SS rarely occurs in unusual sites including: the head and neck region [6,7], mediastinum , larynx and hy- popharynx , nerves , blood vessels [11,12], heart , abdominal cavity , gastrointestinal tract [15-23] and liver [24,25]. In routine activity it may be difficult to distinguish SS occurring in the digestive tract from other mesenchymal neoplasms, mainly GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumour). However, this distinction is crucial to ensure a correct therapeutic approach. Here we report the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and mo- lecular genetic data of fifteen cases of SS occurring in the digestive system. We aim to improve knowledge on this entity and stress the importance of correct differen- tial diagnosis for appropriate therapeutic management.
histopathology’s identifies the characteristics of GISTs (spindle cells in 70-80%, epitheloid aspect in 20- 30%). Smaller tumours can usually be found to the muscular is propria layer of the intestinal wall. Large ones grow, mainly outward, from the bowel wall until the point where they outstrip their blood supply and necrose (die) on the inside, forming a cavity that may eventually come to communicate with the bowel lumen. Digestive system cancer occurs in 10-20 per one million people. The true incidence might be higher, as novel laboratory methods are much more sensitive in diagnosing digestive system. In all, there are approximately 3500-5000 cases of digestive system per year in the United States. This makes digestive system the most common form of sarcoma, which constitutes more than 70 types of
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the flexibility of RMR, or (2) quail do not lose their flexible RMR, but our experimental conditions did not meet the requirements necessary to elicit a reduced RMR in adults. If flexible responses to changes in diet are condition dependent, we may hypothesize that well-fed quail simply use their adipose tissue stores to fuel the flexible responses of their gastrointestinal tract. That way, they tolerate a temporarily negative energy budget for a few days but they keep their RMR constant. If, however, quail were in a poor condition, they might have no fuel for the flexible responses and might have to reduce energy expenditure to other organ systems, thus reducing their RMR. Both ideas need to be tested before final conclusions can be drawn. Condition dependency of metabolic response is indirectly supported by a study of emperor Aptenodytes forsteri and king penguins A. patagonicus, which reduce RMR only after extended fasting periods before entering starvation, characterized by mobilization of body protein (Groscolas and Cherel, 1992). Also, Klaassen and Biebach (1994) showed that garden warblers Sylvia borin reduce RMR during starvation.
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The wall of the different regions of the digestive tract is made up of four layers. In stomodaeum and proctodaeum there is outer circular layer, followed by longitudinal muscle layer and epithelium resting on the basement membrane with the inner chitinous lining, the intima but in the region of the mesenteron the outer layer consists of longitudinal muscles followed by circular muscles and epithelium, the intima is not present in this region. The stomodaeum is differentiated into pharynx, oesophagus, crop and proventriculus. In all the grasshoppers under study the spines or bristles are entirely absent on the chitinous intima of the pharynx. The spines are absent on the intima of oesophageal region in Poeciloceruspictus. The histological structure of the crop of all the grasshoppers under study reveals that the chitinous intima lines and all the longitudinal folds are devoid of spines or bristles.
The potential mutagenic properties of BB were determined by the Ames test. The effect of reverse mutation in altered Salmonella typhimurium strains (unable to synthesise histidine) was tested. In the present study, BB (100–300 µg DM/ml) did not ex- ert any mutagenic or promutagenic effects on all strains used (Table 1). There were no differences in the number of revertants induced by BB com- pared to spontaneous revertants. Additionally, the mutagenic activity was estimated to be lower than or equal to 0.5, when the mutagenic activity of the reference mutagens and 2-AA was higher than 3. The only study which focused on mutagenicity of bilberry was the test that examined Myrtocyan ® , a
The term includes over 20 species which commonly referred to sturgeon and several closely related species that have distinct common names, notably sterlet, kaluga, and beluga (Holcik and Mihlik, 1970). The Persian sturgeon has an elongated, bulky body with a bluish tint. This type of sturgeon is endemic in the Caspian Sea and Black Sea but primarily resides in the Caspian Sea. Populations may also occur in tributaries and rivers inbound to the Caspian Sea (Perevaryukha, 2001). Sturgeons are commercially important fish valued for their meat but mainly for their roe. Formerly omnipresent in the region, heavy fishing of the sturgeon for caviar has forced it to “endangered species” status. The Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) is an endangered species of sturgeon. This makes specific studies on any type of sturgeons more important than before. Studies like histological studies, radiology, and ultrasonography, all require a complete understanding of the anatomy of this fish. Since pilot studies showed some misconceptions in description of the sturgeon digestive system, this study was performed to evaluate more precise the anatomical structure of the digestive system of
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SLC12A5 was significantly overexpressed in colon cancer tissue (78/191, 40.8%). Overexpression of SLC12A5 can promote cell proliferation, G1/S cell cycle transition and inva- sion, and suppress the in vitro apoptosis of colon cancer cells. In vivo study showed that SLC12A5 overexpression may promote tumor growth and lung metastasis. The oncogenic activity of SLC12A5 was probably related to the inhibition of apoptosis-inducing factor and endonuclease G-dependent apoptotic signaling pathway, as well as regulation of the key elements of the matrix architecture such as matrix metal- lopeptidase and fibronectin. This leads to shorter survival in colon cancer patients with high SLC12A5 expression. 53
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Transition of the embryo to exogenous feeding is the decisive event in the early stage of development of percid fish, because failure to accomplish first feeding results in mortality (Balon, 1984). Kestemont et al. (1995) suggested that the weaning age is directly related to the ontogeny of the species and to the development of the digestive system of the larvae. Further, it has been well explained that combined feeding of live and artificial diet, referred as co- feeding, enhances larval performance beyond that achieved by feeding either types of feed alone (Kanazawa et al., 1989; Holt, 1993; Abi-Ayad and Kestemont, 1994) and co-feeding also permits weaning in a shorter time (Person Le Ruyet et al., 1993). In the present study, highest (P<0.05) survival (43.8%) was obtained in the treatment group SF-19 (weaned with supplementary feeding for 4 days from 15-19 DPH), while the mean survival rate in other groups were 31.9%, 35.1% and 21.6% in treatment group CF-19, CF-22 and SF-22 respectively (Table 1). There was high cannibalism in one replication of treatment SF-19 and finally only 6 individuals were left. Therefore, we excluded this replication from the every analysis. Present result reflected that 7-days co- feeding strategy is more favourable compared to 4- days co-feeding strategy, which may be due to decline in the influence of feed attraction and feeding response with the age. Kolkovski et al. (1997a,
In the present study, we comprehensively analyzed the survival data of 1,917 patients from 13 studies and found that overexpression of NEK2 was significantly correlated with worse OS and DFS in patients with DSCs. Considering that some confounding factors might affect the reliability of our synthesized results, subgroup analysis and meta-regression were conducted according to several potential confounding factors, such as cancer type, country, sample size, and detec- tion level. From the results, we observed that CRC and HCC patients with elevated NEK2 expression had a poorer survival prognosis. Moreover, with different sample sizes and detection levels, the overexpression of NEK2 consistently acted as an indicator of worse OS in patients with DSCs. Additionally, we also investigated the relationship between NEK2 expression and clinicopathological characteristics in patients with DSCs. Our results indicated that high expression of NEK2 was sig- nificantly associated with serum positive AFP levels and portal vein thrombosis in HCC, which might partly explain the role of NEK2 overexpression as an indicator of poorer OS in HCC. %HJJ¶VIXQQHOSORWZLWKSVHXGR
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Western blotting showed that the cellulase activities in the salivary glands and the midgut come from termite endogenous cellulase (see Fig. 1B). This result corresponds to the reverse transcript polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiment carried out by Nakashima et al., 1 confi rming exclusive expression of the endogenous cellulase in the sali- vary glands and midgut tissue. Cellulase activity was also found in the hindgut of C. formosanus. The hindgut extract did not contain the protein that reacts with A18 rabbit antiserum, showing that the hindgut cellulase activity did not contain a detectable amount of endogenous cellulase. This result corresponds well with the results of the study by Tokuda et al. 7 The hindgut cellulase activity is considered to come from symbiotic protozoa because the removal of hindgut protozoa only reduces hindgut cellulase activity in Neotermes koshunensis. 11
A case-control study was conducted in Radiation and Isotopes Centre Khartoum RICK targeting the digestive system cancer patients who came to get treatment or follow-up during 2009. A total of 200 digestive system cancer patients and 200 controlled cases were interviewed using purposively designed questionnaires. The objective of this research is to investigate how the logistic regression methods are able to give improved prediction of risk factors of digestive system cancer. Logistic regression have been used for modeling the probability that a person developed digestive system cancer as a function of age, gender, tribe, height, weight, address as states or region, blood group type, cancer type, cancer stage,
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domains reported for C. elegans and D. melanogaster (Figure 6H). The F-box containing protein foxA is expressed in the foregut and inner gut , while a single GATA456 gene and the HNF4 ortholog are expressed in the anterior region of the internal alimentary canal. To- gether with gsc and otx , NK2.1, foxQ2, and FGF8/17/ 18 are expressed in the foregut, while wnt1, evx, and also FGF8/17/18 are detected in the ectodermal anus, as well as bra and cdx . The expression of the endodermal mid- gut markers GATA456 and HNF4 is likely limited to the three most anterior tetrads of the internal gut, and the ob- servation of the hindgut genes foxA, bra, and cdx  in the region corresponding to the two most posterior duplets could indicate that these regions correspond to the endo- dermal midgut and internal ectodermal hindgut of the pri- apulid embryo, respectively. More detailed cell lineage analyses will be required to confirm this hypothesis. Al- though functional data are still lacking in P. caudatus, the comparison of expression data with that of the nematode C. elegans and the insect D. melanogaster reveals import- ant similarities between these lineages of ecdysozoans (Figure 6F-H), mostly during the stages in which the gut is patterned into the three main regions. Notably, the overall patterning of the digestive system appears to be more con- served between P. caudatus and D. melanogaster, although P. caudatus and C. elegans would be considered morpho- logically more similar [115,116]. C. elegans differs mostly by the absence (for example, gsc and bra) or expansion (GATA456, HNF4) of some of the studied genes, which might be related to its high rate of genome evolution . Similarly, the differences in the earliest steps of endoderm development between C. elegans and D. melanogaster are probably due to their idiosyncratic early embryogenesis, as has also been shown in other bilaterian animals , and thus further work is needed to address the ancestral mech- anism of endoderm specification for the Ecdysozoa. Never- theless, our data on P. caudatus support the existence of a conserved molecular patterning program for the digestive system in the Ecdysozoa, despite the great differences in developmental modes and gut architectures.
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The Egger’s test and Begg’s test were carried out to assess publication bias. According to the P values of two tests, we considered that publication bias existed in this meta-analysis. Although we detected the heterogeneity in the meta-analysis, the sensitivity analysis ensured the stability of the results. There might be several factors being responsible for underlying heterogeneity, such as the patients from different regions, the wide range of publication date, the uneven quality of the papers, the development of detection techniques, the improvement of surgical efficacy and safety, the statistical approach for extrapolating HRs, and the difference in cancer staging criteria. The cut-off value could be considered consistent in our study, but it was still required to verify that 45 was an appropriate cut-off value for our future study. Under these circumstances, individual study may have a considerable impact on publication bias and heterogeneity. Accordingly, more studies with larger sample sizes are required to further confirm this association.
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of computing time, and analytical models and techniques have been sufficient to provide planners and designers with results needed to make objective decisions. Analytical techniques represent the system by a mathematical model and evaluate the reliability indices from this model using direct numerical solutions. They generally provide expectations indices in a relatively short computing time .
Qualitative In this paper the terms d-system, m-system, n-system, U-ternary semigroup are introduced. It is proved that an ideal A of a ternary semigroup T is a prime ideal of T if and only if T\A is an m-system of T or empty. It is proved that an ideal A of a ternary semigroup T is completely semiprime if and only if T\A is a d-system of T or empty. It is proved that every m- system in a ternary semigroup T is an n-system. Further it is proved that an ideal Q of a ternary semigroup T is a semiprime ideal if and only if T\Q is an n-system of T (or) empty. It is proved that if N is an n-system in a ternary semigroup T and a N, then there exist an m-system M in T such that a M and M N. It is proved that a ternary semigroup T is U-ternary semigroup if and only if every ideal A of T is semiprime ideal of T. Further it is proved that if T is a ternary semigroup and A is an ideal of T, then T is U-ternary semigroup if and only if T\A is an n-system of T or empty and if T is U-ternary semigroup and A is an ideal of T, then T\A is an m-system of T.
malignancies, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, tra- cheotomy, mechanical ventilation, and indwelling catheters. 5,16,17 In our study, univariate analysis results showed that ICU admission, respiratory disease, cardio- vascular disease, nervous system disease, digestive dis- ease, invasive operations, and carbapenem exposure were all risk factors for CRKP BSIs. These results are similar to those of previous studies in other parts of the world. 18 Multivariate regression analysis showed that digestive dis- ease, invasive procedures, and the length of hospitalization were independent risk factors for CRKP BSIs. Notably, in
Ingesting LAB improves status of health benefits which includes modulation of immune system malignancy resistance increases), and illness infection . Intestinal homeostasis maintaince by modulation of innate immune response in the gut, which is induced by mucosal immune, increases the non–specific barrier, in fermented milk which contains Lactobacillus casei DN114001. In inflammatory bowel diseases , which include induction of inflammatory processes by antigens of bacteria or food are protected by intestinal barriers which usually stabilizes the integrity of epethilial. Salmonella ssp and E.coli strains colonization is prevented by probiotic microorganism which competes with pathogenic bacteria for binding site of epithelial. Pathogenic bacteria such as enteropathogenic E.coli, enterotoxigenic E.coli and Klebsiella pneumonia which are used in vitro model with CaCo-2 cell line their colonization in the gastrointestinal tract is usually prevented by L.casei ssp, rhamnosus which is probiotic in nature . Gastric cancer, peptide ulcers and chronic gastric which is associated with Helicobacter pylori  that is Gram negative bacteria a no of probiotic action on such pathogenic bacteria have been reported.
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Growing lines of evidence suggest that P2Y receptors are involved in inflammation-associated diseases of liver and colon. P2Y receptors can also regulate metabolism, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of digestive cancer cells and tissues. It has been demonstrated that different P2Y receptor subtypes are present on the same cell and that various subtypes of receptors may produce opposite functions. Such as HCT8 and Caco-2 cells express P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, P2Y11, and P2Y12 receptors. Lower concentrations of ATP and UTP stimulate proliferation of these cells via P2Y2 receptors activation, but high concentrations of ATP induce apoptosis and anti-proliferation through P2Y1 and P2X7 receptors. This suggests that the control of cell proliferation by extracellular nucleotides might be regulated by a crucial balance of the activities of the receptor subtypes. The subtypes of P2Y receptors as new therapeutic targets for drug discovery to treat digestive diseases may have extensive clinical significance. We therefore anticipate that as these subtypes of P2Y receptors in digestive organs are further studied, their specific modulators may become promising new drugs to treat digestive diseases, such as inflammation and cancer in the near future.
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Compared with these methods, breath analysis has many advantages . Firstly, breath analysis is a non-invasive method, and it causes least harm to both the subjects and the personnel who collect the sam- ples. Secondly, its result can be obtained immediately. Thirdly, the sample collection is quite easy for a subject, since the only requirement to collect a breath sample is that the subject must be breathing. There- fore, increasing interest has been expressed about the applications of breath analysis in medicine and clin- ical pathology [17, 18]. However, most of the existing trials  on breath diagnosis only focus on very limited kinds of diseases. The reason may be complicated. Lack of specific breath analysis system and me- thod, as well as a large enough dataset will all block the process of research. Also, some of the diseases may not be so related to the breath system, which will not give a satisfactory result. Basing on the process of gas exchange in breath, we can see that diseases of respiratory system and metabolic system will strongly affect one’s exhaled breath. On the other hand, since the respiratory passage is connected to digestive system, it may be possible to detect diseases of digestive system by breath analysis. We thus collected a breath analy- sis dataset with both healthy samples and samples with different kinds of diseases of respiratory, metabolic and digestive system by a specific e-nose system. Experiments were organized on the collected dataset to discover a proper method of breath analysis for disease diagnosis.
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The objective of the study was to gain insight in the late effects of breast cancer patients up to five years after treatment and whether these patients visit a physician for these effects. First, we determined what late psychosocial and physical effects patient experienced in the years after their breast cancer treatment based on the questionnaire and if they visited a physician for their experienced effects. Based on more than 400 responses, it was found that the complaints about tiredness, memory/concentration problems and menopause complaints were reported the most. The high percentage of memory/concentration problems is also stated in more studies, were it was a percentage of 23% (17). However, primary care use was the highest for other complaints than these. Bone fractures led to the highest primary care use, but only occurred in 4% of respondents. Bone fractures had the highest percentage of using primary care, but had the second lowest percentage of having the complaint. Radiotherapy had almost none risk on reporting a complaint, only for complaints in the breast area. This could be due too short follow-up. The follow-up was five years for this research, but late effects of radiotherapy are usually observed after ten years (18).
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