The role of boric acid has been great interest in the electrodeposition of Ni 26 &27 and Zn-Ni alloy 28 .It is now believed that boric acid either complexes with Ni 2+ , acting as a homogenous catalyst, or adsorbs on the electrode surface and has a significant role in morphology and composition characteristics. The presence of boric acid results in an increase of current efficiency of deposition process, amount of zinc in the deposited alloy, nucleation density of the deposit 28 . These effects have been attributed to the adsorptive interactions of boric acid at the electrode surface. Also, boric acid acts as a buffer to maintain the pH of the electrolyte bath 29,30 . Similar effects of boric acid were observed in the present work during Zn-Ni deposition from suggested Sulphate bath.The concentration of boric acid was varied from 10-30gL -1 . At lower concentrations, the Hull cell panels showed semi bright deposit at low current density region and burnt at high current density region. The semi bright and burnt regions were found to be reduced with increase in the concentration of boric acid and at 18gL -1 , the deposit was bright over a current density range of 0.3- 3.5Adm 2 .Further increase in the concentration (>18gL -1 ) did not introduced any effect on the nature of deposit and on the conductance also. So, the concentration of boric acid was fixed at 18gL -1 in the bath solution. The Hull cell patterns showing the effect of boric acid are given in Figure 3.1E.
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The copper was used as substrate, which was polished orderly with #600, #1200, and #2000 emery papers, and then rinsed by de-ionized water, diluted HCl, de-ionized water, acetone, de-ionized water, alcohol in sequence prior to deposition. A basic hypophosphite reduced electroless sulphate bath was chosen as the plating bath, where nickel sulphate and iron sulphate were used as the source of metals in the bath, and sodium hypophosphite served as the reductant and source of phosphorus. NaCit and NHCit acted as ligands and the total concentration of them was 0.165 M in the bath. Chemical compositions of electroless Ni-Fe- P plating bath are listed in table 1. The pH of the solution was adjusted to about 10 using NH 3 .H 2 O and the bath temperature was 80±1 o C. As copper is not a catalytic
The pH of plating bath has great effect on bright current density region on Hull cell cathode. At high pH the deposit may becomes spongy or porous, where as at low pH of the bath may lead to cathode hydrogen evolution and a consequent decrease in current efficiency, throwing power. This in turn may lead to an accumulation of hydroxyl ions in the vicinity of the cathode and consequent precipitation of the basic salt, which may get included in the deposit, there by altering the deposit properties . The Hull cell experiments showed that at a pH of 3 the cathodes were bright in the current range 0.5-5 Adm -2 at 1 A cell current. At low pH (< 3) the low current density region was uncoated and at high pH (> 3) the high current density region covers burnt deposit (Figure 1g).
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Fig. 25 shows the time variations of the free corrosion potential for nickel deposited from glycine- containing solutions and from glycine –free solution in 3.5% NaCl solution in open circuit conditions. The data reveal that the nickel deposited from glycine- free solution (curve a) posses nobler potentials than that which deposited from glycine-containing solutions (curves b,c), which means that nickel deposited from glycine-containing bath posses a lower corrosion resistance than that without glycine. This result is in good agreement with the result obtained from the anodic polarization measurements. All of the samples tested reached the equilibrium potential within the time range of the measurements (approximately 4 h). To the best of our knowledge, no previously published reports refer to the corrosion resistance of nickel deposited from glycine solutions.
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The SEM image shows non uniform and coarse-grained deposit of zinc obtained in absence of CG (Fig.6A). The addition of CG increases the formation of fresh nucleation sites during deposition and decreases the growth of nuclei, resulting in formation of fine grained deposit (Fig.6B). This leads to the formation of smooth and shiny deposit. The reflectance and degree of total reflection as a function of wavelength of visible light for zinc coating is shown in Fig. 7. It can be seen from the reflectance spectra that the addition of CG into the bath solution leads to an increase in the degree of reflection. Only 3-4% of variation in total reflectance was observed at different surface points of zinc coatings . These results confirmed that CG can be used as a good brightener for zinc coatings.
For the preparation of copper nanoparticles several methods, i.e., thermal reduction, mechanical attrition, chemical reduction metal vapour synthesis, radiation methods, laser ablation and micro emulsion techniques were developed in the past. Electrolytic deposition is one of the most suit- able, simplest and low cost methods which are used for wide range of materials. In the present in- vestigations, efforts were put to produce copper nano powder using electrolytic technique. It could be possible to obtain near nano copper powder of 258 nm size using high cathode current density of 1100 A/m 2 in sulphate bath. The specific surface area and shape of the particles were found to
Abstract: There are two types of bed baths: the traditional basin used with soap and water, and the disposable bath, which is pre-packed in single-use units and heated before use. From earlier studies it was recommended with further studies witch would strengthen the evidence. To compare the traditional basin bed bath to a disposable bed bath, there are three factors that need to bed considered: (1) duration and quality of the bath, (2) patient satisfaction and (3) nurse satisfaction.31 patients received bed baths on two consecutive days. The patients were bathed by the same nurse on both days. The bed baths were observed in relation to duration and quality. Nurses and patients were interviewed about their preferences. The study was performed in both surgical and medical floors. Both types of bed baths scored very highly in the area of quality. Significantly less time was used with the disposable bed baths (p< 0.001). The registered nurses prefer the disposable bath (78%). The patients were satisfied with both types of bed baths. There was no significant difference in the results. Even when we adapt the results in relation to the patients’ gender and age, there is still no significant difference. Patients rated the bed baths equally in most cases. By this study we applied further research in the area of personal hygiene. When all aspects of bed baths are considered (time, cost, quality, and patient and nurse preferences), both types of bed baths are secure and well received. Due to the times savings achieved and the importance of this for patients (who are weak and need nursing assistance to perform personal hygiene), we recommend the use of disposable bed baths.
treated with approximately 60ml of methane sulphonic acid till the evaluation of carbon-di-oxide gas. Minimum quantity of double distilled water was added and the solution was made up to 250 ml standard measuring flask. The oil and suspended impurities present in the solution were removed by filtration and stored in a clean container. One ml of stock solution was analyzed by using N/10 of standard sodium thio sulphate and calculated the amount of copper.
electroless alloy coatings as it imparts good magnetic properties to the substrate [Aal et al. (2008), Narayanan et al. (2003)]. It also improves the corrosion resistance and thereby protects the substrate from getting corroded in a corrosive environment [Aixiang et al. (2005)]. The hardness of the Ni-Co-P coating was found to be better than the substrate [Aixiang et al. (2005)]. However no mention of the surface roughness has been reported about this particular alloy coating. In textile industries machinery parts play a very important role in maintaining the surface roughness of the yarn [Feldstein (1982)]. Hence, machinery parts with minimum surface roughness are required to be produced. In case of substances which are machined in order to give a particular design, the surface roughness of the machined substances is very high [Karagiannis et al. (2014)] which leads to increased wear, thus reducing the life of the machined parts. We have applied the Taguchi optimisation technique to the bath parameters so that we get the minimum surface roughness in accordance to the bath parameters. Surface Roughness can cause friction and wear which is undesirable in most cases except in those where the surface roughness produces special surfaces which can increase the lubrication properties [Elansezhian et al. (2008)]. So it is necessary to optimise roughness. The Ni-Co-P coatings were deposited over Copper substrate and the Taguchi method was applied in order to optimise these coatings in order to find the coating having the optimum surface roughness. A Taguchi orthogonal design was implied on these coatings through the design parameters which includes concentration of Cobalt Sulphate, Sodium 4 Hypophosphite and the bath temperature. Analysis of variance was carried out based on the optimised result to find the importance of each factor and their interaction with each other. The surface morphology was studied using Scanning Electron Microscope and the composition of the coating was studied using XRD and EDX analysis.
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Abbreviations: AS, ankylosing spondylitis; ASAS, Assessment of Spondylitis International Society; HLA-B27, human leukocyte antigen B27; P25–P75, percentile 25–75; BASDAI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (scale 0–10); BASFI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (scale 0–10); BASMI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (scale 0–10); ASDAS-CRP, Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score-C reactive protein (scale 0–10); MASES, Maastricht Ankylosing Spondylitis Enthesitis Score (13 standardized points, range 0–13); ASQol, Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life (scale 0–18); PGA, Patient Global Assessment (scale 0–100 mm).
The requirements for effective sampling regimes are: they must (1) be easy to use in the laboratory and field, (2) be efficient in collecting Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, (3) maintain a viable sample over time and (4) be non-destructive, to minimise harm and stress to the targeted animal. Four sampling protocols were developed and tested: toe clipping, bathing of animals, filtering bath water from washes through ster- ile disposable filters, and swabbing. Papers describing the clinical signs and pathological features of the dis- ease (Berger et al. 1998, 2005a, Pessier et al. 1999) report a sloughing of skin from the epidermal surface. The sloughed skin is frequently derived from ventral surfaces of the abdomen, limbs and feet and is usually characterised under light and electron microscopy (Pessier et al. 1999, Berger et al. 2000, 2005a,b) by hyperkeratosis and the presence of zoosporangia. Col- lection of skin at these sites is an obvious way to max- imise the chances of detecting B. dendrobatidis. All sampling protocols developed and used in this study exploit this characteristic feature of chytridiomycosis.
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Results: The frequency of anxiety and depression in patients with AS was higher than that in healthy controls (P,0.001). Severe disease status and reduced quality of life (QoL) were associated with anxiety and depression. Disease activity and somatic pain were more severe in the anxious and depressed subgroups. Impaired physical functioning (assessed by Bath Anky- losing Spondylitis Functional Index) was higher in the anxious and depressed subgroups, while measures of spinal mobility (assessed by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index) were not associated with depression. Lower QoL was observed in the depressed subgroup. Conclusion: Low socioeconomic status, lack of health insurance, and fatigue contributed to depression in Chinese patients with AS. These patients may require a psychological care approach that is different from those of other countries.
The standard Hull cell of 267-ml capacity was used to optimize the bath constituents and bath variables . The bath parameters were optimized using a standard Hull cell. The electrodeposition process was carried out under galvanostatic condition using a regulated DC power source (Model: Acceptable Electronics, India). The cathode was mild steel panel and anode was pure zinc, Copper, Aluminum (99.99%). The pH of bath solution was measured using a digital pH meter (Equipetronix, model: 7020) and adjusted with 10% sulphuric acid or sodium bicarbonate solution. Mild steel (AISI-1079, composition C 0.5%, Mn 0.6%, P and S 0.05% and rest Fe) plates of standard Hull cell size were mechanically polished using emery paper (320-800 grit size) to obtain a smooth surface and degreased by dipping in boiling trichloroethylene in degreaser plant followed by water wash. Before each experiment, the aluminum anode surface was activated by dipping in 10% HCl for few seconds followed by washing with water. The same surface area of anode and cathode was used for electrodeposition process. The bath temperature and pH were varied. The cathodic current density was controlled at 1-2 A/dm 2 . Various metal nano composites were obtained by optimizing bath parameters so that a uniform, thin, film obtained on a large surface area. After electrodeposition the plates were subjected to bright dip in 1% nitric acid for 2-3 s followed by water wash and drying. The nature and appearance of zinc deposit was carefully observed and recorded through Hull cell codes (Table 1).
The lysed culture broth supernatant was concentrated by ammonium sulphate precipitation. The optimum activity was obtained at 60 % (w/v) saturation with 6 fold increase in the specific activity compared to the other. Further, the fraction was purified using Sephadex G200 filtration. The purified fraction obtained after filtration was dialyzedagainst sucrose resulted in specific activity 3185.4 (units/mg prot/ml-1) and purification folds 4.5 times (Table II). Crude enzyme resulted in specific activity of 725.2 (units/mg prot/ml) with purification folds 1 times. Further, the purified enzyme was subjected to SDS PAGE electrophoresis to confirm the molecular wt of the enzyme. It was observed the Mw. Was 43 kDa.
Marine sulphated polysaccharides can express their activity on mammal’s biological system and provide pharmacological activity with different diseases, such as antithrombotic, anti- inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and antimetastatic. Sulphated fucan from brown and sulphated galactans from red and green algae are well known for their activity as anticoagulants as they interact with both antithrombin and heparin cofactor II (Berteau & Mulloy, 2003; Pereira et al., 2005). However, the complex, heterogeneous structures of these polysaccharides has limited the possibility of identifying specific sequences required for their activity. Many researches, have worked in this field in order to confirm the structure of these polysaccharides and the relationships related to their activity. Chemical oversulphation or desulphation of the intact chain from these algae has been reported (Haroun-Bouhedja et al., 2000; Soeda et al., 1993). The results suggest that the activity increases with increasing sulphate regions and decreases when the crude or intact pattern of sulphation is reduced. The same role is applied to the molecular weight, the activity decreases with smaller molecular size of oligosaccharide or polysaccharide (Soeda et al., 1993).
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Methods: In this cross-sectional study patients with AS according to modified New York criteria but without psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, dementia, pregnancy, other severe diseases such as malignancy and difficulties in answering questionnaires were invited; and 210 participated (120 men), mean age 49 years (SD 13; range: 16 – 77). Questionnaires, physical examination, ECG, and laboratory tests were performed at the same visit. Results: Cardiac conduction disturbances were common and diagnosed in 10-33%, depending on if conservative or less conservative predefined criteria were applied. They consisted mostly of 1 st degree atrio-ventricular block and prolonged QRS duration, but one patient had a pacemaker and 7 more had complete bundle branch blocks. Conduction abnormalities were associated mainly with age, male gender and body weight, and not with laboratory measures of inflammation or with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index. Neither were they associated with the presence of HLA B27, which was found in 87% of all patients; the subtype B270502 dominated in all patients.
Patient demographics and characteristics in the imaging set (table 1) were comparable to those of the overall study population at baseline. 15 In the imaging set, there were more men in the r-axSpA group, and patients with r-axSpA had higher CRP and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), but other baseline demographics and characteristics were similar between the r-axSpA and nr-axSpA subpopula- tions. With regard to MRI outcomes, there was a higher proportion of patients with r-axSpA with spinal in ﬂ am- mation on MRI when compared with the nr-axSpA sub- population, though SI joint in ﬂ ammation was slightly more common in patients with nr-axSpA (table 1).
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Energy security is one of the most pressing challenges of the 21 st century. A shift to next-generational fuels and increased use of renewable source of energy are increasingly being considered as viable options. Euphorbia lathyris L. is one of the most-suitable species that falls into the category of hydrocarbon yielding plants. This plant is suitable to grow in arid and semiarid climate. Fertilizer application plays a major role in the universal need to increase in agricultural production. Different mineral nutrients like boron (boric acid), copper (copper sulphate), iron (ferrous sulphate), magnesium (magnesium sulphate), manganese (manganous sulphate), molybdenum (ammonium molybdate) and zinc (zinc sulphate), were sprayed over the plants. There was an increase in the Hexane Extractables, Methanol Extractables and total extractable (Hexane Extractables and Methanol Extractables) at Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mo, Mg and B in decreasing order over the control.
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The principal aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bisphosphonate (alendronate) on global health (Bath ankylosing spondylitis global health (BAS-G)) in AS (Bisphosphonates in Ankylosing Spondylitis trial). Secondary aims were to determine whether there were changes in disease activity, function and bone status, and whether changes in biomarker levels were different between patients treated with or without alendronate. A preliminary report has been published, which indicated that alendronate had no significant effect on changes in CRP, cytokine and MMP levels . A further aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between circulating biomarker levels and measures of disease activity and function in AS patients on standard non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy. Data collected from the baseline visit are reported here.
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Replacing a portion of Portland cement with fly ash reduces the amount of reactive aluminates (tricalcium aluminate) available for sulphate. Fly ash chemically binds free lime in cementitious compounds, rendering it unavailable for sulphate reaction. Fly ash activity reduces concrete permeability, keeping sulphates from penetrating concrete (Naik, 1992).
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