relevant instruments. According to research Wasty (2003) the introduction of a person to the results or the progress of learning is important, because by knowing the results that have been achieved then the students will be more trying to improve learning outcomes. Students at school follow the learning process to gain knowledge and skills, as seen from the three domains of the cognitive domain; affective domain and psychomotor domain, generated within a certain period, and assessed as a form of measurement of the success of the learning process. to produce high student achievement, hence required existence of various effort done one of them by increasing interest and motivation learn student at school, process of learning which have been arranged well without any interest and motivation learn student hence process of learning will be hampered, will result in a low learning achievement as well. Indicators of students with a high learning interest can be identified through the learning process in the classroom or at home (Safari, 2003). Students who have an interest in a particular subject tend to give greater attention to an object (Slameto, 2010). Added also by Djamarah and Zain (2010) mentions interest in learning tends to produce high achievement, otherwise less interest in learning will result in low learning achievement. Similarly motivation, motivation is seen as a mental impulse that moves and directs human behavior, including learning behavior (Dimyati and Mudjiono, 2010). So that with the motivation in students will affect the attitude of a student about what should be done in the implementation of the learning process, students who have the motivation to select which activities should be done and which activities that do not need to be done, it gives a big influence
The benefits of multimedia both in daily life and in learning vary greatly, including: (1) Displaying objects that cannot be seen directly; (2) Showing rare phenomena through images; (3) Showing demonstrations that can be witnessed by many people; (4) Showing objects in three dimensions. Kerawalla, Luckin, Seljeflot, and Woolard (2006) said augmented reality has the ability to make students more dedicated and motivated in exploring sources of knowledge with the real environment from a variety of new perspectives. Chang, Morreale, and Medicherla (2010) mentioned that augmented reality many studies have revealed augmented reality contributes to increasing student motivation in learning. Following are the stages of using AR in learning:
In different words, these students, as a entire, on the face of it had token forces that opposed the aims or instructions of their lecturers with regard to their tutorial achievement. They seemed to spend token effort or force to realize tasks. There‘s less reliance on the teacher-student interaction for motivation. Might or not it's that several of those students could also be additional conditioned to success? Their angle towards action may be natural supported the learning of their environments. Maybe there's no doubt concerning their achievement; it's merely expected as the norm and not the exception.
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supporting the ongoing students’ learning process. The achievement, discipline and learning facilities motivation in schools are expected to influence the improvement of learning outcome to be reached by students in school. Learning outcome can be defined as the result achieved by a student after attending the teaching and learning activities within a certain period or after completing a particular program. Senior High School (SMA) Yadika 5 implements a high-level discipline, but achievement and discipline motivations as well as learning facilities motivation in schools for students do not always 100% support the improvement of student learning outcome. Motivation is thought to be less in SMA Yadika 5, especially achievement motivation. The discipline in SMA Yadika 5 is also a selling point as a private school, so parents are willing to send their children to Senior High School Yadika 5, but the data indicates that the students’ presence is still in under 100%. The average attendance is 96.95%, it is still below the standard stipulated by the AbdiKarya Foundation (No. II: Student Obligations, item 5 on the attendance must be above 98%, and when it refers attendance regulation in SMA Yadika 5, it has the absence limit or it has a guideline on the absence limit of 12 times and also refers to the absence rule of ≥ 5% in one Senior High School (SMA), which is a Rayon of West Jakarta, by looking at the result of the above recapitulation, then students have not 100% motivated 100% to attend and make achievement. The availability of adequate learning facilities and infrastructure is to support the learning process of the Curriculum 13 implementation. The data on learning facilities satisfaction in high school Yadika 5 is on average 4.12 from Likert scale of 5, but the achievement of student learning outcome is under Minimum Completion Criteria (KKM) 75.
In this work we investigate cohesion as a non- intrusive measure of motivation for natural language dialog based ITS. As defined more precisely below, our measure of cohesion quantifies lexical and se- mantic similarity between tutor and student dialog utterances. We hypothesize that this measure of lexi- cal similarity may be related to motivation in part be- cause other measures of dialog similarity have been shown to be related to task success. For example, there is evidence that perceived similarity between a student’s own speech rate and that of a recorded task request increases the student’s feelings of immedi- acy, which are in turn linked to greater compliance with the request to perform a task (Buller and Aune, 1992). 1 In addition, Ward and Litman (2006; 2008)
positive feedback may improve this perceived deficiency. In addition, Harter (1992) theorized about a direct relationship between competence (as depicted in SDT) and mastery-orientations. In her model, students begin with a natural mastery urge, which results in behaviours. These behaviours are then given feedback from various sources, which when combined with the students’ affective response culminates in the students’ perceived competence. This competence assessment then informs the students’ motivational orientation moving forward. As a result, during the feedback stage in this model, aspects of autonomy (the context in which feedback is given), competency (the type of feedback that is provided), and relatedness (the way in which feedback is provided) play a direct role in the motivational orientation that the student will take to the learning process. There is ample reason to believe that research and theory involving implicit views about ability fit nicely with SDT. By integrating these literatures we see that useful feedback regarding effort is likely to promote self-determined motivation for tasks, which ultimately encourages
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the preparation of tests prepared carefully and tightly and codified . Baker tested the link between academic motivation types to academic performance . One of the cognitive theories that has received attention is Self- Determination Theory, Deci and Ryan posit a theory of self- determination as a theory it is a powerful alternative to one- dimensional motivation studies, where one of the reasons behind individual behavior is that it can be arranged in connection with the self-report . At the end of the day there is an intrinsic internal motivation the same, which includes the values motivation, which is the most motivated image of the report behaviors because of the inherent pleasure and satisfaction, and the second type of motivation is external motivation. Motivation Extrinsic which expresses participation and involvement in the activity of the door. Activity, and there are multiple patterns of external motivation, varying in the level of the respective reports, ranging from a stable level of self-report to a level of self- report and fewer external motivation regulation external, which includes self-conduct is the motivation for external regulation in order to obtain reward or avoid punishment, the second form of external motivation is organization to what it dictates unconscious regulation Interjected which is known to participate in an activity based on the environment is one of the elements that have been fed so that it has become part of a self-assessed part of the structure itself. Niemiec and Ryan has claimed that Self-Determined Theory is greatest essential in education . Attribution theory also explain the inner motivation for student to education. This theory is one of the most common and exciting theories of recent studies and research in the field of motivation and address the causes of individual success
included ‗the physical environment, instructional arrangements, and social interaction‖. It is interesting to note that all these variables might influence motivation in the learning of the English language. In particular, the studies reviewed showed that English teachers‘ motivational practice could increase students‘ motivation. It was also discovered that classroom atmosphere might be positively correlated with L2 learners‘ motivation. The study conducted in Nigeria by Ajibade and Ndububa (2008) revealed that the use of games; songs; and stories might also influence motivation in English language. However, up until now, according to Nagmeh (2012), there is no agreement among researchers on the superiority of one type of instructional strategy over the other. In fact, the findings of a study conducted by Lamb (2007) even contradicted that of a previous study done on a similar subject in the same context. Several factors as enumerated above are supportive of the urgent need for student motivation in the study of English in Ghanaian schools, in view of the perennial poor performance of students in the English language. Much has been said and done, yet little is accomplished, hence, the present study will conduct extensive inquiry into the role of student motivation in higher academic achievement in the English language.
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orientation subsection, is computed to determine each individual‟s score within that domain. The questionnaire was designed to be administered in a classroom setting and is estimated to take 20-30 minutes to complete. Results from a study exploring the reliability and predictive validity of the MSLQ revealed “the [MSLQ] has relatively good reliability in terms of internal consistency… the subscales represent a coherent conceptual and empirically validated framework for assessing student motivation and use of learning strategies in the college classroom” ( Pintrich et al., 1993, p. 811). For these reasons the MSLQ was used in this research inquiry to assess motivational orientations and learning strategies employed by students while comparing these results to those of the CPGI-R, in order to deduce whether there is no relationship between academic motivation and the level of gambling activity of students.
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According to Pintrich & Schunk (1998), the aspects of motivation includes (1) choice of tasks which is the selection of tasks carried out by students indicating that students are motivated by the task. It is indicated by certain instances such as (a) students are interested in participating in activities, (b) students choose to do learning tasks according to their abilities, (c) students are able to take advantage of free time to do useful activities. (2) The effort which is related to the efforts or attempt made by students in facing the obstacles. These efforts can be physical activities and cognitive activities. Students who are motivated to learn will make efforts and employ strategies during learning. These strategies are the repetition of information, evaluating the level of understanding and connecting new material to initial knowledge ( Sedaghat et al., 2011; Chuang, 2014 ). Students believe that the employment of strategies will improve student learning and solve problems. (3) Persistence is the resilience of students in carrying out activities or completing tasks and focusing attention in-depth by means of; (a) students are diligent in completing work, (b) students are not easily discouraged in facing obstacles, (c) students learn longer on a challenging task (Jang, 2008). (4) Achievement relates to student achievement or satisfactory perception in learning, students who complete the task by trying and being persistent tend to perform at a higher level (Wentzel & Wigfield, 2013; Lai, 2011; Jones, 2009). Based on the above-mentioned explanation, the aspect that is used as a measurement instrument in this study to understand academic motivation are the choice of tasks, effort and persistence, and achievement which are developed by (Pintrich & Schunk, 1998).
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Orientating oneself to time and work for the future is considered a substantive compo- nent of the autoregulative process. It is also important to students´ mental regulation, which is closely related to academic success. The factor of time in human life has been approached in psychology in a variety of ways. We will focus primarily on those concepts which study time and detect time patterns in motivational dynamics of personality. The concepts of Joel O. Ray- nor, Torgrim Gjesme, Joseph R. Nuttin and Philip G. Zimbardo will be mentioned. Of Czech authors, the “perspective orientation” by Isabella Pavelková is presented. We will discuss diagnostic methods used in the measurement of time perspective, especially the Motivation Induction Method (MIM – J.R. Nuttin). Secondly, we will present selected researches that have been carried out in this fi eld in the Czech Republic. These studies are focused primarily on issues related to the identifi cation, development, and opportunities of internal assump- tions conditioning the character and quality of an individual´s future.
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attitudes towards math. They have already formed opinions and attitudes about their math abilities, and they have experienced math and the struggles of math for many years at this point in their lives. However, surprisingly, in a one-week period eleven students changed their feelings towards the challenge of math. Based on the exit tickets and surveys, it appears that many students are able to use problem-solving strategies. These findings may help to explain the reason why eleven fewer students agreed with the statement, “I hate the challenge of math,” on the post survey. If students were taught problem-solving strategies in the beginning of the year, and those strategies were reinforced throughout the year, I believe that the number of students who hate the challenge of math may decrease even more. Learning problem-solving strategies and when to use them should be a regular part of student learning. It is possible that learning problem-solving strategies helped the students see math not as a challenge to be detested, but as a challenge to be embraced.
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The first of the unifying assumptions is that motivation benefits adaptation (Reeve, 2008). Humans live in changing situations which offer opportunities and risks. In the face of constant environmental change, people need to preserve their well-being; they need to adapt. Motivation supplies humans with the resources that help them survive in such cases. The state of motivation in response to a particular situation can be both positive and negative, affecting the way people adapt. For example, students controlled by instructors, administrators, and parents might feel incapable of inner motivation and give up easily when faced with learning challenges. In contrast, giving students more autonomy and freedom of choice yields more will to initiate inner motivations, set goals, and show more persistence towards difficult learning tasks.
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It is substantiated that the most students motivate their educational activity with the desire to become a highly skilled specialist, to ensure the success of future professional activities, to acquire deep and solid knowledge, to obtain intellectual satisfaction and receive a diploma. The dominance of internal incentives to study in students before external ones is indicated. There is described the attitude of respondents to knowledge, development, education as an average by value in term of the goals that should be sought, and ways of acting in any situation. The average level of expression of the need to know of respondents is highlighted. The high motivational component of studentʼs readiness for self-education is substantiated: the dominance of a positive attitude towards the chosen profession, an understanding of its requirements and its abilities, an awareness of the importance of improvement in activity, cognitive interest, the presence of a responsibility, the ability to set goals and make efforts for its achievement, to plan its activities. The prospects for organizing the educational process in universities are outlined, taking into account the identified peculiarities of the motivation of learning modern students: creating an atmosphere that support the internal motivation of learning, helping to obtain intellectual satisfaction from the learning process and stimulating to constant self-development in the chosen profession.
Motivation to learn for the satisfaction of mastery can be enhanced when the teacher models an enthusiasm for learning and for the specific topic, presents material clearly, interacts with the students, and directly teaches the content. Teacher–student interaction (both social and academic) is effective in building motivation to learn (Wang, Haertel, & Walberg, 1993), especially when combined with an expectation for student self-direction and self-management of learning toward clear objectives. When teachers exhibit the right blend of caring and Promoting Learning in Rural Schools expectation, showing that the teacher knows the student and thinks there is something special about him or her, students respond positively. Teacher enthusiasm is more than pep talks and theatrics. The teacher’s delight in learning and expressed interest in the topic convey a genuine message that learning is important. All students, but especially at-risk students, whether rural or urban, do better with teachers who: „„ share warm, personal interactions with them but also hold high expectations for their academic progress, „„ require them to perform up to their capabilities, and „„ see that they progress as far and as fast as they are able.
may feel a lessened sense of self-efficacy for completing a term paper for a fourth year undergraduate class. Student achievement has been linked to higher levels of self-efficacy (Wood & Locke, 1987; Lampert, 2007), and academic success can lead to increased levels of self-efficacy when attributed to stable factors (Bong, 2004). Academic self- efficacy can also have an effect on “academic grades (Elias & Loomis, 2000; Lent, Brown, & Larkin, 1986), academic major selection (Betz & Hackett, 1983), academic major persistence (Lent, Brown, & Larkin, 1984), and academic motivation (Bandura, 1977)” (Elias & MacDonald, 2007, p. 2520). Elias and Loomis (2000) also noted that self-efficacy is related to reading and writing achievements and that higher self-efficacy in a subject field is related to picking a major and persisting at that major. Academic self- efficacy has also been related to classroom performance, levels of stress, health and satisfaction, as well as a commitment to stay in school through perceived future demand (coping) and expectations of being able to perform in the future (Chemers, Hu, & Garcia, 2001).
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Student-teachers’ perceptions were confirmed through the elaborated answers included in the mid-term exams. Student-teachers’ texts showed development in paragraph build and use of specific terminology. They also constructed answers based on more than one reading text and moved from descriptive summary-like texts to analytical pieces. Nevertheless, mistakes at the level of subject-verb agreement, order of clause constituents (e.g. verb + direct object + adverbial phrase), and spelling remained (SA2). This could be assessed as a sign of content-driven language development, ie, the student-teachers could produce complex answers because of the motivation generated by the content they wished to write about (E17).
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Participatory or collaborative involvement with key stakeholders is considered important as evaluations respond to their needs and generate findings for use (Patton, 2008). Patton (2008) emphasised stakeholder participation through involvement from commencement to completion. Researchers strive for optimal involvement and consensual participation; however, they may find the research context reality often does not meet the original expectation (Cornwall & Jewkes, 1995). Mabry (2010) outlines the intrinsic difficulties of this as “those who promote attention to the values of stakeholders beyond those of program managers or funders…often refer optimistically to the importance of building consensus…[can find]…the diversity of stakeholder interests may be irreconcilable” (p. 84). Research, programme and evaluation contexts are complex and have been referred to as messy (Patton, 2008). Change may be the only constant over the course of an evaluation. Continuity of stakeholder participation with evaluations is an issue that Patton (2008) identifies as the “Achilles’ heel” (p. 566) particularly for utilization‐focused evaluation. Over the course of an evaluation, staff change. This is often due to resignations or role variation, change of commitments or motivation and limitations with availability to participate in the process. Planning stakeholder involvement requires consideration of these and other evaluation bounds such as time, resources and funding. Polit and Beck (2012) found researchers’ adherence to a research design may present some difficulty. Modification may be the resolution required to respond to changes in the research context.
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Bandura (2001) explains “people are self-organizing, proactive, self-reflecting, and self-regulating, not just reactive organisms shaped and shepherded by environmental events or inner forces…human self-development, adaptation, and change are embedded in social systems” (p. 266). Bandura uses a framework of triadic reciprocality to explain how human behavior, cognitive factors, and environmental influences all interact in a reciprocal fashion to drive function (Bandura, 2001). Inherent within Bandura’s theories on motivation is the influence of self-efficacy, the more a student believes they can achieve something, that they are capable of success, the more likely success will follow (Zimmerman, 2000). “Children may come to believe either that their talents and abilities are largely fixed (a fixed mindset) or that they can be developed (a growth mindset)” (Dweck, 2017, p. 698). Dweck goes on to say these mindsets are predictors of behavior, “such as the selection versus avoidance of challenging tasks, and persistence versus withdrawal in the face of difficulty” (2017, p. 698). According to Zimmerman (2000), students who have a stronger belief in their ability to succeed, will work more diligently and persist longer in a course while also being able to overcome difficulties when compared to students who doubt their potential success.
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Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. 2003 data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) were used to examine the achievement of private school students, which is similar to a recent study examining Canadian public school children’s academic achievement (Wei, Clifton, & Roberts, 2011). The current study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the students’ morale, motivation, interest in mathematics, expected education, the effort invested in doing well on the PISA test, and socioeconomic status were significantly and positively related to their academic performance. Surprisingly, the cost of their tuition fees, reported hours spent on math homework, sense of belonging, and higher ratio of instructional time on mathematics were significantly, but negatively, related to the students’ math performance.
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