The use of Student Evaluations of Teaching (SET) has become widespread practice in higher education despite inconclusive evidence reported in the literature around its validity. Not surprisingly, the question of the validity of SET continues to be a current debate in higher education, pointing to more research to be conducted in this area. The current study contributes to broadening knowledge and understanding on the validity of SET by drawing on an online unit evaluation completed by students (n=2430 out of total student enrolment of N=7757) in one university across three postgraduate education programs over a two-year period, to determine whether there is a relationship between student feedback on teaching and student final unit grade. Findings revealed that students who achieved very high or very low final unit grades did not participate in the SET, while students who achieved Pass or Credit grades partook in the SET, thus providing feedback. This indicates that teaching and evaluating staff need to be aware that a large subset of their students that are not providing feedback to staff to improve the quality of their courses.
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The student evaluations of teaching regarding the same course in other departments, where attendance rates were higher, which did not differ from the mean ratings in the college as a whole, also suggest that the ratings in the Department of Animal Sciences might be associated with the low rate of students who attended the lectures. To sum up, the results of the present research support the findings presented in previous literature (Hativa, 2008, 2016), that student evaluations of teaching examine student satisfaction and interest in the course, which is asso- ciated with the student’s academic level and investment in studying. The research also supports the findings of studies conducted at Tel Aviv University, that student evaluations of teaching do not indicate the actual quality of a lecturer’s teaching  .
Student Evaluations of Teaching (SET). The literature on SET often points to instructor concerns about student evaluations of teaching. Based on the litera- ture, these largely center around two factors. The first is the questionable validity of SET. As educational institutions increasingly view students as con- sumers of education, they are also more influenced by reports of student satisfaction (Share, 1997). Unfortunately, reports of student satisfaction may be more based on expected grades (Olshavsky & Spreng, 1995), similarity of thinking styles (Betoret, 2007), and social factors (Blackhart, Peruche, DeWall, & Joiner, 2006) than on actual learning outcomes (Marks, 2000; Simpson & Siguaw, 2000). Expected grades frequently, although not always, correlate with positive ratings of professors, and rigor is often negatively related or believed to be negatively related to SET (Clayson, 2004; Clayson & Haley, 1990; Heckert, Latier, Ringwald-Burton, & Drazen, 2006; Sojka, Gupta, & Deeter-Schmelz, 2002). As educational institutions value SET in their assessments of instructor performance, faculty members may, therefore, feel tempted to lower standards and inflate grades (Churchill, 2006; Fram & Pearse, 2000; Share). With such concerns in mind, Wright (2006) suggested implementing a tracking system where the students of faculty members who had received low ratings could be randomly sampled and then interviewed in depth to discover what really went on in the class. He argued that such a system might protect skilled and effective instructors whose low ratings largely reflect that they are demanding teachers. Second, faculty members are apprehensive about the emphasis given SET in the retention, tenure, and promotion (RTP) process (Simpson & Siguaw, 2000).
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and Klassen and Tze (2014) similarly reported that teacher personality is associated with teacher effectiveness (a sum of student achievement and evaluated teaching perfor- mance). However, it was impossible to dissect which elements of a teacher ’ s personality was important given their unidimensional conceptualization of teacher personality. We found in our study that four of the Big Five domains (not agreeableness) can shape students ’ educational experiences and outcomes. Teachers ’ levels of extraversion and conscientiousness were particularly important, especially for student evaluations of teaching. Meta-analyses summarizing findings from multiple occupations report that conscientiousness is the strongest predictor of job performance (Barrick and Mount 1991; Salgado 2003). However, we found that extraversion was slightly more strongly associated with teacher effectiveness than conscientiousness. The fundamental social nature of the teaching profession may explain this finding, whereby one ’ s level of assertiveness and energy is just as important or even more important than one ’ s level of achievement-focus and organization. This finding seems to indicate that job perfor- mance in organizations may not be equivalent to job performance in the teaching profession. Providing instructional and emotional support are primary components of the teaching profession (Danielson 2013; Pianta et al. 2008), but these are not typical markers of job performance in other organizations, which can thus help explain why extraversion was a stronger predictor than conscientiousness.
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However, while these studies challenge the reported academic hostility towards student evaluations, Beran and Rokosh (2009: 183) caution that acceptance of student evaluations does not correlate with perceptions of their usefulness for enhancing teaching or with actual usage of the instrument for teaching changes. These authors speculate that “since instructors find ratings to be of little practical value, their seemingly positive attitudes regarding student ratings actually reflect a neutral viewpoint or passive acceptance of the ratings in general”. Similarly, Smith (2008: 518) comments that “there is little published evidence that they [evaluations] are systematically used for developing and improving their teaching”.
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In this proof-of-principle study, we used publicly avail- able data to correlate patient evaluations of a training site with student evaluations of the educational experi- ences at that site. We found a strong relationship between the patient rating of doctor – patient communica- tion and student ratings of the clerkships at that site including organization, educational value, teaching, and evaluation and feedback. This study provides association data, and while proving the cause of these associations was beyond the scope of this preliminary study, it is interesting to speculate that similar skills are required for patient care and medical education, and that these skills underlie many of these associations. For example, effective communication skills are bene ﬁ cial both for communicating diagnoses and treatment plans with patients 8 and for engaging students in the clinical experience. 9 Future research could delve into the asso- ciations we found to determine these causal roots, and ﬁ ndings could be used to improve faculty performance in both treating patients and teaching students.
University students in the United States are routinely asked to provide feedback on the quality of the instruction they have received. Such feedback is widely used by university administrators to evaluate teaching ability, despite growing evidence that students assign lower numerical scores to women and people of color, regardless of the actual quality of instruction. In this paper, we analyze students’ written comments on faculty evaluation forms spanning eight years and five STEM disciplines in order to determine whether open-ended comments reflect these same biases. First, we apply sentiment analysis techniques to the corpus of comments to determine the overall affect of each comment. We then use this information, in combination with other features, to explore whether there is bias in how students describe their instructors. We show that while the gender of the evaluated instructor does not seem to affect students’ expressed level of overall satisfaction with their instruction, it does strongly influence the language that they use to describe their instructors and their experience in class.
In addition to the implications of the impact bias for student decision-making, HE man- agers should be aware of it when administering, analysing and interpreting student evaluation surveys, particularly with respect to evaluation timing and comparability. In terms of the former, the impact bias suggests that course evaluations undertaken before a course is ﬁnished are likely to differ from those gathered afterwards. If, for example, online course evaluation questionnaires are open for an extended period – overlapping teaching, post-teaching and, possibly, post-assessment – then the results are likely to be from students at different points on the impact bias curve. Even if stu- dents are being evaluated purely on the basis of their (domain) satisfaction with course events (rather than their affective response to these events), the impact bias can still indirectly inﬂuence such cognitive judgements (of satisfaction) because how people feel, or remember feeling, feeds into how and what they think (see Diener, Scollon, and Lucas 2003; Chong and Ahmed 2015). A cynical perspective might therefore involve capitalising on the impact bias to manipulate the timing of course evaluations to give more positive results, although ultimately this would not lead to long-term insti- tutional gain or improvements in students ’ experiences and affective well-being. However, this is not to say the timing of evaluation surveys does not matter; indeed the impact bias renders timing especially important around issues of evaluation compar- ability. Speciﬁcally, HE managers and academics should be careful when making com- parisons between course evaluation results, without ﬁ rst considering the time elapsed between the event/experience in question and the point at which it is evaluated, and how this may differ between courses or students.
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Bhalerao,R.P., Roy ,S.,& Varad,G.R., (2011) .A study of the correlation between Career Preference Profile and Interest in Teaching of B.Ed. Students.Indian Streams Research Journal, 1(9),1-4. Eren, A. (2012). "Prospective teachers’ interest in teaching, professional plans about teaching and career choice satisfaction: a relevant framework?," Australian Journal of Education, 56( 3). Retrived from: http://research.acer.edu.au/aje/vol56/iss3/7.
A structured non-participant observation method was used to observe teaching sessions in each school at each visit . A full explanation was given to the MCHA tu- tors on the purpose of the planned visits to their schools by the research team and their consent for this sought. Event sampling was used to select the teaching sessions and keep disruption of the normal school timetable to a minimum . There is an underlying assumption when using structured observation that the researchers are familiar with, and understand, the activity being ob- served . Each member of the research team was in- volved with and experienced in teaching and learning at a pre and/or post registration level. A modified pre-de- signed structured observation form was used that assessed teaching methods, student learning and stu- dent involvement.
The proposed system is based on finding a case that is similar to the learning domain of a past student in a distributed environment. A similar learning domain means that when a student enrolls in the system and on presentation of content, questions, examples, and assignments the student responds. CBR Based student modeling system compares the student's solving process with the patterns of responses stored in the case base. At this time, the inference engine reasons the state of the student's knowledge through the student's solving process. If a new situation occurs then case based system treats this as a new case and records it, termed as machine leaning.
Do we find a difference in the teaching techniques of an Artist and a non-artist? Shouldn‟t every teacher learn some or the other art? The answer to these questions is hidden in the following illustration. If you observe any tree, you will notice that its branch structure is the reflection of its root structure. But the branches are not the exact reflection of the roots as they seem more beautiful due to leaves, flowers and fruits. The reason this happens is; whatever is absorbed by the roots from the soil, gets processed in the trunk of the tree which results in the forming of branches adorned with leaves, flowers and fruits. Similarly, as stated by Paul Klee, an artist is like a trunk of a Tree, who perceives, understands and absorbs the root fundamentals in this world, processes them with his own thoughts, emotions and ideas and in the end exhibits them with his own interpretation in a beautiful manner like the branches of the tree. Learning any art develops sensitivity towards everything in any human being and changes his/her approach towards life. So naturally the teaching techniques by an artist will be more creative and will have a different approach than the teaching method of a non-artist.
The Bureau of Culture of Penghu County produced the Penghu Basalt Digital Teaching Materials, which are supplementary teaching materials for local curriculums in elementary and middle schools in Penghu County. But just what are the teachers’ and students’ opinions of the said teaching materials? Are they willing to use them? Are they suitable? These questions are, indeed, worth further research. The questionnaire survey was conducted to gather the opinions of 142 teachers and 151 students of elementary and middle schools in Penghu County. In addition, using the quasi-experimental and experimental teaching methods, after comparing the pre-test and post-test results to the control group, the learning effectiveness was determined. The results indicate that teachers and students have the highest evaluation for the interface design aspect of this teaching material. The teachers’ evaluation for the teaching materials is significantly higher than the students’. Furthermore, the teaching materials are evaluated highly in terms of attracting attention, generating interest and willingness to use, indicating that the digital teaching materials have potential for promotion in Penghu. After the experimental teaching, only the vocational high school students’ scores before and after the experiment showed significantly improvement, while the scores of the students in the other levels of schools did not.
This article continues the Council on Medical Student Education in Pedi- atrics ’ series on the skills of, and strategies used by, excellent clinical teachers. Here, we provide a practical framework and helpful tips for writ- ing student evaluations that will in- form both students and their medical schools.
The research findings show that, according to the lecturers, the teaching load (number of teaching hours a week), which is an external factor that is not dependent on them and on the quality of their teaching, is detrimental to students' evaluations in teaching surveys. In addition to the teaching load, the lecturers take care of student complaints, and the more they teach they must take care of more complaints and problems. Lecturers who are at the beginning of their academic life, those who are in lower ranks: senior teacher and senior lecturer, address the negative aspects of the surveys more than the others. The research findings show that although more hours are taught at colleges than at universities it is harder to receive good evaluations at colleges. Moreover, since in Israeli academia research is still the main criterion for promotion – faculty members born in Israel were found to address the topic of teaching less than those born elsewhere.
In our study, faculty consistently assessed the students at a higher rating than the students ranked themselves and the level of difference between student self-assessments and their faculty assessments was not overall modi ﬁ ed by student gender. This contrasts with a 2010 meta-analysis 6 which found that students were moderately able to self- assess themselves and that female students underestimated their performance more than males. We had hoped to illustrate that the SELECT leadership curriculum narrowed any gender gap in self-assessments; however, with only one exception (in the domain of “ participation ” ) we found no gender difference between the two doctoring curricu- lums (CORE and SELECT) in regard to ratings.
Looking into the mean gains of both groups, the participants in the control group made significant improvements or means gains on the skills of retention and critical thinking. The result could be credited to the fact that the use of tra- ditional has been long utilized in the parlance of teaching and also it does pave way to the learning of subject being taught in the classroom. Lectures can also be an efficient method of introducing learners to new topics. The teacher can use the lecture to set the stage for a new area of learning and place the topic into the perspective of what is already known (DeYoung, 2009) . Nevertheless, if a lecture is well organized and delivered effectively, it can be a very useful method of instruction (Bain, 2004; Bartlett, 2003)  .
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The results obtained in this study shed light on the issue of whether the use of classroom games has an impact on student learning. This provides some important evidence with respect to Fels’ (1993, 365) concern that the cost of classroom game implementation could exceed the “meager evidence of [their] educational value.” A test is conducted in which, ceteris paribus, student scores were observed to increase in the sample that included a financial market portfolio project. Holding lecture style and grading policy fixed across the two samples and examining instructor ratings sheds light on the issue of whether student learning, enhanced by the portfolio project, influences evaluation scores.
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8- Feldman KA. The association between student ratings of specific instructional dimensions and student achievement. Research in Higher Education. 1989;30(6):583-645. 9- Feldman KA. Instructional effectiveness of college teachers as judged by teachers themselves, current and former students, colleagues, administrators, and external (Neutral) observers. Research in Higher Education. 1989;30(2):113-35.
The problem centers around the suspicions that student teachers do not often heartily accept the marks awarded to them by the their supervisors and the co-operating teachers, where the latter take part in the grading at the end of their teaching practice exercises. But some individuals hold the view that there are no ground for these state of minds. These necessitated the study to identify the student teachers beliefs about teaching and evaluation of their performances by the co-operating and supervising teachers. One hundred and fifty student teachers from Eha-Amufu college of Education and Alvan Ikoku College of Education Owerri were sampled. Questionnaire was used for the data collection. Statistical analysis used was the percentage. The study revealed that; student teachers believe that the co-operating teachers comments on their performances were not biased; student teachers recommended that supervisors be matched with students from their own disciplines only, also that they should be more frequently supervised to enable them received enough corrections before final gradings are made. The researcher recommended that; the co-operating teachers whose classes are usually taken over by the student teachers should physically witness every lesson delivered by the student teachers. This will enable proper guidance to be made. Also, that supervising teachers preferably should come from same disciplines as the student teachers. Finally, it is recommended that the evaluation sheets should be made available, at least for a glance to the student teachers for maximum corrections to be made.
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