Based on current research on the primary prevention of post-trauma pathology, psychological and pharmacological interventions for particular groups or individuals (e.g., mili- tary personnel, firefighters, etc.) with a high risk of trau- matic event exposure were applicable and acceptable for PTSD sufferers. Of the studies that reported possible psy- chological prevention effects, training generally included a psychoeducational component and a skills-based compo- nent relating to stress responses, anxiety reducing and re- laxation techniques, coping strategies and identifying thoughts, emotion and body tension, choosing how to act, attentional control, emotion control and regulation [30–32]. However, efficiency for these training has not been evalu- ated yet due to a lack of high-level evidence-based studies. Pharmacological options have targeted the influence of stress on memory formation, including drugs relating to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the autonomic nerve system (especially the sympathetic nerve system), and opiates. Evidence has suggested that pharmacological pre- vention is most effective when started before and early after the traumatic event, and it seems that sympatholytic drugs (alpha and beta-blockers) have the highest potential for pri- mary prevention of PTSD . However, one main diffi- culty limiting the exploration in this field is related to rigorous and complex ethical issues, as the application of pre-medication for special populations and the study of such options in hazardous circumstances possibly touches upon questions of life and death. Significantly, those drugs may have potential side effects.
Confrontation with extremely violent or painful events can cause a mental condition known as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This condition is highly debili- tating as its symptoms – exceptionally vivid intrusive recollections, a sense of reliving the trauma, amnesia for parts of the traumatic event, and hyperreactivity to trauma reminders – severely interfere with the daily lives of the persons affected, as well as with their social envir- onment . Prevention of such a condition is thus highly desirable. Current approaches to PTSD preven- tion can be subdivided into primary prevention (before the traumatic event, including prevention of the event itself ), secondary prevention (between the traumatic event and the development of PTSD), and tertiary pre- vention (after first symptoms of PTSD become apparent) . This paper focuses on primary prevention by apply- ing drugs before a traumatic event takes place. Addition- ally, selected literature on secondary pharmacological prevention is reviewed to derive evidence for potential primary prevention applications of additional drugs (see also ). Other forms of primary prevention, such as anticipative psychological interventions or measures to protect susceptible persons from being involved in
There is no universal solution to fight against stress but a balance to find according to each company, closer to real work.For this you need to have an idea of the difficulties (or areas of tension) encountered by employees, and good practices (regulatory areas) already in place within the company, before acting.You do not have to look to do more, but to do better. Stress sets in over time, and this is a chance for the company that can engage in a real prevention approach, a model of which is proposed below (some of the steps presented can be realized successively, simultaneously, or require round trips):
Earlier studies with the DBP modification and rat subdermal implant model demonstrated only modest oxidation of BHV as measured by the formation of dityrosine, thereby indicating that this model does not fully represent BHV oxidation since it does not produce dityrosine levels corresponding with clinical or sheep explants. However, this model is useful in assessing BHV calcification since it is accelerated. Oxidative stress has been shown to drive calcification in certain situations such as vascular calcification  or atherosclerosis . The clinical use of antioxidants in atherosclerosis prevention has been studied based on this relationship. Therefore, we hypothesized that in addition to mitigating BHV oxidative damage, an SOD mimetic may also reduce calcification of BHV. In the previous studies with DBP it was not possible to directly assess the effect of an antioxidant on BHV calcification since the DBP chemistry involves exposure to ethanol, a known anti-calcification agent . Calcification of MnTnOct-2-PyP rat subdermal explants was surprisingly not significantly less than the unmodified explants and was actually higher than the pH control, which was used at the same pH as MnTnOct-2-PyP. A possible explanation for the apparent anti-calcification effect of the pH control is that if the slightly acidic pH (6.5) was maintained during implantation, this could prevent calcium phosphate deposition since acids are used to solubilize these crystals  It is still possible that an antioxidant could mitigate BHV calcification, however, MnTnOct-2-PyP does not have this effect. A possible explanation for this finding is that the specific antioxidant MnTnOct-2-PyP did not affect BHV calcification due to its properties, in particular, the manganese center. Manganese supplementation is used to promote bone health, which was based on early studies demonstrating a positive effect of manganese diet supplementation on bone growth and strength . Therefore, future work should directly address the relationship between oxidation and calcification without the confounding variables of a specific antioxidant.
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lipid peroxidation via alteration of the antioxidant defence system of the rats. 34 Garlic extract induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HL-60 cells involve phosphatidyl serine externalization, caspase-3 activation and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation associated with the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), a by-product of lipid peroxidation and biomarker of oxidative stress. 35 Methanolic extract of Salviya officinalis is reported to have a protective effect against cyclophosphamide (CYP)- induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity through its antioxidant property. 36 Vernonia amygdalina has been attributed to its abilities to scavenge free radicals, induce detoxification, inhibit stress response proteins and interfere with DNA binding activities of some transcription factors. Phytochemicals such as alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, edotides, flavonoids, lignans, phenolic acids, saponins, sesquiterpenes, steroids, terpenes and xanthones have been extracted and isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. These compounds elicit various biological effects including cancer prevention. 37 Different parts of Phaleria macrocarpa fruit showed appreciable antioxidant activity such as 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power, NO scavenging activity and cytotoxic activities against HT- 29, MCF-7, HeLa and chang cell lines. 38 Jatropa (Jatropha podagrica) act as antioxidant with less efficiency but showed significant antitumor activity against the A549 and PC12 cells. 40 Both positive and negative correlations are seen between antioxidant capacity and anticarcinogenic activity (Table 1).
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Noxious environmental stimuli should be mini- mized. Only limited research addresses the short- and long-term efficacy and toxic effects of the phar- macological agents (sedatives and hypnotics) used to manage perceived neonatal anxiety. Thus, health care professionals must individualize decisions about the appropriateness of the use of these drugs based on extrapolation from adult experience and common sense. The following concepts must be kept in mind: 1) Sedatives and anxiolytics do not provide analgesia. If painful procedures are anticipated, an- algesics should usually be administered. 2) Long- term use of many sedatives and hypnotics includes the risks of tolerance, dependency, and withdrawal. 3) Long-term outcome (particularly neurodevelop- mental) for infants who have received long-term se- dation is unknown, although the long-term effects of neonatal pain and stress were the focus of recent research. 37– 41,48 4) Sedatives and hypnotics may cause
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The basic health problem related to smartphone’s usage relates to Cervical Spine Stress arising from the prolonged declination of the neck while viewing the screen of the smartphone. A ground-breaking study by Kenneth K. Hansraj, Chief of Spine Surgery, New York Spine Surgery and Rehabilitation Medicine revealed that while the standard weight applied on the spinal cord is nor- mally 10 - 12 lbs. when the Cervical Spine is colinear with the spinal cord it rises steeply to 60 lbs. when the user’s neck is declined at 60 degrees from the body’s longitudinal axis . The Cervical Spine connects the Spinal cord to the brain and is a crucial pathway for carrying signals between the brain and the rest of the body. These signals control almost all the bodily functions and hence any dam- age to this area can result in a condition termed in Text Neck and cause very se- rious health damage. In extreme conditions, the debility can develop into extreme curvature of the upper portion of the spinal cord, known as Kyphosis . Ky- phosis is a severe spinal affliction that can cause hindrance in even daily activi- ties. Various studies have shown that tilted or hunched back posture leading to less energy level and known to affect depression or happiness levels . Children and senior citizens are most vulnerable owing to their weaker cervical musculature.
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Background: Issues about job stress is more popular in the world currently. Not just for Japan, Korea and Taiwan, but also an important issue in EU countries, especially the UK and Finland Increase of awareness about job stress effects on work performance, productivity and mental health is as one reason of the phenomenon. Objective: The present study aimed to explore the issue of job stress in Japan for the reference of good practices to Indonesia. Methods: This study, based on observational studies in the period of September-December in year 2010 in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Kitakyushu Japan. Observations on Japanese Company and discussions with experts, such as: occupational physician of Riken Company, experts from: Tokyo University and Tokyo University’s occupational physician, Department of ergonomics, the Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences UOEH (University of Occupational and Environmental Health), Institute for Science of Labor, and researcher of Japan NIOSH. Two stress management training and occupational mental health’ application program were observed in the period of October-December. Result: The trend of current occupational mental health research in Japan has being moved from job stress to more advanced issues of work engagement and work-life balance. There are three approaches to prevention of job stress. Considering the three approach could improve of worker productivity and well-being. The training for Tokyo University’s staffs was as one session of individual-oriented stress prevention approach. It was conducted in very interactive class lecture. During 2 hours session, the participants learned some knowledge about job stress and its risk factors, exercised to construct better cognitive for stress prevention and productivity, practiced of progressive muscle relaxation technique, group work, did some home works and filled an evaluation sheet after the session was finish. We also observed the occupational mental health program at Riken Company that was covered of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of occupational mental health program of workers mostly on job stress issue. Conclusion: It was concluded that although many efforts has made to anticipate the problem of job stress in Japan, it is still need further studies to find the most appropriate instruments for the indicator of job stress and methods of intervention which are most effective for employees and company, as well as general improvement for well-being of workers and their family as they are a part of community.
The conducted research makes it advisable to work out a set of prevention activities aimed at optimization of working conditions for workers employed at petrochemical productions and at lowering stress factors. All prevention activities can be divided into three groups, namely primary, secondary, and tertiary ones. Here primary prevention focuses on preventing occupational stress at working place by eliminating or reducing influence exerted by initial causes and by increasing workers' psychological adaptation. Rational labor organization, production automation, creation of favorable psychological climate in a team, increase in workers' labor motivation and
From the prevention perspective, it is important to recognize the earliest warning signs of strain in order to intervene early in the process. Worker strain can result following prolonged exposure to stressors when paired with poor response patterns. Pains of unknown origin, fatigue, inability to concentrate, and irritability are early warning signs for individuals. In addition, symptoms of depression, increased anger and hostility, increased accidents, or signs of substance abuse can be clues that interventions are warranted. These early warning signs may be accompanied by increased aggressive behavior, disrespect, and withdrawal from relationships. For organizations, early warning signs that normal work stressors are leading to strain include general patterns such as slight changes in productivity with decreased quantity and/or quality of work, increased absenteeism, decreased commitment to the organization, poor interpersonal work relationships, increased tardiness, and more conflict among workers. Other early signals of distress include general dissatisfaction, low motivation, and low morale. Increased accident rates and machine breakdowns may also constitute early warnings warnings. There may be a general loss of vitality within the organization and an atmosphere of distrust and animosity. As with any preventive strategy, early detection of strain can help to reduce the long-term negative consequences. Key to early detection and sound prevention is vigilance on the part of the management team.
Another article that has chosen school as the focus was co-produced by Nurhafizah Mohd Sukor and Siti Zubaidah Hussin (2019). They examined self-efficacy and its influence on job satisfaction among Substance Abuse Prevention Program (PPDa) teachers. PPDa teachers play the major role in implementing preventive programs as well as treatment sessions at school (Evansburg, 1995). Hence, to ensure effectiveness, it is important to ensure the teachers’ well-being. The findings showed that PPDa teachers are at the moderate level of self-efficacy and low level of job satisfaction. There was no significant difference in self-efficacy based on gender and experience in handling PPDa program. There was also no significant difference in job satisfaction based on experience in handling PPDa program. However, there was a significant difference in job satisfaction based on gender. The findings also revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between self-efficacy and the level of job satisfaction.
This diversity promotes an invigorating series of debates within Qualitative Psychology; realism -v- relativism, intra-psychic -v- radically non-cognitive accounts, interpreting -v- discovering. Diversity also raises issues about identifying good practice and whether or not to articulate standard evaluative criteria (Parker, 1997). However, there is widespread agreement that evaluative criteria developed within the quantitative paradigm are not appropriate to all forms of qualitative research (Elliott, Fischer, & Rennie, 1999; Stiles, 1993). There is also growing interest in the methodological and epistemological issues created in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods which has hardly yet been tapped (e.g., Todd, Nerlich, McKeown & Clarke in press).
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The transactional model of stress and coping outlined in Chapter 2 provides the framework for evaluating the process of coping with stressful events (Folkman & Lazarus, 1985). Within this model, stress refers to a transaction between an individual and the environment in terms of person-environment fit. It is an adaptive response to an event that may have positive or negative implications for well-being (Elo, Ervasti, Kuosma, & Mattila, 2008). There are two major components in the stress literature “distress and eustress”. Selye believed that our appraisal determines whether a situation is distressful (bad) or eustressful (good) (Selye, 1987).The concept of eustress is very important when considering stress at work, as it can provide a positive motivation and protect against the negative effects of distress. Selye (1987) suggested that learning how to react to stressors through positive emotions such as hope, gratitude, and goodwill were likely to increase eustress and decline distress. Conversely, negative emotions like hopelessness, hate, anger, and seeking revenge for perceived wrongs are themselves distressing (Elo et al., 2008). These ideas on eustress were not actively pursued and research has focused mainly on distress, with the positive aspect of stress being given less attention. The implication is that by adopting the positive psychology perspective in this research and examining those who appear to cope well and report lower levels of stress, the concept of eustress is being assessed.
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Also implicated in the development of gastritis and peptic ulcers is the gram-negative bacteria, H. pylori. It is estimated up to 60% of peptic ulcers are associated with H. Pylori infection.  The American College of Gastroenterology Guideline on the Management of Helicobacter pylori Infection (2007) recommends first-line treatment with either a triple therapy regimen consisting of PPI, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin or a bismuth-containing quadruple regimen with an H2- receptor antagonist, metronidazole, and tetracycline. Evidence suggests eradication rates may be higher with 14 versus 7 or 10-day regimens.  Severe illness or trauma requiring intensive care is another risk factor for developing gastritis and ulceration of the stomach or duodenum.  Guidelines recommend H2- receptor antagonists, cytoprotective agents (sucralfate), or PPIs for the prophylaxis of stress ulcers in patients requiring intensive care.
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but it was intended not as a measure of general anxiety but of anxiety in the situation being tested.. Their hypothesis, is that Ss scoring high on their test respond not only with increased drive, but also with previously learned task- irrelevant responses to their anxiety which interfere with performance. Predictions, derived from this hypothesis, are. made concerning the results of an experiment involving re peated testing with items of Koh's Block Design Test and versions of the Wechsler Digit, Symbol Test. Stress was ex perimentally varied by success, neutral and failure reports to the Ss at the half way stage. As predicted, during the non-stress period, anxious Ss tended to be inferior but not
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• What do Constructivism and Positive Psychology , both movements of recent coinage, share? On some fundamental metaphoric assumptions, constructivism shares with positive psychology the humanist legacy, and an acknowledgement of the creative potential in human beings. Through practical approaches focusing not on the need of treatment and
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cessful multimillionaire male lawyer in down town To- ronto, and a female multimillionaire from Calcutta, we can see experiential similarities and differences across all three. Positivist or modernist theories of culture, focusing primarily on group affiliation, would argue that the fe- male organic farmer and Ontario lawyer are “culturally” more similar than either is to the millionaire from Cal- cutta. But clearly there are experiences that the Canadian organic farmer and the millionaire from Calcutta share in common as women and vegetarians, while at the same time the lawyer from Toronto and millionaire from Cal- cutta also share common experiences as urban dwelling multimillionaires . This suggests that when culture is conceptualized only in terms of the broader collective societal levels, discrete cultural areas (Canada or India), ethnic identities (Indian, Chinese, or Irish) or particular races (black, or white), important experiential distinc- tions are masked regarding what is at stake for particular individuals in particular contexts. Moreover, when na- tional boundary or ethnic identity is taken as a proxy for cultural orientation, this serves to physically and tempo- rally bound dynamic cultural systems. Individuals who self-ascribe to similar cultural systems or philosophies yet differ greatly with respect to local experiences cannot be meaningfully placed together in a single group and compared against another group. Therefore, if group af- filiation is to be determined for research purposes, this may best occur by an examination of the individual’s local social and moral world or context dependent ex- periences, rather than simply looking at the broader cul- tural orientation or self-ascribed cultural or religious af- filiation. In this way, what Schwandt calls interpretivist, hermeneutics, or social constructionist epistemological positions , positions that seek to pull apart and un- derstand the local, moral and experiential realities of in- dividuals, and the related methodological approaches such as qualitative phenomenology, narrative inquiry, ethnography, or case study analysis, may become more appropriate as researchers in health psychology and re- lated medical fields continue to increase the sophistica- tion with which group membership is determined in cross-cultural settings [95-97].
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Psychosocial wellbeing has been described as the fit between the individual and their social world (Durkheim, 1951; Kertzner, Meyer, Frost, & Stirratt, 2009; Meyer et al., 2011), and is indicated by the extent to which individuals feel they make valued social contributions, view society as meaningful and intelligible, experience a sense of social belonging, maintain positive attitudes toward others, and believe in the potential for society to evolve positively (Kertzner et al., 2009). LGB individuals may benefit from exploring the possibility that by changing themselves, they are altering the sociopolitical world (Russell & Bohan, 2007). Likewise, Kwon’s (2013) model of psychological health among LGB populations proposed lowered reactivity to prejudice when buffered by social support, emotional openness, and future orientation. In supporting these aims, individual therapies and support groups tailored to the LGB people, and perhaps the gender non-conforming, should help to mitigate the minority stress effects around gender expression, vigilance, and isolation; helping LGB people to the navigate the conflicting needs to be both self-determining and authentic. However, Meyer (2015) has cautioned practitioners that over-emphasising individual resilience in psychosocial wellbeing can lead to victim-blaming, and that LGB individuals must also tap into communities to reap the benefits of minority resilience. Meyer and Frost (2013) found LGB communities allow stigmatized individuals to regularly experience social environments in which they are not stigmatized by others and access the opportunity to reciprocate context-specific social support. For LGB people, identification with a community is an essential vehicle to benefiting from community resilience, through reciprocal affiliation and identification (Meyer & Frost, 2013).
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M.A.R.: At the end of the 1960s there was a group of in my opinion brilliant psychologists, very progressive people with a very open mentality for that era, who started a process of breaking away from traditional clinical psychology and opted for a model of health psychology. It’s an effective and efficient model in which the role of the psychologist doesn’t stop at the traditional clinic door but is present in practically all health institutes in the country. Within this model we had psychologists in all levels of health—clinics, hospitals, research centres, etc., throughout the entire health spectrum imaginable a psychologist was present at that time. In addition to this, psychology didn’t stop at trauma or conflict but included many other areas related to health: mourning preparations, care of transplant clients, terminal stages of various illnesses, consequences and limita- tions due to accidents or diseases. If you go through all the research you’ll see that we’ve worked with diabetics, clients with high blood pressure, invalids. I myself did my PhD thesis on Psychology and Cancer. It’s a very wide interven- tion spectrum that’s related to the salutogenic model. It became a solid model that’s now sadly in crisis because a not insignificant number of competent psy- chologists have emigrated to other countries in search of better living conditions, while others have “emigrated” within Cuba to jobs that are better paid but that are outside of the clinic.
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To prevent fires caused by electricity and devices, it is e.g. recommended to disconnect electrical outlets at night. To persuade people to engage in self-protection, the first step of a prevention-practitioner should be the presentation of the seriousness and vulnerability (showing how fast a fire spreads near electrical devices, telling statistics of cases where electrical devices and short-circuits were causes of fires, telling how toxic and deadly the smoke is, telling statistics where the smoke was the cause of serious injury and death, etc.). Recall that simply speaking out facts is rarely sufficient. Thus, severity and vulnerability should be demonstrated realistically (by using safe fire-demonstration houses) or digitally, as seen in the virtual environments interventions. To enhance self-efficacy and response- efficacy, fire departments and prevention practitioners need to teach behavioral skills to their audition. Most important, the opportunity to ´respond´ to a fire and to live fire-safe should not fail on response costs such as money; by giving away safety-devices for free, together with the teaching of installation and maintenance skills, practitioners can decrease barriers that inhibit safety-behavior.
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