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Modeling and multivariable active disturbance rejection control of hydraulic looper multivariable system

Modeling and multivariable active disturbance rejection control of hydraulic looper multivariable system

al. [12] proposed an optimal controller based on a state- dependent Riccati equation technique to deal with the unmodeled dynamics and large parameter variations of looper system. Active disturbance rejection control, which is well known for its robustness, has been used to design the controller in many industrial elds. For instance, Wang et al. [13] suggested a practical active disturbance rejection control solution in the monitoring Automatic Gauge Control (AGC) system of hot strip mill, and Zou et al. [14] designed a controller with ac- tive disturbance rejection control theory for hydraulic width control system in rough mills. Huang et al. [15] designed the control circuit of inertial platform with active disturbance rejection control theory. Su and Qiu [16] introduced the active disturbance rejection controller into robot uncalibrated visual servoing sys- tem. Dong et al. [17] introduced the active disturbance rejection controller into electric power assist steering system. In this paper, for hydraulic looper system, the interaction between looper height and strip tension is considered, and a Multivariable Active Disturbance Rejection Control (MADRC) strategy is realized by combining ADRC static decoupling technology with ESO dynamic decoupling technology. The resulting controller can be applied in both the looper height and strip tension closed loops based on the coupled transfer function model of the hydraulic looper system.
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Design and Analysis of a Novel Tension Control Method for Winding Machine

Design and Analysis of a Novel Tension Control Method for Winding Machine

of the coupling between the tension and the line speed, it is difficult to maintain the tension at a desired value. Researchers have investigated considerably for acquir- ing better control result. Lee et  al. [2] used a magneto rheological brake to provide back tension to prevent fre- quent part changes and fatal malfunction for a tension control system, and a PID controller was designed, and test results showed the feasibility with satisfying the time constant and the allowable error. Nishida et al. [3] divided the transport system into several subsystems and a self- tuning PI controller with an estimator based on a novel adaptive particle swarm optimization method was con- structed to solve the strong coupling between the veloc- ity and tension of the web. A self-tuning PID controller to control the tension for tape winding of composites was designed and the constant extension ratio is guaranteed. To reduce the time required for the stabilization of the tension, a faststabilization method [4] for web tension is proposed. The model of dancer system and stabilization of web tension in drying process are established, and the variation of tension is used as a reference value for the tension stabilization. The integration of load cells and active dancer system for printed electronics applications was used to improve the accuracy of web tension, and self-adapting neural network control was proposed to reduce tension spikes due to the change in roll diameter of winder and unwinder rolls. Wu et al. [5] developed a tension detection and control mechanism and analyzed the main causes of wire tension variation, and then a PI algorithm was proposed to reduce tension variation. An accurate dynamic model for the unwind roll by consider- ing the time variation of the roll inertia and radius was developed, and a decentralized controller for computing the equilibrium inputs for each driven roller was pro- posed [6]. A sliding mode control with guaranteed cost technique [7] was applied for reducing the system uncer- tainties. The simulation results showed that the proposed method had good robustness and quick response time. Compensation method [8] by calculating the torque of a driven loop lifter was developed to control the tension and thickness of hot-rolled strip. For the control strategy, several control methods have been proposed including disturbance rejection control [9–12], neuro-fuzzy control [13–16], and H∞ control [17–19]. Choi et al. [20] con- ducted a survey on various types of control algorithms by investigating their strengths and weaknesses, and dem- onstrated some areas of potential future development.
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Designing of Hot Strip Rolling Mill Control System

Designing of Hot Strip Rolling Mill Control System

It is automatic from the speed control switch to the tension control under the switch logic control. The speed given of coiler has been advancing the speed of the last finishing mill before the last finishing mill thrown strip. It automatically switch to the tension control after tension establishing between the last finishing mill and mandrel. Tension given is determined by tension torque, friction torque, bending torque and inertia torque [3].

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Novel accuracy test for multispectral imaging systems based on ΔE measurements

Novel accuracy test for multispectral imaging systems based on ΔE measurements

We apply the reconstruction method reported in [1] with a linear kernel in order to compute reflectance spec- tra from the camera response data. Reference reflectance spectra are recorded with a Konica Minolta FD-7 spec- trophotometer. Camera response data are acquired with different measurement accuracies: we gradually reduce the measurement quality of the imaging system by chang- ing the current of the LEDs of the light source from 100% to 70% in steps of 10% (related to the current feed of a well- calibrated case, called scenario 1 below), thus simulating a potential technical defect of the system. For each current feed, we calculate E values by comparing reference spec- tra from the color chart and from the control strip with corresponding spectra estimated from the camera data. In this way, four measurement scenarios are obtained, pro- viding a large and a small E sample with 345 and 18 values, respectively, in each case. As will be shown in the following, the large samples are used for the elaboration of
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Research and Development Trend of Shape Control for Cold Rolling Strip

Research and Development Trend of Shape Control for Cold Rolling Strip

The shape control system can be divided into pre-setting control system and closed-loop control system according to the control sequence, and the modelling of shape control system includes mechanism and intelligent models. Pre- setting control is a predictive control, and closed-loop control is a monitoring control. The two control systems complement each other and ensure the strip shape quality. The mechanism models are based on solid theoretical basis and have strong expansibility, but it is hard to realize accurate modelling and fast calculation. The intelligent models demonstrate strong learning capability, fast calcu- lation speed, and simple modeling but poor analyticity and scalability. Coordination between these two models can effectively improve the control level. The shape control system of cold rolling strip is a complex control system with multiple variables, strong coupling, and nonlinearity. For a long time, the whole set of shape control system can only be provided by German’s SIEMENS, Japan’s MIT- SUBISHI, or other large international companies. In the past 10 years, several new computer control systems are developed for the cold rolling strip. Its industrial applica- tions have achieved good results [107–109].
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Sequential analysis of surfactant, lung function and inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients

Sequential analysis of surfactant, lung function and inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients

Of interest is a lack of correlation between minimal sur- face tension assessed in the pulsating bubble surfactome- ter and the % open assessed in the capillary surfacometer (r = -0.060; P = 0.768), when the same samples were assessed. Also, the changes of these variables over time did not correlate with each other. Identical results were obtained previously in the larger BEAT cohort (n = 75) investigated similarly for these two variables (r = -0.140; P = 0.095) [7]. Together these data demonstrate that the two techniques have different sensitivities and may also meas- ure two distinct aspects of surfactant activity of airway specimens.
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Examination of Aircraft 's Cable Control Systems Tension

Examination of Aircraft 's Cable Control Systems Tension

method is commonly used in determining the ten- sion of ropes, cables, strings, and cable control systems of airplanes. Figure 1 demonstrates a typ- ical cable control system of an airplane. The actu- al value of cable tension and their change during operation depends on the pilot/pilots effort, i.e. forces generated on the controls (CS.23.395 [3]) and the forces generated on the rudders surfaces are affected by the stiffness all elements of system control (cables – C1, fittings – C2), stiffness of the airframe structure (C3), and the actual tempera- ture of the airframe units. Additionally, all aircraft operation requirements concerning control cable systems, pulleys, slides and forces must meet requirements 3 , e.g. [3], including positive load
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Storchenwiege. Babyslingy g. Wrapping instructions

Storchenwiege. Babyslingy g. Wrapping instructions

7. Now use the hand which did the grasping a moment ago to hold your child and the head edge tight. With your free hand, reach behind you and pull the second strip forwards, crossing it over and again pulling the head edge tight. Now the two ends of the sling are pulled tight strand by strand, starting with the end you pulled forward first.

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Pseudo-differential operator associated to the radial
basis functions under tension.

Pseudo-differential operator associated to the radial basis functions under tension.

The radial basis functions under tension (RBFT) was introduced in [5]. The RBFT depend on a positive parameter and provide a convenient way of controlling the behavior of the interpolating surface. The aim of this paper is to give an explicit definition and construction of the associated native space of the RBFT, as a Beppo-Levi space type (see Theorem 2 and remark 2 in [5, p.141]). We show that the RBFT, as the thin plate splines, may be carried out from a (pseudo-) differential operator with a simple fundamental solution arising in the formulation of the RBFT. Furthermore, in this paper, we investigate both interpolating and smoothing problems.
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Development of an Immunochromatographic Strip for Rapid Detection of H9 Subtype Avian Influenza Viruses

Development of an Immunochromatographic Strip for Rapid Detection of H9 Subtype Avian Influenza Viruses

An immunochromatographic strip was developed for the detection of the H9 subtype of avian influenza viruses (H9AIVs) in poultry, using two monoclonal antibodies (MAb), 4C4 for H9AIV hemagglutinin (HA) and 4D4 for nucleoprotein. The 4C4 MAb was labeled with colloidal gold as the detection reagent, and the 4D4 MAb was blotted on the test line while a goat anti-mouse antibody was used on the control line of the nitrocellulose membrane. In comparison with the HA and HA inhibition (HI) tests, the strip was specific for the detection of H9AIV, with a sensitivity at 0.25 HA units within 10 min. Storage of the strips at room temperature for 6 months or at 4°C for 12 months did not change their sensitivity and specificity. Evaluation of the strip with experimental tracheal and cloacal swab samples collected from H9N2-infected chickens revealed that the strip detected the H9N2 viruses on day 3 postinoculation, earlier than the appearance of clinical symptoms. Application of the strip for the analysis of 157 tracheal or cloacal samples from potentially infected chickens on five poultry farms showed that four farms had chickens that were infected with H9AIV. Further characterization of 10 positive and 30 negative randomly selected samples showed that no single sample was false positive or negative, as determined by the standard virus isolation and HI assays. Therefore, the immunochromatographic strip for the detection of H9AIVs has high specificity, sensitivity, and stability. This finding, together with the advantages of rapid detection and easy operation and without the requirement for special skills and equipment, makes the strip suitable for onsite detection and the differentiation of H9AIVs from other viruses in poultry.
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An effective bioremediation approach for enhanced microbial degradation of the veterinary antibiotic sulfamethazine in an agricultural soil

An effective bioremediation approach for enhanced microbial degradation of the veterinary antibiotic sulfamethazine in an agricultural soil

This system was used for soil incubation experiments with a constant soil water tension of −15 kPa, namely the treatments with constant soil water tension of the adap- tation experiment (“ Adaptation of soil microorganisms to SMZ degradation” section), the IS and CP comparison experiment (“Soil inoculation with the microbial com- munity compared with the single strain” section), and the experiment, where SMZ mineralization was enhanced by inoculating the microbial community (“SMZ miner- alization in soil inoculated with the microbial commu- nity” section). The soil samples were incubated in 250 ml amber bottles. These bottles were closed with a rubber stopper through which a hollow needle was fed to guar- antee a constant oxygen supply. At the atmospheric side, the needle was connected to a soda lime filled syringe for adsorbing atmospheric CO 2 . At the bottom of the rubber
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Energy Efficient Lighting System in Gaza Strip Buildings

Energy Efficient Lighting System in Gaza Strip Buildings

The block diagram of the system hardware is shown in Fig. 5. The microcontroller system receives two input signals: one is from incoming light to the room sensor and the other is from inside room sensor. These signals are put through multiplexer and analog to digital Converter (ADC) interface to the microcontroller system. The other inputs are occupation sensors, which are used to sense the people going into or out of the room [8]. The communication between the occupation sensors to the microcontroller system was accomplished through the system interrupt. The output signals of the microcontroller system are connected to the driver for controlling the switching of TRIACs those function to switch the LED on or off.
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Accepted root is plotted as a standalone dot (.) on a root-locus dots-plot. Root-locus for a system with n open-loop poles has n branches. A branch of root-locus starts at an open loop pole usually marked with ‘x’ and ends at an open loop zero usually marked with ‘o’ or at infinity. At breakaway points, each single branch breaks into sub-branches. For the purpose of joining the dots with a curve, each accepted root is checked and grouped into a sub-branch of the root-locus. Based on the root-locus dots-plot generated by the algorithm, a number of computer program conditional statements guide the placement of the accepted root into the right sub-branch. An example is presented section 3.3 and illustrated in figure 5.
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Electronic technologies in the system of flexibility test control

Electronic technologies in the system of flexibility test control

Typically flexibility as an integral factor in the physical education practice is evaluated by the ability to perform a tilt forward from a standing position. The expediency of using this test is due to the fact that from a practical point of view, the t important is the flexibility of a spine and it is believed that the "combined flexibility of the body" can be judged by bending forward. In addition, it is simple and accessible for measurements during mass examinations and does not require tions of conducting. At the same time, we should note that to provide standartisation of testing procedures by this method is almost impossible. This method of flexibility testing is characterized by the certain dependence of subjective mining the results of the exercise. The defined facts make impossible and difficult the obtaining of the reliable informative monitoring results due to a large number of uncontrolled variables and the absence of a certain registration system for test results. Hence, there is a need for a radically new approach to this issue.
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Magnesium Concentration in Asthma Patients in Gaza Strip - Case Control Study

Magnesium Concentration in Asthma Patients in Gaza Strip - Case Control Study

New surveys are needed to update asthma trends. The prevalence of diagnosed asthma in the urban and rural areas in west bank in Palestine were 4.2% and 2.8% respectively [13]. In Arab countries, there is low research productivity about bronchial asthma, and in Palestine most studies reported only the prevalence, symptoms and geographic variation of asthma and asthma symptoms. To date there is no studies in west bank and Gaza strip about the association between asthma and mg concentration level. There are several studies on serum Mg levels in asthma patients which show that hypomagnesemia is commonly seen in asthmatics [14-16], the present study will provide us a clear picture about the Mg status on asthmatic patients in Gaza strip and compare them with normal people, this study may give us a new strategy for control of asthma by using Mg. also this study will help us in understand the relation between asthma and lifestyle and environmental determinants among asthma patients in Gaza strip.
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HJK CONSULTING ENGINEERS. Project Management Technology Operating Consulting Excellence

HJK CONSULTING ENGINEERS. Project Management Technology Operating Consulting Excellence

total   strip thickness   reduction on low carbon steel   strip 90% (to be achieved   in 5 passes).. Two winders with strip gripers.[r]

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System Approach to Vehicle Suspension System Control in CAE Environment

System Approach to Vehicle Suspension System Control in CAE Environment

the active suspension system, it is recommended to simulate the obtained analytical solutions on the computer in order to examine the range of change of regulative action and the response of the regulated variable to a typical input signal, and thus confirm the possibility of the system physical realization, bearing in mind the actuator limitations, as well as check whether other possible limitations within the object of control as a whole have been reached. The above statements by no means suggest that laboratory testing is no longer necessary, but that it can be carried out in a shorter period of time and with reduced cost [24]. The key challenge associated with active suspension and their actuators is the size, weight and energy consumption required to achieve acceptable performance. For this reason, the physical properties of the actuator should be included in the optimization problem. In practice, actuator faults are quite often the largest source of control system degradation. Suspension system modelling was performed on ¼ vehicle model, using the Matlab interactive environment and by the state-space equation. The step input is the unit step function, that is, a certain value of road disturbance. It has been concluded that after encountering any kind of obstacle, the settling time and overshoot of the vehicle, are too long, and that a controller must be introduced into the suspension system. We designed a digital controller by the pole- placement method, which makes only one of the possible solutions. The presented dynamic model is only a very rough representation of the true dynamic system, which is applicable only in the early concept design phases of the research and development process. It is expected that, in the near future, this design and the above-mentioned modifications and the necessary improvements, would be used in designing such systems in the motor vehicles industry of our country.
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ISLAM IN YAOUNDE: A HISTORICAL STUDY OF ETHNIC TENSION AND STATE CONTROL

ISLAM IN YAOUNDE: A HISTORICAL STUDY OF ETHNIC TENSION AND STATE CONTROL

The introduction of the reformist mosque in Yaounde remapped the Islamic fabric of this capital city. The Tidjaniyya had their own mosque as well as the Shia and Wahabiyya who also had their own mosque. Newly built mosque in Yaounde also followed ethnic and tribal linings. The Hausa and Fulani had their own mosque; the Bamum had their own mosque, as well as the West African immigrants who also had their own mosque. [46] Worth mentioning here also is the tension that develops between the Hausa, Fulani and Bamums as far as the control of religious site were concerned. The Hausas were of the opinion that they were the first Muslims to settle in Yaounde. More to that almost all the Islamic religious sites were founded by them; as such they had to control them. The Hausa chief in Briqueterie appointed most of the Imams of the different mosque found in Yaounde as well as the grand Imam. Most of the preaching and announcement done in mosques in Yaounde were done in the Hausa language. On the whole, Islamic practices and Centers were under the control of Hausa elites. This was also thanks to the support they got from the Ahidjo administration and the paramount chief of the Ewondos. Beginning from the mid 90s, other ethnic groups found in Yaounde such as the Fulani, Bamuns and Anglophone Muslims started contesting the monopoly of Hausas control over Islamic sites in Yaounde. [47]
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Algorithm of elements option of control system of flexible  manufacture system

Algorithm of elements option of control system of flexible manufacture system

One of directions of decision of the problem on creation of control system of FMS is introduction of the systems of sensitivity and intellectualization of control in technological equipments and industrial robots of production, able to take into account obtained information about an environment, both in the process of planning and in the process of execution. The system of sensitivity perceives by means of present in its composition sensors of state information about status of external area, processes them. As a result signals of influences which acting on one of entrances of control system are produced, that in turn produces correspon
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