Due to the mandatory shutdown in March 2020, many projects were put on hold. There were rare exceptions in the case of some government jobs and low-income housing projects, but most construction projects were shut down for weeks. Because of this order, many companies including Swinerton Builders, had their employees work from home. All ten of the project engineers/managers interviewed worked from home due to the shelter-in-place order. The duration of time they worked from home varied between one week and three months. The effects on productivity from working from home vary from person to person because everyone has a different home situation. For example, some employees have kids to take care of while others do not. When asked if working from home was more or less productive for them, the responses were about equal. Six of the ten said they were more productive working from home, while four of them said they were less productive.
The case of the Norwegian municipal health service Measured in man-labour years, the municipal health services in Norway are larger than the hospital sectors. Both of these sectors are growing rapidly due to an increasingly older population. Neither Norwegian nor international research provides a thorough picture of the relationship between life expectancy, disabilities and need for nursing services. The municipal health service has a flat organizational structure, and low power distance [12,15]. The Norwegian municipalities get their income from tax revenues, state transfers and fee income from users. Several health service sections have been transferred from regional to local authorities in Norway. The health service is mainly a public service in Norway. Emphasis is laid on a discretionary control of services, with managers who have considerable freedom to make decisions [16,17]. However, the municipal health service has very few man- agers and many employees compared with other occupa- tions (1 per 70-80), and provides its services around the clock, every week of the year. The municipal health service is also characterized by its work complexity, a high level of sick leave among staff, and new technology. Furthermore, the sector has a small number of personnel with higher education, and a high number of early retirements [12,18-21]. Previous research state that nurses in the municipal health services receive less additional training than those who work in hospitals [22,23].
Simply, the study points to the fact that, PA has effects on employees’ performance. This result corroborate with several authors namely (, , , ) and so forth. In the case of , they held the opinion that, PA has always led to establishing performance standards for employees.  on the hand believed PA assists employees understand the scope of their roles based on the job description leading to employees realizing what precisely is expected of them. According to , there is careful selection of the suitable methods of measurement through the evaluation process.  reiterate the fact that, PA helps in the administration of wages and salaries based on the performance feedback which helps in discovering individual employee’s strengths and weaknesses in the work situation.
The public sector in Kenya is going through profound restructuring in the face of financial constraints that force the sector to encourage employees to appreciate appraisal systems for enhancement of productivity. In this respect, one of the most popular tools used in the contemporary productivity enhancement programme is the application of performanceappraisal systems. However, since appraising is considered to be a particularly controversial management practice anywhere it is being practiced, its influence in the public sector faces numerous challenges and obstacles. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of performanceappraisal system on employee. The study was guided by the specific objective namely; - to determine the influence of training, to establish the influence of promotion, to examine the influence of remuneration and to find out the influence of discipline on employee productivity. The study hoped that it would provide valuable information to management that would assist management in ensuring that performance is more than ability and motivation. The theories included; goal setting theory, learning and training and evaluation theory, agency theory and expectance theory respectfully. Content analysis was used to calculate qualitative data while descriptive analysis was used to calculate mean, frequencies and percentage. A casestudy was adopted due to the nature of the study and because it would enable an in-depth analysis of the study phenomenon. The target population was 90 and a saturadete sampling method was adopted. Questionnaires were used to collect data and was analyzed and presented through tables and charts. The researcher used both qualitative and quantities techniques in analyzing the data. The researcher selected a pilot group of 10 individuals to test the reliability. Validity test was done on 5 participants. Cronbach’s Alpha was calculated and come as 0.956 for part II and III and 0.903 for part IV and V. The findings from the study established that majority of employees felt that the performanceappraisal system was not the best tool in measuring performance. It also established that training, promotion; discipline and remuneration had an influence on staff performance and hence enhanced their productivity. It is essential therefore to train and develop people for effective performance. Promotion influences the perception of the employees about fairness in the organization, while remuneration that is not visible to the employee may fail to get desired motivating effect. Organization still need to have displinary procedure, whether formal or informal, that carries successively stiffer penalties for repeated or for most serious offenses.
This research adopted a descriptive research design. Descriptive research design is used in cases where researcher expects to have target group explain or describe certain issues about important variables of the study. According to Mugenda and Mugenda (2003) it is important and appropriate to use data where subjects are observed in either natural set ups without manipulating the environment. It can be used when collecting information about people’s attitudes and opinions. It is an efficient way to obtain information needed to describe the attitudes, opinions and views of employees in the financial sector in view of performanceappraisal quality and the effect on performance. The target population in the research was management employees of investment management firms who are 347. The management employees are chosen since they are the one conversant with how performanceappraisal quality affects performance of employees in the firm. From the population frame the required number of subjects, respondents, elements or firms was selected in order to make a sample. A sample population of 182 is arrived at by calculating the target population of 347 with a 95% confidence level and an error of 0.05
With the passage of time, the significance of employee productivity has been increasing towards the overall organisational performance. Employees are considered to be amongst one of the most important assets of companies as their contributions are immense for the achievement of business objectives. Elnaga and Imran (2013) stated that human resources (HR) are highly expensive but are integral to manage as they directly influence the revenues and profit levels of organisations. According to the study of Aktar et al (2012), the perceived job performance is associated with multiple factors including work environment, organisational policies, interpersonal relationships, and training and development. There is a variety of methods to improve performance of employees. It is important to note that increasing competition in the business environments make employees performance a very crucial factor towards success or failure of companies
one is being assertive and ambitious is highly valued therefore performanceappraisal is focused on the individual and what they can do, while in Asian, Nigeria and other African countries culture there is strong collectivism in terms of hierarchy and acceptance of authority so accountability and open confrontation are likely to be seen as inappropriate. Another aspect is the gender differences in the Nigerian banking sector, According to William and Bedward (2001), there is no difference between male and female in problem solving abilities, analytical skill, competitive drive, motivation and learning ability and it was observed that women are more eager to obey the rules and have expectations of success than men. Recently in Nigeria there has been significant change in terms of the increase in female participation rate in the work force and a rethinking of what composes male and female roles which confirms what William earlier stated that there is no significance difference in male and female in job productivity while Iyiola (2011) shows there is a relationship between gender culture and performance in the Nigerian banking industry. Therefore it is necessary for organisations to create realistic pathways for effective utilization of all human resources.
Eliphaz et al. (2017) they discovered a relationship quite significant and positive that exist between performanceappraisal and employee productivity. while the coefficients of training (TRA) and employee compensation (EMC) were found statistically insignificant at 10 per cent level of significance as indicated by their probability values of 0.499 and 0.460 respectively. The result is in line with the finding with of Audu and Timothy (2014) whose study was on effect of human resource training and development on productivity in hospitality industry in Nigeria. The coefficients of all the variables of this study were positively signed and in consistent with the theoretical expectation of the study. This result therefore, implied that as PFA, EFB, TRA and EMC increases by 1 percent, the employee productivity will increase by 0.047, 0.721, 0.108 and 0.140 percent respectively. The F-change 28.5576, which measured the joint significance of the parameter estimates, was found statistically significant at 1 per cent level as indicated by the corresponding probability value of 0.000. This implies that all the variables of the model were jointly and statistically significant in affecting the employee productivity in the Federal Ministry of Education. The R 2 value of 0.687 percent implied that 68 percent total variation in employee productivity was explained by PFA,
Once a receiver is appointed, he has an obligation to pay all expenses incurred in the conduct of his duties as the receiver. One of these expenses, and usually the most critical, is employee salaries. The receiver is also mandated to pay the salaries out of the assets coming into his hands before distributing such proceeds for the benefit of the debenture holder. Once the employees are assured of their salaries, their motivation and productivity sees an improvement. Mbiyu (2009) states that employee productivity and morale improved markedly following the appointment of receivers for Uchumi Supermarkets Limited after the receivers assured the employees that they would receive their compensation on time every month. This is attributed to the sense of calm assurance the appointment of receivers brought against the backdrop of the uncertainty of a company in cash flow turmoil. The employees were assured a timely salary at the end of every month unlike previously when salaries would be late.
Leadership is of utmost importance in every institution or organization because of its far-reaching effects on the accomplishment of objectives and organisational growth. It is believed that effective functioning of social systems is largely dependent on the quality of leadership. Leadership behavior of managers has been consistently associated with employee output; and leadership styles of individual managers are powerful predictors of the organizational effectiveness. People, therefore get excited about the topic of leadership. They want to know what makes a great leader, has leadership any impact on organizational performance and personal career success, and what leadership style works? The study was about leadership styles of organizations and their relationship with employee output and the overall organisational productivity. The researcher adopted Convenience and Purposive Sampling methods to collect both qualitative and quantitative data in order to achieve the research objectives. In total, forty (40) respondents were used for the study. The findings revealed that leadership is an important ingredient for high performance. It also came out that the leadership style that involves the subordinates in decision making is the leadership that works. In addition, the study revealed that leadership enhances the competencies and relations, and also help increase employees output. In conclusion, leadership will continue to be an important tool that provides competitive advantage for every organisation, in that it makes employees efficient and effective. The kind of leadership style managers exhibit to an extent determines how confident and motivated an employee will be in performing his duties. Indeed a good leader is a motivator. Finally the researcher recommends that organisations develop long-term strategies to train the workforce especially in leadership styles, to create an enabling environment for career development for employees in order to give of their best.
Providing them access to mobile financial services will involve difficult implementation that is unlikely to succeed quickly. In addition to extending financial services to the poor, mobile money is expected to improve productivity by increasing the efficiency and lowering the cost of transactions, improving security, generating new employment opportunities, and creating a platform on which other businesses can grow. Mobile money could transform financial inclusion. “Where most financial inclusion models have employed either ‘credit-led’ or ‘savings-led’ approaches, the M-PESA experience suggests that there may be a third approach - focusing on building the payment ‘rails’ on which a broader set of financial services can ride,” (Mas and Radcliffe 2010). As illustrated in the next section, while benefits from the simple diffusion of an improved infrastructural “rail” are significant, even greater impact arises because mobile money systems can serve as a platform for additional innovations, whether they be bill payment services that avoid lengthy queue times or more striking examples such as efficient conditional cash transfers for drought relief or compensation. In places where no financial infrastructure exists, this type of change is truly transformational.
Licensed under Creative Common Page 322 performance according to the respondents was that the organization understands its focus and mandate (Mean=4.3158, SD=.79170 and CV=18%) with the least influential focus strategy on performance was pointed out as that the organization always reviews changes in the niche market (Mean=3.8923, SD=.73922 and CV=19%). The findings imply that focus as a competitive strategy is practiced by the Manufacturing firms to high extent in order to enhance the competitive advantage. Firms that succeed in a focus strategy are able to tailor a broad range of product development strengths to a relatively narrow market segment that they know very well. Furthermore, it may be fairly easy for a broad-market cost leader to adapt its product in order to compete directly and more importantly other focusers may be able to carve out sub- segments that they can serve even better.
directly impact achievement of their objectives. ‘Part C – Periodic Reviews’ set up reviews of employee objectives and essentials with their manager several times throughout the year. This enables them to know how they are progressing in both areas and allow time to adjust if necessary. ‘Part D – Annual Review’ take place at the end of the year. Here the manager first evaluate each objective and essential, noting results in Parts A and B of the PDP Form, and then review overall performance and document in Part D. It is important to note here that the manager's overall review of an employee's, performance will be an important, but not the only, element in making compensation decisions. ‘Part E – Development Plan’ is to develop knowledge, skills and behaviors that will enable an employee to be successful in their current position, as well as prepare them for future roles to which they aspire. In this part they look at how they can leverage their strengths to achieve their current goals and plan how to address development needs. ‘Part F – Development Plan Periodic Reviews’ is there to review their progress on their development plan several times a year with their objectives and Leadership Essentials. ‘Part G – Development Annual Review’ is to take place at the end of the year and may take place at the same time as the review of their objectives and Leadership Essentials or at a separate time if an employee and their manager prefer. Here too, it is important to get customer input to help them assess how they are progressing on their development. However this review does not impact their compensation. In addition to that PDP process, directors and above have to pass under 360 degree feedback systems.
Non measurable activities like to attending to clients well, answering phones with courtesy and providing excellent services should be incorporated into performanceappraisal. In the event of an appraisees transfer, promotion or reassignment of duties, the performance should be assessed on a pro rata basis. Upward appraisal should also be integrated into PAS to allow appraisees give feedback on whether there were any helpful discussions, effective guidance, leadership and direction and cordial relations between the supervisor and appraise during the period under review. The form should have a section allowing for either reward or sanction since this should be the end result of appraisal. The reward may be some days leave, training or even financial and must be approved by the authorized officer. On the other hand, poor performance may be sanctioned by either a warning or in extreme cases, suspension or dismissal.
Additionally, a simple attribute stating the presence of sulfides, without determining the kind of sulfidic mineral was included in the model. Another aspect of ore composition that affects the process design is the presence of clay; hence an attribute Clay present was included in the system. Clay minerals reduce the gold dissolution rates, whether directly associated with the gold, or just present in the ore. Clays tend to hinder the cyanidation process for example by forming impermeable coatings over the surface of the gold which develop after grinding (Gasparrini, 1993). Gold grain size distribution is often described rather vaguely in literature with terms such as “Fine grains”. It was however included in the model, despite the possible loss of information related to its modelling. The liberation characteristics of all valuable minerals affect the processing methods, but gold was seen as the most defining, and therefore the attribute Gold distribution was formulated to model the mode of gold occurrence as either “Free” or “Enclosed in mineral”.
Gold mineral type, referring to the most general description of the ore, such as ‘‘Free milling” or ‘‘Silver rich”, and gold concentra- tion, or Gold ore grade, were relatively straightforward to model into attributes. Other valuable minerals, such as silver, were not seen being as characterising as gold with regards to process design and profitability. Overall mineralogical composition is also impor- tant, but significantly more complicated to model into attributes. However, some minerals are more influential than others. The flowsheet design is significantly different for sulfidic gold ores compared to other types, such as free milling ores, because sulfides consume cyanide during leaching. Therefore, three mineral attri- butes were selected to describe the sulfidic mineralogy of the ore: Arsenic sulfide, Copper sulfide, and Iron sulfide. Additionally, a simple attribute stating the presence of sulfides, without determin- ing the kind of sulfidic mineral was included in the model. Another aspect of ore composition that affects the process design is the presence of clay; hence, an attribute Clay present was included in the system. Clay minerals reduce the gold dissolution rates, whether directly associated with the gold, or just present in the ore. Clays tend to hinder the cyanidation process for example by forming impermeable coatings over the surface of the gold which develop after grinding (Gasparrini, 1993). Gold grain size distribu- tion is often described rather vaguely in literature with terms such as ‘‘Fine grains”. It was however included in the model, despite the possible loss of information related to its modelling. The liberation characteristics of all valuable minerals affect the processing meth- ods, but gold was seen as the most defining. Therefore, the attri- bute Gold distribution was formulated to model the mode of gold occurrence as either ‘‘Free” or ‘‘Enclosed in mineral”.
generally conducted by the Human Resource Management department. Performanceappraisal does not only serve as a way to measure an employee’s performance in the workplace based on preset standards that the company has in place in the first place. Performanceappraisal also allows to identify which area in his/her performance that is lacking, and the HR department will be able to recommend possible improvements or training necessary to the direct supervisor of the employee that is appraised or evaluated.
The present study focuses on PA in municipal health service in Norway, and how agreement between participation, satisfaction, exchange and achievement in PA can get more learning in groups than in individual PA conversations. Groups can simply be defined as “two or more persons who are interacting with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each any of the other person”(Guzzo. 1986; Shaw, 1981). Small groups have a number of advantages. It is easier in practical terms to come together. Each release to the discussions and process loss will be lower. The fewer one is in a group the less expertise in the team (Hjertǿ).
noted previously, research has suggested that tendencies for leniency are a relatively stable rater characteristic over time (Kane et al. 1995 ). Following the approach employed by Kane et al. ( 1995 ), we were able to estimate the extent to which supervisors’ rating tendencies (i.e., mean task performance ratings) from the past, were associated with their subsequent ratings of a different set of ratees. The results indicated that these previous rating tendencies explained an additional 19 % of the between-rater variability, but did not explain contextual variation. This is noteworthy, in that a supervisor’s mean tendency seems to account for about one-fifth of the rater effect, after controlling for ratee-level characteristics. Although several previous studies suggested an association between performance ratings and supervisory experience (Landy and Farr 1980 ; Spence and Keeping 2010 ; Zalesny and Highhouse 1992 ), as well as span of control (O’Neill et al. 2012 ), our data did not support a link between these characteristics and rating behavior. However, findings regarding these particular rater variables have been mixed, as other researchers also did not find a significant relationship (Judge and Ferris 1993 ; Klores 1966 ; LaHuis and Avis 2007 ). The mixed results across studies suggest that other factors may moderate the extent to which supervisory experience and span of control predict ratings. For example, the previously cited study which found a relationship between the number of ratees evaluated and supervisor ratings (O’Neill et al. 2012 ) used a “relative” appraisal approach (Goffin et al. 2009 ), therefore it may be that span of control is only influential when explicitly making comparisons among ratees. In addition, our measure of supervisory tenure was a within- organization, time-based operationalization, so supervisory experience may be more meaningful when considering other definitions of experience (e.g., amount or density; Tesluk and Jacobs