy leadership action. Conversely, all of that strategicleadership reactions actively contributes to an efficient strategic achievement(Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D. and Hoskisson, R.E ., 2007).Strategy leaders are the chain from decision and effectiveness, both process oriented, and fixed on nature, during whom, over time past, present and the future from the companies integrate. The Strategy leadership model the bridge between past a present, and a future, by reaffirmed essence importance, to include continuity, and safety as a companies' contention with well- known, and unknown fact and probable. The Strategy leadership development focus and become an organization constitutional human and public capital, and capacity to meeting true-times opportunities and threat. Lastly, the strategy leadership made feels of award means into environment disorder and ambiguous, and provide the vision, and on the way map allows the companies to develop and innovate(Boal,K. B., 2004, August 17–20). Iraq Petroleum Industry
5. With the strategic collections tool, all available data is used to assess triggered customers. This will be internal behavioural data covering both the customer and his or her associated accounts, bureau data and events as well as current (where the customer is undergoing collections activity) and previous (historical actions and results from the collections system) information to assess whether contact should be made and the harshness therein. This could be from predelinquency through to collections and onto recoveries. Within this whole process, data from all areas is used to assess the customer and what actions should be taken.