On the other hand, many comments refl ect a disconnect between what is necessary to make Ireland’s developmentsustainable and what is being done by individual citizens and by government. Although the audience at the stakeholder events might not be a perfect refl ection of Irish society as a whole, the fact that participants found many more failures than successes since the adoption of the sustainabledevelopmentstrategy in 1997 are an admonition of attempts to date to make Ireland’s developmentsustainable. Many participants referred to inertia in policymaking, the lack of capacity in different public services, the failure to monitor or meet targets, and major failures to connect different parts of the policy process together, such as transport and land-use planning. Participants also drew attention to the need for better communication and public awareness initiatives to promote more sustainable lifestyles; in particular, some participants mentioned that Government missed the chance to exploit the momentum from the success of the plastic bag levy and smoking ban to bring in other measures. At a fundamental level, participants thought that sustainabledevelopment seems to be secondary to the priority of economic development. This is a policy failure of the sustainabledevelopment agenda, since its essence is to reconcile economic development with the protection and enhancement of society and the natural environment.
Recent European Councils at Lisbon, Nice and Stockholm have already agreed objectives and measures to tackle two of the six issues that pose the biggest challenges to sustainabledevelopment in Europe: combating poverty and social exclusion, and dealing with the economic and social implications of an ageing society. This strategy does not propose new actions in these areas. However, these objectives are an integral part of the EU Strategy for SustainableDevelopment and are set out in Annex 1 below. For the remaining four issues, the Commission proposes the following set of priority objectives and measures at EU level. Meeting these objectives will also require action to be taken by Member States, both in their domestic policies, and in the decisions taken by the Council on changes to Community policies. The Commission will report on progress in meeting all the goals of the strategy in its report to the annual Spring European Council (the Synthesis Report).
In Today’s context, contribution of micro finance in the different field is increasing at a noteworthy rate. Microfinance is the provision of a broad range of financial services such as deposits, loans, payment services, money transfers, and insurance to poor and low-income households and their microenterprises. It supports the concept that low-income individuals are capable of lifting themselves out of poverty if given access to financial services. Providing access to microfinance is an effective way of reaching the poor and improving their lives and it leads to the sustainabledevelopment.
The major cause of continued deterioration of the global environment is the unsustainable pattern of consumption and production, particularly in industrialised countries . In Europe, a raft of legislation, of increasing severity, has been designed to reduce waste from a list of European priority waste streams. The concept of ÔProducer ResponsibilityÕ requires original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) to "take back" an equivalent used product for each one sold. The significance of remanufacturing is that it combines profitability and sustainabledevelopment benefits by reducing landfilling, as well as the level of virgin material, energy and specialised labour used in production [2,3,4,5]. Research indicates that up to 85% of the weight of remanufactured products may be obtained from used components, and that such products have comparable quality to equivalent new products but require 50% to 80% less energy to produce . Its economic benefits include having low entry barriers, and providing 20% to 80% cost savings in comparison to conventional manufacturing . Companies will increasingly require remanufacturing expertise as it extends the life of used products and avoids costly landfilling. Because it profitably integrates waste back into the manufacturing cycle, remanufacturing offers producers a method of avoiding waste limitation penalties whilst maximising their profits.
He has also highlighted the role, played by NGOs to maintain the sustainabledevelopment position in accordance with changing scenario. Singh.S.Singh (2006) has also emphasized on formulating the models, before executing the development projects. The models play a significant role to managing the practical problematic areas of development and disaster management (Das S.K, Kumar Arun Kumar, 2009).Similarly, Rawat, M.S, Goswami, D.C, Vijay Bahuguna (2011) have insisted on formulating the ‘Sustainable Models’ so that a developmentstrategy may be chalked out for the hilly region of Uttrakhand for sustainabledevelopment. On the other hand, Govt. of Himachal Pradesh has also identified the vulnerable areas of the state. EMP (Environmental Master Plan) recently prepared by the Department of Environment and Scientific Technology and approved by the vulnerable areas of the state, where future planning will have to done with utmost car e. The EMP has been adapted to main stream environment concerned into state’s development planning in sectors of economy for next 30 years. In this, there is need to mitigate the likely impact on rivers, flora and fauna and resulting change in lively hood because of multi-purpose river valley projects, power plants and industries. (Report on Infrastructure, Natural Resources Management and services, Department of Forest and Environment, Govt. of Himachal Pradesh, 2013)
Implementing a ‘sustainable growth’ policy was therefore a strategic issue for the company. However, the way they could address sustainability issues was strongly constrained by the corporate perception of the environment. Respondents described the political, economic and social environment of the nuclear industry as being ‘unstable’ and ‘volatile’. The corporate response to instability and volatility could be described as cautiously conservative mirroring responses made by individuals in groups when they face uncertain situations – risk-taking behavior tends to be minimized and conventional actions are reproduced (Michalon, 2002). In this case the company reduced its risk by publicly committing to sustainabledevelopment and developing social and environmental reporting initiatives while continuing its growth strategies. The corporate approach to sustainabledevelopment allowed it to preserve its traditional business model and precluded any radical shift in strategy, which could risk alienating its supportive stakeholders or providing more support to the anti-nuclear lobby. Public espousal of the principles of sustainabledevelopment and its translation into
During the year, Comhar participated actively in the European Environment and SustainableDevelopment Advisory Councils (EEAC) network and strengthened links to similar councils in other European countries. EEAC participants made a significant contribution to the Kinsale Conference (see also Section 3 of this report). During the conference the EEAC participants jointly developed the "Kinsale Challenge" which makes recommendations about the approach to the review of the EU’s SustainableDevelopmentStrategy and the Lisbon process. There is an opportunity to draw the two processes together in a more coherent way, which is more supportive of the over-arching integrative goals of sustainabledevelopment.
The targets of knowledge-based economy that were made by the Lisbon Strategy and continued with Eu- rope 2020 were not achieved due to the effects of the economic crisis. If we observe the goals directed to- wards increased growth, employment and competitiveness, there are different results. The EU achieved quite positive results in employment with 68.4% of the population (2013) (target 75%) and R&D investments with 2.02 % of GDP (2013) (target 3%). Poverty still remains the greatest issue. Positive results have been achieved in education. Education increases productivity, innovation and competitiveness. A smart and sus- tainable R&D growth generates new knowledge and innovation, and along with an efficient use of natural resources leads towards better competitiveness. In order to improve the conditions induced by the eco- nomic crisis, the EU underwent fiscal consolidation and banking system restructuring to regain trust. The competitiveness was pushed into the background during that period. However, when the fiscal situation im- proved, the EU got back to its primary goal to achieve competitiveness by increasing productivity, employ- ment and progress. The Europe 2020 Competitiveness Index (WEF, 2014) uses a 1-7 scale. In 2014, the EU(28) scored 4.56. If compared to the most developed countries in the world, the EU(28) lags behind. The difficult macroeconomic situation in Serbia prevents the implementation of the Sustainable develop- ment strategy. Slow progress of structural reforms, decrease in foreign capital inflows, low national savings, investment orientation towards the primary sector, not towards infrastructure, R&D, education and other sec- tors based on knowledge, have led to rise in unemployment and low productivity and competitiveness. Ac- cording to the Global Competitiveness Index Serbia is ranked 94th out of 144 countries. Obstacles for competitiveness improving and achieving economic growth are: institutional factors (excessive state
European Union and covers the implementation of a number of tasks, such as: improvement of energy efficiency and extended use of renewable energy resources in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. At the current stage, the reduction of energy consumption is expected to be realized through active promotion of the Green House Program. Thus, the analysis of the country's sustainabledevelopmentstrategy in the context of environmental protection is testimony to the perception of sustainabledevelopment as the only true and rational perspective for the development of the society. The key management technologies of environmental protection within the framework of sustainabledevelopment are the application of anti-crisis management practices, the ability to anticipate the effects of climate change, to develop cross-sector contingency plans comprising portfolios of alternative crisis-management solutions in case of natural or man-made disasters .
Dealing with complexities enables educators for ESD to provide opportunities to learners for engaging with and creating bridges across a range of concepts and ideas. While it would be impractical to list the entire knowledge base of ESD, the UNECE Strategy for ESD and the UNESCO International Implementation Scheme for the United Nations Decade for Education for SustainableDevelopment (2005–2014) suggest a broad range of concepts and topics that can serve as entry points, including: peace studies; ethics and philosophy; citizenship, democracy and governance; human rights; poverty alleviation; cultural diversity; biological and landscape diversity; environmental protection; ecological principles and an ecosystem approach; natural resource management; climate change; personal and family health (e.g., HIV/AIDS, drug abuse); environmental health (e.g., food; water quality; pol- lution); corporate social responsibility; indigenous knowledge; production and/or con- sumption patterns; economics; rural/urban development, environmental technology; and sustainability assessment. Connections can be supported through engaging learners in active citizenship projects.
The Irish government made a commitment to the development of a National Strategy on Education for SustainableDevelopment. A National Steering Committee for SustainableDevelopment was established in 2005 to move forward the development and implementation of a National Strategy on ESD. Members of the National Steering Committee include representatives from various government departments including the Department of Education and Science, the Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government, the Department of Foreign Affairs – Irish Aid, CDVEC – Curriculum Development Unit, University of Limerick, Comhar SDC and ECO UNESCO. The Department of Education and Science retains the overall coordinating role for policy development and implementation for ESD at national level and the Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government are responsible for reporting at international level. The Department of Education and Science engaged the services of ECO UNESCO to undertake a consultancy on the development of a national strategy for education for sustainabledevelopment. Proposals for a draft strategy were presented to a stakeholder workshop in Croke Park in December 2007.
The crucial test for the EU SDS lies in its implementation (Bernheim, 2006, p. 92). To- gether with the Lisbon Strategy for economic renewal, it has to work towards bring- ing the concept of sustainability in the EU to life. But its implementation capacity is strongly dependent on the economic situation in EU member states and worldwide. In the revised EU SDS, envisaged financing and economic instruments are mainly packed into reforms of the economy, taxation and energy consumption. Necessary actions are set loosely, with no clear measures or deadlines for their implementation (e.g. ‘to promote market transparency and prices that reflect the real economic, social and environmental costs of products and services’ (Council of the European Union, 2006, p. 24)). Member states are invited to consider further steps related to policies, and some co-financing mechanisms are only scheduled as an option – but the EC is committed to preparing a roadmap for the reforms in all sectors in the future. Con- sidering the fact that some deadlines anticipated in the original EU SDS have already expired, the ongoing economic crisis in Europe and the consequences that will come from that, it is logical to expect that implementation of the EU SDS remains a great challenge for the EU and its member states.
71 energy and resources as possible, and a large share of waste will be recycled. But still our countries will be far from meeting the criteria of sustainabledevelopment, if this industry, even modernised, continues to produce inessential goods, gadgets, while the demand for them is stimulated artificially, using fashionable campaigns and loud, increasingly spicy advertisements. Even today, advertising is among the world’s most powerful industries, and the expenditure on it exceeds the total financial aid for poor countries by five or six times. All this effort is necessary to convince the consumers to buy things they do not indispensably need. And people buy newer and newer things merely because they are new. This is just a consumeristic lifestyle. It is usually accompanied by an emotional emptiness, a lack of more profound non-material interests, and thus leads to psychological and physical disorders. And then, a strange thing happens: sociological research has shown that such an attitude does not make a person happier. This is clear so far, as happiness is a state of mind which comes from the emotional, not the material, sphere of life, and money cannot buy it. This attitude can be changed and the trap of consumerism can be avoided, but only if the psychological and physical balance is restored; that is, if the hierarchy of values makes it possible to restore the feeling of happiness and a sense of meaning in life. Only this can save us all from living in a dehumanised society in the era of computers, virtual worlds, automatization and robots.
The article covers elaborating the conceptual framework of the development of ecological tourism. The work expounds the notion and principles of ecotourism adopted in accordance with international agreements, and evolves the criteria of an ecotourism offer. The proposed wording of the modern concept of ecotourism implies ecological educating the participants of ecotourism activities and local residents and is aimed at attaining the socio- economic objectives on condition that the natural and cultural heritage is preserved for future generations. The national experience and the features of developing ecotourism in Belarus are analyzed, including the analysis of ecotourism in protected areas, agritourism, and greenways. The most significant socio-economic aspects of the growth of ecological tourism are produced.
The conventional approach involves, for example, an external consultant who develops the indicators so that performance could be assessed against initial policy objectives. The organisation and content of the ‘conventional’ indicator set is at the discretion of the external formulator, and may have little or no consultation with stakeholders. These indicators while perfectly valid from a scientific viewpoint fail to resonate with the public. Top-down approaches can provide the systematic framework for guiding the search for indicators and assessing viability and sustainability of a given system. It cannot however, determine the final choice of indicators. This task remains to be completed in collaboration with the stakeholders. It is obviously wrong to let a group of experts make a selection of indicators in an area as complex as sustainabledevelopment. Experts are likely to focus on issues and items of their professional expertise while neglecting others that may have a significant effect in the real system. In conventional SDI process, a search for indicators can only be as complete and comprehensive as the imagination, knowledge and experience of the researchers allow. But the best knowledge of systems and problems, including their long-term perspective, can usually be found with those who have to cope with them daily: citizens, businesses, unemployed persons, managers and administrators, farmers, media practitioners, doctors, social workers, police, educators and so on. The principle is that people should be fully involved in issues concerning themselves and the society in which they live. Effectiveness of indicators and sustainability of a system depend practically, in part, on the commitment of interested parties or stakeholders.
Public participation is one among main principles of the sustainabledevelopment. One essential prerequisite of the sustainabledevelopment is full-scale – participations of citizens in decisions making process. Participation is important in decreasing social in- equities and social exclusion. Communities’ participation particularly important when are developed, implemented and evaluated all programmes and other interventions aim- ing on improvement well-being, life quality, promotion health and environment. Using descriptive and analytical methods his article is analyzed the expression of participatory principle in the sustainabledevelopment, illustrating it by the example from the Euro- pean Healthy Cities project. There are analyzed political and legal prerequisites of the expression of participatory principle, are given the essential elements of three theoretical models of participation, stages and levels of participation, as well are analyzed the pre- requisites of participation from different kinds of the theoretical perspective.
53. Important decisions have been taken by the Council to reinforce the political dialogue and strengthen cooperation between the European Union and the UN. Substantial progress has been made in building an effective partnership with the UN in the fields of conflict prevention and crisis management as well as development cooperation, humanitarian affairs, asylum policies and refugee assistance. This partnership is further strengthened by the mutually reinforcing approaches to conflict prevention and by ensuring that the European Union's evolving military and civilian capacities provide real added value for UN crisis management activities. The Western Balkans, the Middle East and Africa will be given highest priority in this reinforced cooperation. The conclusion of framework agreements between the European Community and relevant UN organisations will enhance cooperation.