Abstract When strategically planning negotiating speech it is desired to avoid coincidences and to choose the most appropriate means to achieve its objective. Implementation of the strategicorientations is associated with each aspect of the language. Negotiating, in other words, it is a public speaking in the negotiations, is a strategic process, which includes an understanding of the circumstances, the deliberate behavior and a plan how to achieve your goals. During the time of negotiating the negotiators together are creating a commonly significant thing, their thoughts, opinions, attitudes and values are tested, adapted, developed through interaction. Negotiators approaches of different cultures can vary significantly. For one negotiator some things and facts may be more important or more significant than for others, and his attitude towards them will determine how he will interpret and understand the statements which he have heard. The paper deals with the problems of rhetorical effect to other side of the negotiations. It is argued that a persuasive speech is very important competence of negotiator, as nothing can change negotiator’s alive speech. Only directly negotiating, giving evidence, arguments, counter-arguments, controversy negotiators can move quickly to the overall objective of the agreement. Even with a well-developed modern means of communication, the Internet, electronic negotiation support systems, negotiators are moving to another part of the world for direct negotiations. Negotiator in alive bargaining process demonstrates himself, his appearance, mind, manners, emotions, ethics, etiquette knowledge, characteristics of voice, gestures, movements, facial expressions, reactions and their other communication options. The use of rhetorical tools in bargaining process, the success of staying in contact with the other half of the negotiations is an important factor for effective negotiations. If classical rhetoric focused attention on how to convince the other part, in modern rhetoric, focus is focused more to dialogue, to interaction between speakers, and harmonization of relations.
An ongoing discussion in the marketing literature concerns the value of a market orientation and its alternatives. Many studies suggest a generally positive relationship between a market orientation and business performance (e.g., Kohli & Jaworski, 1990; Narver & Slater, 1990; Ruekert, 1992). Some also indicate the superiority of a market orientation in comparison with other orientations (Dawes, 1998; Noble, Sinha, & Kumar, 2002). This is the orthodox viewpoint presented in marketing texts, where descriptions of alternative orientations make it “extremely unlikely that any half-sane manager would deliberately adopt any orientation other than marketing” (Pearson, 1993, p. 234). Dissenting perspectives, however, question both the importance of the market orientation-performance relationship as well as its relevance in some environments (e.g., Greenley, 1995; Jaworski & Kohli, 1993; Kan & Ellis, 2007). Research efforts by Fritz (1996) and Wong and Saunders (1993) also suggest that production, selling, and product orientations can produce successful performance outcomes. Pending results of future empirical examination, support for the above propositions would suggest that PLC stage is a relevant factor for marketing managers to consider when leading the marketing function to a particular strategic orientation. Marketers choose where to orient the firm in seeking opportunities, but the choices are impacted by signals from the competitive environment. As DeMarais (1996) suggests, this contingency approach to strategicorientations asserts that managers must seek opportunities by directing the firm’s attention to dynamic aspects of its environment. Linking alertness to opportunities and orientations also requires managers to recognize that orientation decisions are matters of emphasis (not a decision to adopt only one particular orientation) and that multiple areas of opportunity are available to the firm.
This present research validates the conclusion established by several researchers that capabilities such as strategicorientations do not directly improve firm performance (Atuahene-Gima 2005; Zhou, Yim & Tse 2005), rather the effect is determined by mediating factors (Hortinha, Lages & Lages 2011), in this case innovation capability. Focusing on R&D, using new technologies and integrating new technologies in the firms operation (technology orientation) does not ensure success. Technologies are often subject to imitation through various methods such as reverse engineering or copying and reproducing the same functions (Petti & Zhang 2011). Hence, firms need to have technologies that are rare, inimitable and non-substitutable. For instance, firms should innovate with new software or introduce new processes and systems (technology-focused innovation capability) to develop innovative services, products or solutions that would offer unique benefits to clients (client-focused innovation capability); ultimately generating better performance. As suggested by Petti and Zhang (2011), product breakthroughs, inventions and technological advancement are essential for value creation and competitiveness. Nevertheless, this present research found that firms should not focus solely on technology orientation, but to develop innovation capability that is supported by CFIC and TFIC. These capabilities are crucial to enable firms to produce innovation outcomes such as product breakthrough, inventions or technological advancement, which results in better performance. This view is in accord with Zhou, Yim and Tse (2005) who confirmed that technology orientation positively impacts technology-based innovation, ultimately impacting firm performance.
Therefore, the following have been identified as the major predicaments and challenges associated with the Nigerian SMEs such as: insufficient working capital, lack of professional advice with regards to the type and nature of business to venture in, inadequate marketing research, lack of proper record of business activities, over concentration in one market, lack of succession plan, inability to separate business from family affairs, inability of procuring the right plant and machinery, inability to employ the right caliber of staff, poor management strategy, lack of patronage of locally manufactured goods, reliance on foreign goods, irregular power supply, unfavorable government policies, poor and lack of adequate water supply. inconsistent government policies, political instability, poor policy implementation, raw material sourcing problem, lack of good preservation method, processing and storage facilities, lack of entrepreneurial spirit, competition with cheaper foreign imported goods, business plan inadequacy, dumping of foreign goods, problem of inter-sectoral linkages given that most large scale firms source their raw material from oversea instead of sub-contracting to SMEs, as well as lack of good resources utilization, obsolete technology that has negatively affected total quality management, lack access to finance, poor market orientation as well as poor entrepreneurial orientation (Covin& Lumpkin, 2011; Covin& Miller, 2014; Nuhu& Ahmed, 2017; Wales, Patel, Parida&Kreiser, 2013).Thus, several studies related to SMEs’ performance have used different strategicorientations to firm performance (Aliyu, Rogo & Mahmood, 2015; Aminu&Mohd Shariff, 2015; Ferreira, Azevedo, & Ortiz, 2011;Lechner&Gudmundsson, 2014; Mahmood & Hanafi 2013; Nuhu& Ahmed, 2016). Hence, this paper reviewed the prior empirical relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and performance of SMEs and market orientation and performance of SMEs.
The Four Phase Model®, created by prof. dr. Teun W. Hardjono  in 1995, distinguishes four ideal type strategicorientations and shows that these strategies brighten and dim in a specific sequence, adding the most required competences to the organization, and creating a natural rhythm to corporate dynamics. By ap- plying this theory one can understand the nature and whereabouts of the organization’s systemic constraints, revealing the basic features for creating a roadmap towards sustainable performance improvement and com- petence development. The model generates the top priorities, selects the most adequate (ideal type) interven- tions and key performance indicators. Combining strategic “situations” as indicated by the Four Phase Model and phase-wise “contexts” as introduced by Spiral Dynamics , provides a conceptual synergy with four innovative outcomes: Firstly, aligned with specific contexts, the strategic interventions and KPI’s can be made more specific and practical, thus creating a roadmap for performance improvement and organizational development. Secondly, it structures change management into four distinctive hierarchical complexity levels: 1) enhancing fundamental skills, structures and procedures (vitalizing); 2) improving contemporary levels, aligned with the dominant value system (optimizing); 3) new re-orientations while continuing within current systems (shifting) and 4) a transformation to a more complex context or emerging value system (transform- ing). Thirdly, powered with the combined understanding of above concepts, one can deduct the specific con- text and situation for each intervention, instrument or approach to be applied effectively. Fourthly, the com- bination provided the bases for the so-called Strategy Scan and Strategic Sustainability Scan.
Export strategic orientation research suggests that export entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and market orientation (MO) directly affect export performance. Based on the dynamic capability theory, this study hypothesizes that export resource transformation capability is an intervening factor that helps explain how EO and MO, individually and jointly, impact export performance. Using archival and survey data from small- and medium-sized exporters in the United Kingdom and Nigeria, the study finds that export resource transformation capability partially mediates the individual effects of EO and MO on export performance in both samples. Results further show that export resource transformation capability does not mediate the joint effect of EO and MO on export performance. The findings help provide a more complete understanding of how export strategicorientations might be related to export performance.
While not simply dismissing the apologetic orientation, I emphasize the merits of a pluralistic orientation to narrative, especially as a means of diversifying the range of religious traditions and forms of religiosity that are amenable to being discussed in the philosophy of religion. To this end, in addition to the examples of Suther- land and Phillips, I also include a section on work by the Indologist Wendy Doniger O’Flaherty on Hindu mythology as a philosophical resource. A growing chorus of voices has been calling in recent years for an expansion of philosophy of religion, both methodologically and in terms of subject matter, and it is my contention that a turn towards narrativity is one among other important means of rising to that chal- lenge. What I am calling apologetic and pluralistic orientations, respectively, will each be discussed below. A theme running through the discussion will be concep- tions of, or responses to, evil and suffering, for not only is this among the paramount themes in the relevant literature, but it also facilitates a higher degree of compara- tive analysis across my various examples than would otherwise be the case. First, however, let us consider the more general question of why narrativity might be of philosophical interest at all.
Turney (2002) applied an internet-based tech- nique to the semantic orientation classification of phrases, which had originally been developed for word sentiment classification. In their method, the number of hits returned by a search-engine, with a query consisting of a phrase and a seed word (e.g., “phrase NEAR good”) is used to determine the ori- entation. Baron and Hirst (2004) extracted colloca- tions with Xtract (Smadja, 1993) and classified the collocations using the orientations of the words in the neighboring sentences. Their method is similar to Turney’s in the sense that cooccurrence with seed words is used. In addition to individual seed words, Kanayama and Nasukawa (2006) used more compli- cated syntactic patterns that were manually created. The four methods above are based on context infor- mation. In contrast, our method exploits the internal structure of the semantic orientations of phrases.
Organization of the paper. The paper is organized as follows. In Sec- tion 2, we give definitions of objects of interest and review some of the known results. In Section 3, we give a characterization of word-representable graphs in terms of orientations and discuss some important corollaries of this fact. In Section 4, we examine the representation number, and show that it is always at most 2n − 4, but can be as much as n/2. We explore, in Section 5, which classes of graphs are word-representable, and show, in particular, that 3-colorable graphs are such graphs, but numerous other properties are inde- pendent from the property of being word-representable. Finally, we conclude with two open problems in Section 6.
cally oriented phrases has been proposed so far al- though some researchers have used techniques de- veloped for single words. The purpose of this pa- per is to propose computational models for phrases with semantic orientations as well as classification methods based on the models. Indeed the seman- tic orientations of phrases depend on context just as the semantic orientations of words do, but we would like to obtain the most basic orientations of phrases. We believe that we can use the obtained basic orientations of phrases for affect analysis of higher linguistic units such as sentences and doc- uments.
both transparent and inclusive in that they share ideas for next ventures with network partners such as real estate developers and artists and include online communities and network partners in decisions that shape their strategic possibilities. A new development in East London comprising of 350 apartments houses a large ground floor area yet awaits convenient commuter connections to commercial areas. The space requires animation on multiple levels lest it remains unused and unattractive to residents. Mixing artistic use with commercial and educational facilities has become Art&Space’s core capability and each new site and each new online platform transforms not only their business model but also their mission: past developments have seen stronger emphasis on education and monetisation via state schools and art teaching whereas current real estate price surges in London and smart curation of space has led to sustainable commercial and public spaces that enable monetisation from long-term leases and in keeping with the social mission of supporting the arts. Inclusiveness means that the broad mission can be shaped and supported by various and fundamentally different business models: services offered to real estate developers versus multi-sided matching in online market places for art studio space.
The treatment advocated here is also based on the formulation of a general model for families of curves and the point patterns clustered around them. In con- trast to August and Zucker (2003), curves are modeled as segments of streamlines integrating a smooth field of orientations which encourages interpolations over ar- eas of missing data. The prior model for the orientation field is derived via an em- pirical Bayes step. Then birth–death MCMC is used to sample from the posterior distribution of the fibres. The model formulation itself uses the initial exploratory work of Su et al. (2008) [see also Su (2009)], which focused on the fingerprint pore data and described the use of tensor fields for estimating dominant orientations in spatial point data.
Furthermore, while our focus is on the effects of family economic well-being on children, we are observing the associations of the family economic indicators on children’s achievement orientations approximately two and four years after the current “Great Recession” began. What we have found may characterize “recessionary times” but do not address the full impact of this historical event. We have no measures of children’s orientations before the recession, so we cannot investigate change that may have been provoked by earlier “shocks” - reductions in family income and increases in financial strain at the beginning of the recession. We may have observed stronger effects if child data were obtained just a few years before (that is, in 2006 or 2007), before economic conditions deteriorated. Perhaps partly as a result, effect sizes reported in the tables (R 2 ) are quite small. Relatedly, while we have observed parents’ unemployment history for a long period of time prior to the recession (1997-2007), too few parents in this panel suffered unemployment in the years from 2008 to 2011 (37 parents) to render an analysis of its more recent effects meaningful. Moreover, small sample sizes in key subgroups mitigated against the detection of significant effects.
Both correlational and regression analyses in the present study demonstrate that the two competitive orientations differ in their relationship to body dysmorphia and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery for men. While hypercompetitiveness was not related to body dysmorphia, it did relate positively with attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. In contrast, personal development competi- tiveness was negatively related to body dysmorphia, but was not significantly related to cosmetic surgery. Moreover, hypercom- petiveness was found to be a significant predictor of acceptance of cosmetic surgery while personal development competitive- ness failed to be of predictive utility in this regard, an outcome that is comparable to previous reports on women (Thornton et al., 2013).
The career anchors of individuals influence major decision about their career, including decisions to leave, reactions to work experiences, choice of career and workplace and career satisfaction (Herrbach & Mignonac, 2012; Mignonac & Herrbach, 2003). A number of studies indicated that there is a high rate of teacher attrition in Ghana. Again, teachers in Ghana constantly agitate for high pay and improved working conditions. Several measures were put in place by various governments to address the issue, but the situation keeps getting worse. Researchers and education administrators have suggested possible factors that might be contributing to the high attrition rate that should be tackled. None of these, however, considered the match between the inner drives of people who go into the teaching field and their career choice. Meanwhile, a number of studies demonstrated that the inner drives, motives and values of individuals greatly influence their career choices and job/career satisfaction. This study therefore sought which career anchors are most dominant among Ghanaian teachers, and how Ghanaian teachers’ career orientations determine their turnover intentions.
Outside-of-the-box thinking, scenario planning, and alternate views of a strategic predicament—are all mainstays of the strategic thinking process that may be quite difficult to learn. Alien to the student might be the methods that are fundamental to strategic thinking. It might appear illogical to the student that a case’s key decision maker chose a path that seems wild and haphazard (yet cutting edge and boldly brilliant) – until the student too sees the realistic choices more clearly through an edifying strategic thinking process. (2) Integrative of Connections and Patterns: Strategic thinking is penetratingly integrative as a stream of decisions cohere in the formation of an organization’s actual strategy. Several difficult integrations for students to make are vertical—corporate, business-unit, functional, and operational levels of the organization, and horizontally—across functional areas of organizational activity such as marketing, research and development, and information systems. At the heart of both vertical and horizontal levels is the strategic thinking process from which flows the strategic plan of action. Strategic thinking is a core process that knits together diverse levels and functions. Strategic thinking integrates thinking, plans, and the organizational strategic plan itself.
Akewushola and Elegbede (2011) assessed the axiomatic relationship between outsourcing strategic performance of Nigerian manufacturing sector. The study adopted a stratified sampling approach to achieve at 120 sample elements. Some top and middle level managers of Cadbury Nigeria Plc and Nestle Foods Plc were interviewed. The results revealed that outsourcing firms experienced reduced average cost, increases in sales turnover and profitability. In addition, there was improved; expertise, service quality and streamlined production processes. Lau and Hurley (2011) did an examination of the link between outsourcing and profitability margin; it was revealed that Chrysler’s profit margin was four times higher as compared to that of the GM due to the effectiveness of outsourcing strategy. Frayer, Scannell, and Thomas (2011) contend that firms perceive outsourcing strategy as a way of minimizing costs, improving quality and increasing an organisation’s overall competitive position. In accordance to Ellram, Tate and Billington (2007), outsourcing has an impact on the day-to-day management and performance, as well as strategic implications. Hence, firms must outsource wisely. Outsourcing decisions might affect the firm’s cost structures, long-term competitiveness and alter the nature of risks that the firm should manage.