Live loads must be placed on the span so as to create the maximum force effects. The following formulas (or with the help of a structural analysis program) calculate the maximum bending moment and shear force per lane at any point on a span due to the design truck loading (the design truck load controls over the design tandem load for spans greater than 40 feet.). [PCI BridgeDesign Manual, 2003, Section 8.11]
Abstract: A bridge is a structure providing passage over an obstacle without closing the way beneath. The required passage may be for a road, a railway, pedestrians, a canal or a pipeline. The obstacle to be crossed may be a river, a road, railway or a valley. In other words, bridge is a structure for carrying the road traffic or other moving loads over a depression or obstruction such as channel, road or railway. Also a footbridge or a pedestrian bridge is a bridge designed for pedestrians and in some cases cyclists, animal traffic and horse riders, rather than vehicular traffic. Footbridges can also be built in the same ways as road or rail bridges. Footbridges are small, but important, because they are usually presented in townscape. The appearance of footbridges, and indeed of any other bridges, in a town, is a major concern for designers. Increasing strength of new structural materials and longer spans of new footbridges, accompanied with aesthetic requirements for greater slenderness, are resulting in livelier footbridge structures. In the past few years this issue attracted great public attention. The excessive lateral sway motion caused by crowd walking across the infamous Millennium Bridge in London is the prime example of the vibration serviceability problem of footbridges. In principle, consideration of footbridge vibration serviceability requires a characterization of the vibration source, path and receiver. The literature survey identified humans as the most important source of vibration for footbridges. However, modeling of the crowd-induced dynamic force is not clearly defined yet, despite some serious attempts to tackle this issue in the last few years. The vibration path is the mass, damping and stiffness of the footbridge. Of these, damping is the most uncertain but extremely important parameter as the resonant behavior tends to govern vibration serviceability of footbridges. A typical receiver of footbridge vibrations is a pedestrian who is quite often the source of vibrations as well. During footbridge vibration, especially under crowd load, it seems that some form of human–structure interaction occurs. The problem of influence of walking people on footbridge vibration properties, such as the natural frequency and damping is not well understood, let alone quantified. Finally, there is not a single national or international design guidance which covers all aspects of the problem comprehensively and some form of their combination with other published information is prudent when designing major footbridge structures. The overdue update of the current codes to reflect the recent research achievements is a great challenge for the next 5–10 years.
where the first sum term in right-hand side is the total free surface energy, the second sum term is the total free bulk energy, A stands for interfacial area and the interfacial tension, stands for the phase volume and the phase pressure, where the subscript stands for the interface and the subscript stands for the phase. Naturally there are usually three phases, which are vapor phase, liquid phase and solid phase respectively. The interface means the contact surface between every two phases, e.g. the interface between vapor phase and liquid phase, the interface between vapor phase and solid phase, and the interface between liquid phase and the solid phase. Liquid bridge is a system constructed by two solid phase, one liquid phase and one vapor phase. Therefore there are two vapor-solid interfaces, two liquid-solid interfaces and one vapor-liquid interface shown in Fig- ure 1.
Bridges have usually figured prominently in human records. They decorate the vitalities of the cities and beneficial aid the social, cultural and economic improvements of the places around them. Bridge is a structure supplying passage over an impediment without ultimate the way under. The required passage can be for a road, a railway, pedestrians, a canal or a pipeline and the impediment to be crossed can be a river, a street, railways or a valley. The part of the bridge shape under the extent of the bearing and above the founding degree is typically referred to as the substructure. The design of bridge substructure is an vital part of the overall format for a bridge and impacts to a big quantity the aesthetics, the safety and the financial machine of the bridge. Bridge substructure is a totally important part of a bridge because it thoroughly transfers the hundreds . Underground metro rail systems are complicated infrastructures of sizable significance for their communities and users. They create a state of affairs in which many customers share a exceedingly restrained place on the same time. This creates large dangers, with the tunnel fires which have took place in recent years displaying in reality that a fire can also have every primary and lethal effects. The mass delivery gadget ought to be constructed so that people feel that they'll be safe and relaxed while touring. A loss of self-assurance within the system is devastating for both society and mass transport companies. STAAD.
leading to the formation of the hydrogen bridge across the vacancy site. Thus instead o f the silanol coordinated to the siloxy, two siloxy groups connected through the proton ( ^ i — O—p — O— Si= )\ have evolved in the relaxation process. The resulting bridge is slightly asymmetric both in its geometry and charge distribution: the two O'-p distances are 1.20 and 1.21 Â and the Si-O bond lengths are 1.60 and 1.56 Â while the effective charges are 1.524 and -0.845 e in one siloxy group and 1.497 and -0.773 e in another. The bridging position o f the hydrogen is also reflected in the unusually high value (+0.430 e) of its effective charge. The O- p -0 angle is ca. 165°, as is the p-O-Si angle corresponding to the “right-hand” siloxy group as shown in the figure 4.3.2. The second siloxy forms a more acute angle of ca. 129° with the proton due to the perturbation by the hydrogen bond with that remaining in the nest silanol group (the bond distance of 1.64 Â). The two oxygens involved in the hydrogen bond are separated by ca. 2.64 Â which is again reminiscent of the experimental data reported by H. Koller, R.F. Lobo et al (1995). The charge separation in the defect region is now much more pronounced than in the case of the deprotonated nest: the charged species are separated by ca. 3.8 Â and the total effective charge localised in each region amounts to ca. 0.9 e. M oreover, the top of the valence band is now defined by the electron lone pairs on the oxygens that take part in the formation of the hydrogen bridge; the corresponding levels are lifted above the usually delocalised O 2p states by ca. 1.5 eV. The unoccupied defect states are also introduced 2.5 eV below the bottom of the conduction band, the new states being localised on the trigonal silicon site. It implies the electron transfer would proceed between the hydrogen bridge and the trigonal silicon site upon excitation. The key issue for the site characterisation would be a calculation of the O-H stretching vibrations.
Dr. Faizal Mustapha is an Associate Professor in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the Universiti Putra Malaysia. Main areas of research are Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) and Smart Structures with an emphasis on smart sensor, hybrid composite and bio-composite, nano technology and also adopting few of diagnosis algorithms such as the multi-variate technique and signal processing methods as applied to SHM. He’d authored and co-authored two books, four book chapters and nearly more than 100 journal papers and conference proceedings. Peer review and editorial board member for Journal of Surface Engineering and ASEAN Engineering Journal. “
A bridge is a structure constructed to span physical obstructions such as a water body, valley, road etc. Design of bridge depending on the function of the bridge, nature of terrain where the bridge is to be constructed, funds available to built it etc. Prestressed concrete bridges have become much popular these days. The reason behind this is the various advantages of prestressed construction procedure over the RCC and steel bridge construction techniques. Prestressed concrete bridges are economical, durable and aesthetic solutions in most situations. Concrete remains the most common material for bridge construction around the world, and prestressed concrete is frequently the material of choice. So it is important to study about the design features of prestressed concrete bridges and to provide some relevant information regarding the design and analysis of prestressed concrete bridges. For this the bridge at Bhoothathankettu barrage was selected. The project is undertaken by Irrigation Department of government of Kerala and the contract is taken by Mary Matha construction. The bridge has a total span of 211 meters, divided into 10 spans of 21.1m each. It has a carriage way width of 7.5m.The first part consists of analysis and design of super structure PSC bridge. The second part consists of design of substructure. The grade of concrete and steel used are M30 and Fe 415 for superstructure and substructure. The live load considered is IRC Class A loading. The softwares used are STAAD Pro.V8i, AUTO CAD 2013.
In the existing solution, the robot is equipped with a camera for processing the bridge. It uses histogram evaluation, and fault recognition algorithms for image processing. Thereby, the time taken to inspect the robot will be increasing rapidly. The robot is traversed from start point to end point through an autonomous line following algorithm. Thereby, the data read to navigate the robot is becoming complicated.
With pedestrian travel over aurora engineering college being as dangerous because it is, the group feels that the simplest attainable manner in making certain safe travel over this route is by constructing a brand new bridge. Additionally to serving to pedestrians safely cross the street road, the structure ought to be of associate innovative style of a similar calibre because the different pedestrian bridges placed on the IPFW field.
This paper discussed the design and analysis of bridge foundation subjected to Indian Standard code. The study focused on the design and analysis of bridge’s foundation using STAAD Pro. In project we create the super structure data required for foundation design. For that we used Autodessk Infraworrks in which, we create the whole bridge and analyze it. After analysing the results’ details taken for designing pile foundation in STAAD Pro. Beava. In this for 3 rd , 4 th and 5 th span we design foundation.
Transverse Analysis for Deck Slab Design the transverse analysis of the deck slab is carried out using software. The slab is treated as a continuous member supported at the girder locations. The self -weight of deck slab is applied as uniformly distributed load on the slab. The load due to crash barrier, wearing coat and median is considered as the superimposed dead load. This is also applied as UDL, at respective locations. For the application of live load, various possible critical arrangements of wheel loads are considered. For different arrangements, the effective dispersion of each wheel and the net distributed load is calculated. This load is applied as UDL over the worked out dispersed area. The following cases of live loads were studied:
After the review of previous researches, it becomes clear that more economical design method for transverse reinforcement in concrete bridge deck slab is needed. Summary of various design methods is presented in Table-1. It can be seen that, the conventional design method is very conservative as it assumed a flexural deck slab behaviour without considering any other factor that might enhanced its ultimate strength capacity. Subsequent methods incorporate arching action behaviour that enhanced the slab deck strength capacity and results in the use of reduced amount of reinforcement. The innovation of steel-free slab decks shows that, steel reinforcement could be totally removed provided a sufficient restraint to utilize arching action can be achieved. On the other hand, all these methods have some peculiar disadvantages for example, the conventional design method require a higher budget meanwhile, the provision of larger amount of reinforcement have a greater chance of corrosion and eventual deterioration of the bridge. Methods for epoxy coating of reinforcement for durability enhancement [95,96].also proved to be costly. Existence of cracks in the remaining methods reveals that some measures need to be taken. Meanwhile use of FRP as anti-cracks and external steel straps in steel-free bridges make them more expensive.
tension. For tension, bamboos and coir ropes were used in bridges. Subsequently iron and steel bars were used to resist tension. These members tend to buckle under compression. Wood and structural steel members were effective both in tension and compression. In reinforced concrete, concrete and steel are combined such that concrete resists compression and steel resists tension. This is a passive combination of the two materials. In prestressed concrete high strength concrete and high strength steel are combined such that the full section is effective in resisting tension and compression. This is an active combination of the two materials.
Using AMBA-AHB bus, we can develop a generic converter for the memory controller which uses AHB slave. Our master can be a processor which gives request for data transmission to the module “Slave – PIPE RTL (AHB to custom PIPE Bridge)” which will convert the request in terms of PIPE interface which is easily understandable by MC and accordingly that request will be passed to the memory controller (MC). Memory controller takes care for the incoming and outgoing transmission to and from memory.
A modern floating bridge may be constructed of wood, concrete, steel, or a combination of materials, depending on the design requirements. In our project we are using floating concrete to float the bridge structure. Figure1shows the floating concrete.
When multiple beams are continuously connected, piers are used as the intermediate supports. However, the distance between piers needs to be carefully calculated because it aﬀects the robustness of the bridge. Development of a beam bridge essentially adds a signiﬁcant structure in a form of large steel or iron beam called girder. The girder provides a stronger support to the concrete deck and transfers the load down to the foundation. Generally, there are two types of broadly used girders including I-beam girders and box- girders. There are two main types of beams, H- and I-type beams, as shown in Fig. 1. As the name suggests, the I-beam girders take the form of the capital letter I, where the top
Bridge is a structure providing passage over an obstacle without closing the way beneath. The required passage may be for a road, a railway, pedestrians, a canal or a pipe line and the obstacle to be crossed may be a river, a road, railways or a valley. various types of bridges have been constructed in the world based on the site location, material accessibility, length, usage and damaging factors such as Girder Bridge, Truss Bridge, Arch Bridge, Cantilever Bridge, Cable-stayed Bridge, Suspension Bridge, Void slab Bridge