Furthermore, Teulier & Rouleau (2013), Rouleau & Balogun (2011) and Mintzberg (1994) argue that the role of strategists has to change from that of planners and strategy makers to that of strategy finders, knowledge generators and catalysts of change and that strategic planning must be replaced by strategic thinking. Ansoff (1987) seems to be changing with time along with other authors such as Shi (2009); Rees et al (2013) and Paroutis et al (2013) when he stresses that the classical understanding of strategic planning must be replaced by a more dynamic understanding that focuses on strategic issues. Additionally, the evolution of strategic management can be defined from a context point of view to focus on the people who were involved in strategyformulation. In the early studies on strategic management, the strategy itself was often created by the top management and was rarely discussed with the operative level (Chakravarthy and Lorange, 1993). Furthermore, the main thrust was strategyformulation, implementation, and evaluation and control were not important. This sympathized with the classical view of organizations where the roles of employees were to perform duties that were assigned to them. From a classical theory viewpoint, what was important was strategyformulation. Once the strategy was formulated it would be implemented anyway. However, recent research (Jarzabkowski, 2008; Whittington, 2006; Chia, 2004; Dandira, 2011) have taken a more pragmatic approach proposing that strategyformulation should not be left to top management in a top bottom approach but should also allow involvement of implementers in the formulation process.
Kenya’s economy largely relies on the agriculture sector, which contributes 25.3% of Gross Domestic Product, out of which 2.63% is from the Horticulture sub-sector while 1.29% is from the flower industry. In spite of research in various aspects of strategic management practices in various sectors, there has not been a study on the influence of strategic management practices on the performance of Floriculture Firms in Kenya, and this formed the general objective of this study which was carried in Kiambu County in central Kenya. A descriptive survey design was used with a target population of 21 floricultural firms out of which 10 firms were selected by simple random sampling, and 5 respondents from each of the 10 firms purposively chosen. Structured questionnaires were used to collect primary data. Chi- Square (X2) test was used to test the four hypotheses to establish significance of association. The findings established that majority of the firms had a strategic plan ,implemented their strategic plans as planned, conduct strategy evaluation and control on their strategic management practices. Further, that strategyformulation, implementation, evaluation and control had significant influence on the performance of flower firms to a moderate extent. The researcher recommended that top-level managers should seek more input from the lower level managers and supervisors when formulating strategy so that the formulated plans are effective and in line with both long and short term objectives of the organization.
The business process view, always help you to understand the overall business process of different activities. Human Resource Management is considered to be a support function of business and its key element is training and development or Human Resource Development (HRD). HRD consists of three major steps; strategyformulation, implementation and evaluation. It is imperative to understand that without a thorough scanning of company’s internal and external environment one cannot formulate a strategy close to reality. Data received through environmental scanning will be checked and if it is found ok than one should proceed to next step, otherwise, re-gather the data. On the basis of data, company should establish goals and objectives in-line with company’s vision and mission. HRD department or Training & Development wing of HR than will conduct general Training Need Assessment. This TNA will be of general nature, in which main objective is to identify key areas where trainings are required. This process also enables company to define types of training and in some cases number of trainings per year. Next step is to allocate overall budget for trainings which also includes department wise budget allocation of training. This ends the strategyformulation part.
Strategic management in nonprofit organizations can refer to a range of organizational management applications. Mary Louise Hatten (1982) describes strategic management as “the process which determines and maintains a viable set of relationships between the organization and its environment” (p. 90), and Michael Olsen, Eliza Tse, and Joseph West (2008) use “the ability of management … to properly align the firm with the forces driving change in the environment in which the firm competes.” (p. 6). John Bryson (2011) includes the achievement of organizational goals, stating strategic management is “the reasonable integration of strategic planning and implementation across an organization in an ongoing way to enhance the fulfillment of mission, meeting of mandates, continuous learning, and sustained creation of public value” (p. 25). Across the varying definitions, however, the use of strategic management is generally thought to help NPOs achieve positive effects, including the ability to improve communications and establish paths to accomplish goals (Hatten, 1982), improve program offerings (McHatton, Bradshaw, Gallagher, Reeves, 2011), prosper in dynamic envi- ronments (Hoffman, Digman, & Crittenden, 1991), build organizational capacity (Bryson, 2011), and achieve long-run superior performance (Kong, 2008).
Likewise, the managers engaged in the development of the strategyimplementation evaluation process (PEAR), Situation Implementation Effectiveness Evaluation (SIEE) model and matrix based on the academic work of the strategy evaluation by Johnson, Scholes and Whittington in 2008 have also reported that these new tools and processes are helpful in their understanding of how to evaluate the strategy and their implementation effectiveness. Their reflection and learning point to “change” and new knowledge in terms of both academic and functional knowledge which has benefited both business stakeholders and related community have been documented.
Familial CRC risk is assessed by family history and, in a subset of patients, microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis performed by pathologists. Unfortunately, both proce- dures are difficult. Previous research has shown that patient family history often is missing or incomplete, and information provided by patients is not always accurate [4,8-11]. Furthermore, interpretation of the family history (determining the indicated follow-up policy) is not always correct. Pathologists ’ selection of patients for MSI is often incomplete, while clinicians regularly interpret the results incorrectly [Overbeek LI, Hermens RP, van Krie- ken JH, Adang E, Casparie M, Akkermans R, Nagengast FM, Ligtenberg MJ, Hoogerbrugge N. A tailored imple- mentation strategy increases involvement of pathologists in the recognition of patients at risk for Lynch syndrome: cluster randomised controlled trial, submitted] Conse- quently, only 12 to 30% of CRC patients with a high familial CRC risk are referred for genetic counselling [4,10,13-15]. Other studies have shown that many CRC patients referred to a familial cancer clinic belong to an average or moderate risk population for whom genetic counselling is not indicated[16,17].
Whereas strategyformulation entails heavy doses of vision, analysis, and entrepreneurial judgment, successful strategyimplementation depends upon the skills of working through others, organizing, motivating, culture-building, and creating strong fits between strategy and how the organization does things. Ingrained behavior does not change just because a new strategy has been announced. In comparison, implementing strategy poses the tougher, more time-consuming management challenge (Thompson, 1989, p. 263). Thompson and Strickland (1989) are arguing that strategic management principles should be designed to fit the organization‟s conditions, culture, and environmental setting. Otherwise, the implementation of strategic management principles could fail. Nonprofit fundraising leaders should not only understand how much culture change is required for goal attainment, but also how to manage this change.
Communication, sometimes referred to as interaction has been empirically found to be one of the fundamental success factors linked to successful strategy deployment. Severally, communication has been incorporated under culture or methodology. For example, it is often overlooked that change management and communication is a central part of the balanced scorecard approach (Kaplan & Norton, 2001). As workers become more mobile between one organisation and another, commitment of workers is that to policies (and therefore values) that to the organisation itself. Employee commitment and alignment to an organisations policies is influenced by attitude, role clarity and role conflict. Commitment to policy in turn affects motivation and discretionary effort of employees (Foote, et al., 2005).
Abstract-The purpose of this study were to investigate status of ERP implementation, investigate ERP formulation, and investigate factors that can be cause successful or unsuccessful ERP implementation on agribusiness palm oil company of Teladan Prima Group (TPG). The research was conducted at TPG in January-March 2016. The questionnaires were distributed to 118 respondents. The number of questionnaires returned and valid to be analyzed was 60. Questionnaire response rate was 50.85% The empirical data were analyzed using the Structural Equation Modelling- Partial Least Square (Smart PLS 2.0).The main findings of the empirical study were: (1) From quality, quantity, cost and speed of deming’s (1986) point of view, the ERP implementation was below users expectation. (2) From process, semantic, syntactic, social, social, and pragmatic of Usmanij et al. (2012) point of view, the ERP implementationformulation was categorize as technology centered approach rather than human centered approach. (3) From investigation of Delone & Mclean (2003) and IT Balanced Scorecard (2001) point of view, the ERP implementation has not been successful in Information Quality (IQ), System Quality (SQ), Use (U), User Satisfaction (US), Corporate Contribution (CP), User Orientation (UO), Future Orientation (FO), and ERP Performance (KE) . The ERP implementation has successful partially for Service Quality (SV), Net Benefit (NB), and Operational Excellence (OE) . The present study is limited to the specific SAP R/3 modules of Finance Controlling (FICO), Material Management (MM), Plant Maintenance and Field Operation.The SAP R/3 implementation was go live for 2 years. This paper points out that ERP implementation should be based on user satisfaction and evaluation based on human centered approach. The business process are designed in accordance with the user requirement and conform to user satisfaction, net benefit and overall ERP performance. This paper purposes an enhanced conceptual framework that evaluate the success ERP implementation using integration model of Deming (1986) quality management, Usmanij et al. (2012) ERP formulation, Delone & Mclean (2003) and IT Balanced Scorecard (2001) system evaluation.
We have identified Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) as an appropriate methodology to rank various strategies to implement green supply chain management will help Indian manufacturing. AHP, as a decision support tool, uses a multilevel hierarchical structure of objectives, criteria, sub criteria and alternatives. It works as a multi-attribute decision making methodology which was first developed and applied by Saaty in 1977. The AHP methodology compares criteria, or alternatives with respect to a criterion, in a natural, pair wise mode (Saaty, 1980, 1986, 1994a, 1994b). The resultant can be used to compare and rank the alternatives and, hence, assist the decision maker in making a choice (Saaty, 2000, 2008). This paper is organized as follows. The next section covers the state-of-the-art of GSCM practice which provides the basis for identification of major GSCM implementation strategies in this study. The GSCM strategies thus identified are then categorized into four representative dimensions. The research framework and methodology is explained in the next section. The results are then presented and discussed. The concluding sections deal with the statement of the limitations of the study, some suggestions regarding direction and scope of further research on the topic.
In a direct response to the BCG study, in a 1984 academic publication , Pascale argued that in fact “the Japanese” view strategy differently from Americans and Europeans, and that they find a number of Western concepts, such as “portfolio theory” or the “experience curve”, too formulaic, and indeed too easy to “read” (and therefore to counter) from the behaviors of competitors. Pascale’s approach is to set out two different perspec- tives on Honda’s breakthrough into the American motorcycle market in the early 1960s. The first approach is based on the BCG study, which Pascale argues has superimposed an inappropriately rationalistic interpretative framework onto Honda’s actual strategy. Pascale is particularly troubled by the implication in the BCG study that Honda followed an economically driven strategy in the years around 1960 based on achieving low costs through high volume, and he quotes the first of the short fragments of the BCG report which discusses this pe- riod as cited above  as an example. He also, and at much greater length, then quotes a Harvard Business School case study (presented as based on the BCG analysis, yet which adds a wealth of detail, plus a bullish business school “success story” overtone which is not apparent in the original BCG study) which certainly makes Honda appear to have followed a clear and logical strategy.
An analysis of each of the market packages with respect to the feasibility of recovery of costs through fees versus the perceived risk by investors was performed. Figure 3.1-3 is a summary of that analysis and is used to determine the level of influence by market forces where applicable. There is an assumption that the private sector is more likely to be involved if the producer/operator has the opportunity to recover costs through direct fees for the service. This scenario provides a better match between benefits and costs, and overall, ITS user services are likely to be deployed more rapidly and efficiently. Market packages that are motivated by market forces also lie beyond direct control of the implementationstrategy. Market packages that provide social benefits, but are not market driven, require incentives to facilitate their deployment. Figure 3.1-3 begins with the assumption that the private sector will be actively involved for those market packages with the largest and most certain profit potential. It further assumes that some level of additional deployment support must be provided by the public sector for the remaining market packages if they are to be deployed at all. More detailed analyses that are specifically oriented towards identifying the market packages most appropriate for partnerships are also possible. For example, the following steps could be taken:
Businesses are carried out in global marketplace now-a- days. Information technology has diminished distance and time. Now managers have to formulate strategies in advance to cope up with future changes (Lawlor, 2010). Without proper strategic planning organizations only react to environmental pressures without thinking. Those organizations fail who don’t plan well in anticipation as compare to those organizations who plan very well and successfully implement their strategies. Strategic plan is the base for all activities. If correct strategy is implemented than it results in achievement of organization’s success otherwise it results in organization’s failure (Rajasekar, 2014).
Langat (2011) and Karanja (2012) found out that several strategies such as increasing the number of products on offer, setting up satellite branches in residential areas, opening outlets on high demand areas (prime areas), pricing of goods and services lower than competitors, varied communication mix and offering loyalty programs, business process automation, and branding are being implemented by supermarkets in response to increasing competition. However, their researches did not include measurement of the performance of large supermarkets based on the adoption of the strategies. Magu (2014) found that marketing strategies that Nakumatt supermarket implemented were influenced by factors such as availability of support enterprises, shopping centers and retail outlets, economic environment, intense competition, and market demographic characteristics. The researcher did not investigate the effectiveness of implementation of the strategies and their impact on organizational performance within the Kenyan retail sector.
The present work aim was “FormulationStrategy for Dissolution Enhancement of Simvastatin”. Simvastatin is lipid lowering drug which is known as HMG CoA reductase. The objective of this study was to increase the solubility of poorly water soluble drug, namely simvastatin, by the formation of solid dispersion and complex and also using the microwave induction technique on these formations. For solid dispersion method dispersion carrier used were poloxamer 407 and gelucire 44/14. The fusion method was used to prepare the dispersions. For inclusion complexation method β-cyclodextrin derivative of cyclodextrin was used to prepare complex with drug. Kneading method was used for formulation. After completion of these two techniques these polymers were used for the microwave induced fusion method. All the ratio of drug and polymer were used to heat for different time interval. These samples were used for solubility measurement. In the solid dispersion technique, simvastatin show higher increase in solubility with gelucire 44/14 in the ratio of 1:5 as compare to poloxamer 407. In the microwave induced fusion method simvastatin show higher solubility with simvastatin with gelucire 44/14 after 10 mins time interval as compare to poloxamer 407 and β-cyclodextrin. Solubility of simvastatin increased higher with gelucire 44/14 by using microwave induced fusion method as compare to other technique. By using gelucire 44/14 with simvastatin it show 94% increase in solubility of simvastatin as compare to pure drug in water.
Strategyimplementation involves the introduction and activation of the formulated strategy into an organization. Business managers take long period to develop and formulate strategies that are best suited for their organizations through the process of evaluating and selecting the best options available to them before arriving at the stage of implementing those strategies. Implementation of strategies take a lot of will power from the management as there will always be resistance (Munyoroku, 2012). Therefore, at this stage the management must be ready to confront, engage resistors and enforce the formulated strategies (Beer and Eisenstat, 2000). However, caution must be taken to avoid undue confrontation between management and employees, so that it will not lead to overheating the system. Meanwhile, Latif, et al (2014) stated that some of the factors inducing the proper implementation of strategies include: Lack of accountability, inadequate instructions to employees, culture, and power and influence.