There was considerable evidence in the reported responses to the questionnaire of participants exercising highly developed agency in their interactions with their supervisors and where relevant with other stakeholders in their doctoral journeys as well. This was demonstrated in such varied ways as having a clear set of criteria, whether explicit or implicit, for assessing the effectiveness of the student–supervisor relationship, responding to changes in the supervisory team as strategically as possible and constantly searching for supervisor feedback about draft dissertation chapters. Agency was evident also in examples of balancing empathy with supervisors who had been ill or not very knowledgeable about the student’s topic with a pragmatic determination to obtain alternative support in such situations. More broadly, these examples reflected the respondents’ capacity to place their doctoral studies in a broader context of interactions and interpersonal relationships, while retaining a shrewd understanding of how those interactions and relationships impacted, whether positively or negatively, on those studies. There was also evidence of pleasures in the participants’ responses, albeit generally tacitly—for example, in the acknowledgment of having completed successfully a project of such breadth and depth, sometimes against the backdrop of ineffective or unsupportive supervision, as well as in the references to post- doctoral contact with their supervisors that sometimes involved co-authored publications. At the same time, the results reported above highlighted the considerable limits on the exercise of the respondents’ agency. In particular, whether their studies were enhanced by facilitative and intelligent supervision or completed in spite of that supervision, participants
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Individual supervisory arrangements are included as a third broad type of factors. This pertains to the quality of the relationship between candidate and supervisor, frequency of supervisory meetings and timeliness of feedback from supervisors (Tennant and Roberts 2007, 21). Albertyn, Kapp and Bitzer (2008) argue that personal attributes, support from supervisors and institutional support contribute to the successful completion of research higher degrees. They identify a number of factors that have an impact on successful completion - these include the level of agreement in expectations of candidates and supervisors; and the power relationship between candidate and supervisor with regard to the research study. Latona and Browne (2001) identify other factors that impact on the successful completion of higher degrees studies. These include specific protocols of supervisions that entail the scheduling of regular contact between candidate and supervisor, continuation with the original topic and supervisor, and also issues related to the relationship between candidate and supervisor (Latona and Browne 2001). A range of relationship related factors have been investigated; for example, power issues, collegiality and the prevalence of negotiated relationships (Erwee and Albion 2011; Latona and Browne 2001; van Rensburg and Danaher 2009). Although the variety of factors of the supervisory relationship has been studied extensively, there is paucity in data about the influence of diverse national cultures on the doctoral candidate–supervisor relationship.
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A number of aspects influencing the relationship between the doctoral candidate and the supervisor have been identified as impacting on the success of postgraduate research supervision, but the influence of the cultural diversity of doctoral candidates and supervisors on this relationship has not been addressed. Australian universities attract a large percentage of international doctoral candidates and many of these candidates relocate to Australia for the duration of their candidature and have to face the challenges of settling temporarily in a foreign country and working closely with a supervisor from a different cultural background. Through a comparative case study approach, this exploratory study investigated the influence of cultural dimensions on the doctoral candidate-supervisor relationship. Qualitative data obtained through interviews with six cases from various cultural clusters were analysed and compared based on four dimensions of national culture values (Hofstede, 2001). The findings suggest that cultural diversity impacts significantly on the social environment of doctoral candidates, but there is no significant impact on the supervisory relationship due to the acculturation of postgraduate students into the university culture. Cultural diversity is identified as a potential factor influencing the doctoral candidate–supervisor relationship and this study suggests the development of measures to ensure that cultural misunderstandings in the supervisory relationship are avoided.
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This theme addresses any aspect of supervisor involvement in or concern regarding the idea of a scholarship of supervision. For example, it may involve research questions about links between teaching and research (the ‘nexus’ question), research into the formation of communities of scholarly practice, research on and examples of reflective practice, innovative supervision of and research into reviewing and revitalising supervisory practices, researching the links between supervision and the scholarship of engagement, research into supervision and the scholarship of integration, and many more. Priority will be given to scholarly papers that emphasize the role of supervisors in preparing master’s and doctoral candidates for what Angela Brew (2006:180) calls “uncertain, supercomplex, unpredictable” futures.
The findings of the present study’s front line bank employee survey add further support to the idea that employees’ trust in their supervisor plays a critical role in their relationship which was evidenced in the strong positive correlation that was found between perceptions of supervisor and trust in supervisor for CSRs. However, the stepwise regression analysis did not produce a similar finding for tellers suggesting there is a significant difference between these two groups of front line employees. The importance of training for tellers may overshadow the perceptions of supervisor and trust in supervisor relationship. One possible difference may be that tellers can ask other tellers for assistance or it may be that the difference can be explained, in part, by tellers having face-to-face contact with customers which may reinforce the importance of training and good customer service. On the other hand, CSRs work in a more isolated environment which may make them more heavily dependent upon their supervisor and may mean CSRs place greater value on their supervisors’ attitudes and behaviors (ability, benevolence, and integrity).
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Mary: I remain surprised when students contact me to be their supervisor and it is surprising here too to hear Joyce’s perception of me as an academic. I still primarily see myself as a wilderness trip guide, which has been (and still is) my profession. Joyce and I were able to connect early on regarding this pursuit as I learned that her brother had done many of the first ascents of local climbing routes. There seemed to be an initial kinship although I did worry a bit, having never supervised a part-time student and wondering how prolonged the process would be. I also have never supervised someone with a brain injury although I have worked in both wilderness and group home settings with people with brain injuries. There was nothing similar between those experiences and my meeting Joyce. What will it be like? Will the supervision be different? Will I be different? Should I be? Will my direct style of feedback and the intensity I bring to student/supervisor exchanges “fit” with Joyce’s style and needs? Are these considerations any different to any student/supervisor relationship I enter into? Not really, I realized.
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believed the project to be more student led than supervisor reports with regard to research area, research question, methodology, measures and analysis. Supervisors were significantly more likely than students to report that the project enhanced skill development (F (7, 159) = 3.39, p <.05; Pillai’s Trace = .13). Further analyses revealed that supervisors assigned more value to the project, believed that the project developed skills that other assessments could not, formed a good measure of ability, represented an important part of the degree and also reported that participation in other projects was beneficial.
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Of particular importance in terms of postgraduate education is supervision. Numerous research have pointed out that there are high proportions of postgraduate students who fail to complete their studies within the time given (graduate on time). The most cited reasons are problems with supervision (Affero, Norhasni and Aminuddin, 2011); the examination of supervision has the potential to make an important contribution to the quality of postgraduate research. Therefore supervision is concerned as the mechanics of ensuring that the students make good progress towards completion (Noorhasni, 2006). On the other hand, the supervision literature indicates that ethical, technical and methodological problems can be minimized or prevented if all the participants in the relationship strive to enter it with clear expectations for their respective roles and about the rules for their interactions. Therefore, on both departmental and individual basis, the supervisor must be diligent about explicitly working with students to establish mutual expectations, responsibilities and benefits for working together and with other parties (Hussain, 2011).
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Performance appraisal is a process by which a supervisor evaluates and judges the work performance of an employee (Walsh, et., al. 2003). Performance appraisal system includes the processes and procedures that include implementation, managing, and communication. Through this process, the supervisor can identify what employees learning about themselves, knowledge of employee’s and how they contribute it to achieve the goal setting in the management. Other than that, performance appraisal is an effective process which improves in the accuracy of employee performance and establishing relationship between performances on tasks and has a clear potential for reward. So, the outcome from the performance appraisal which is use of evaluation of feedback to improve performance, employee turnover, increased motivation, and existence of feelings of equity among employees will increase the employee in their job satisfaction.
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somewhat superficial informal social relations, whereas collaboration is more demanding (Savoie- Zajc & Dionne, 2001). Cooperating teachers and academic supervisors are clearly expected to surpass the stage of collegiality. Their responsibilities as student teacher trainers also require them to go beyond administrative coordination. Moreover, cooperation itself is less demanding; indeed, in a context of cooperation, the work is divided, and each person is responsible for part of the overall task (McEwan, 1997; Ofstedal & Dahlberg, 2009). Collaboration, however, requires more involvement. In collaborative work, each person carries out the tasks necessary to achieve objectives and is engaged in a collective effort and shared decision-making process to achieve a common goal (Cook & Friend, 1991). This is in line with what is legitimately expected of the two student teacher trainers. They must both be committed to assisting the student teacher in the development of his or her professional abilities and making joint decisions regarding the assessment of the student-teacher’s learning. Interdependence and knowledge sharing. Collaboration is also characterized by interdependence, mainly through shared responsibility (Little, 1990), which causes the team to be more effective problem solvers. Included here are the student teacher’s issues with pedagogy, educational psychology, and ethics. Collaboration is also revealed in knowledge sharing, especially when collaboration occurs in a climate of trust and authenticity (Dionne, 2005). Collaboration between the cooperating teacher and supervisor is manifested during sharing, especially in conversations in the presence of the student teacher. It makes it possible to learn from others and can stimulate professional development (Borges & Lessard, 2007).
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The above regression weights table shows the results of Regression analysis by using the Maximum likelihood method in AMOS software. Above table illustrates the relationship of the independent variable (IV) on the dependent variable (DV), C.R. is a critical ratio, i.e., t-value in SPSS output, the value of CR of any Iv to DV is if > ±1.96 that path will be significant at 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 level. If the p-value is three asterisks (***), it indicates significance is smaller than 0.001. Our regression table results show that H1 has a positive and significant impact on employee retention in English (b= -0.33, p<0.001), the estimated value 0.33 indicates that if one unit increase in the job satisfaction (JS) it will bring 33% positive impact in employee retention in the Pharmaceutical industry. Whereas H2 relationship shows that there is (b=0.29, p<0.008) significant impact on employee retention through the mediation of organizational commitment. Our hypothesis 3 results show that there is a significant relationship between SS (supervisor Support) and employee retention (b=0.19, p>0.002). Our hypothesis 4 also proved with (b=0.13, p>0.007) which shows significant impact on employee retention through OC (Organizational Commitment. Finally, H5 is also got good beta and significance (P) value (b=0.45, p>0.000) and hence our model is approved.
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Proactivity means the individuals' ability to create their environment stemming from an interactional perspective (Bandura, 1997, Schneider, 1983). The interaction approach states that behavior can be controlled both internally and externally and situations exert effects on performance and the interaction of individuals; they can also be influenced by the individuals (Schneider, 1983). In other words, there is a formal mutual relationship between individuals, environment, and behavior (Bandura, 1997). According to Bus and Finn (1987) the proactive approach is a beneficial feature since it is regarded as a part of behavior which influences the environment. Crant (2000) defines proactive behavior as a pioneering role for improving the current situation or the creation of a new future. Hence, people can change their present situation directly and consciously, for example, through choosing proper occupation.
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This study is cross-sectional. The cross-sectional research design only established associations between variables. Therefore, this research cannot make any definitive statements regarding the causality of the included variables (Huang, Rode & Schroeder 2011). For future research, it is suggested that a case study design be used to further examine the underlying logic of how corporate-level factors can facilitate employee process innovation and thus provide evidence for the causal relationship among the variables. According to Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2000), interviews provide the most suitable research tool in situations where researchers need to understand the background for respondents‘ decisions or attitudes. In-depth qualitative methods would enable the gathering of rich data that may reflect personal comments from employees about their feelings and perceptions about the influence of organisational factors on their innovative behaviour.
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Sport department – generally the survey showed that the department was a resistor in awareness, and relations with the supervision, but surprisingly a leader in portfolio part. We be- lieve that this part of the survey is an error because when the first wave of the reform happened, the ministry had no speci- fications for the sports teaching. There were no standards for the sport teachers and even there was no exam for the teacher certification. So the lack of the requirements by the law, the department was neglected for the time by the supervision. This explains the resistance in the awareness of the reform, simply because no one was there to answer the simple questions about the reform in sports field. As for the relationship with the super- vision, since there were no specific guidelines for this depart- ment than it is obvious why they did not have much contact with the supervision, doubted the competency of supervision and were negligent in the process. This department is a leader in portfolio part, because they have always kept the record of their activities and they are actually the ones other departments can learn from when arranging their portfolios.
Another notable survey was conducted by Mikkelson, York, and Arritola (2015), where the purpose of this research was to establish that there is significant relationship between leadership styles (task and relationship orientated) practised in organization and job satisfaction of employee. The study affirmed that the two different types of leadership have different effect on the job satisfaction at workplace. It was indicated that an effective communication was significantly associated to job satisfaction, motivation, and organizational commitment. Task-orientated leadership style does have a connection to job satisfaction, however various researchers provide inconsistent results as the survey was conducted based on a different perspective and environment. On the other hand, relationship- orientated leadership style is the best predictor of job satisfaction as subordinates and peers value a workplace relationship among each other. A feeling of respect is formed while building a trust based relationship.
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This article has come out with an empirical study on the factors which impacts the employee satisfaction and has an indirect relationship towards satisfaction of customers. The study area was a leading retail store in Pondicherry region. The findings suggest that its empowerment and benefits (monetary and non-monetary) which has strong relationship with that of internal customer satisfaction. While training has a moderate relationship and supervisor relationship has a weak relationship with that of the internal customer satisfaction.
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2.1.2. Cash incentives and employee turnover intention Mohammad Atiq and Afshan Bhatti (2014) indicate that cash incentives have a strong relationship against employee turnover in different age groups. Even though the age groups are differing it’s important to have a right incentive schemes to cater employees where employees have an intention not to quit the current job. Furthermore, Authors observed that a good combination of incentive type is more important and it lies on the different age groups. Other hand side it also needs to be attainable with the respective objectives given for each employee. This concludes that type of incentive scheme purely depends on the age groups of employees and companies should be able to match the correct incentive scheme concerning their age groups and business environment. Babangida Mohammed Musa, Ibrahim Ahmed and Abubakar Bala (2014) stated that there is a linear relationship among fringe benefits and turnover intention in the hotel industry. Authors recommended having monitory and non-monitory incentive schemes in place to reduce the high turnover since high frequency of turnover has a huge impact on overall company achievements. Monitory and non-monitory incentives enhance the employee retention and employee commitment as well.
The purpose of this research is to analyse the effect of perceived supervisor support, job conditions and gender differences on perceived organization support. Previous literature was explored, and accordingly research hypotheses were posed. Employees working in the call centres of the multinational mobile communication organizations were selected as the sample of the study. Interviews with Key personnel along with experts Human Resources professors were held prior to distributing the questionnaires with the objective of exploring the selected domain characteristics. Research questionnaire was developed using previously published, sound and reliable scales to measure the selected constructs. A total number of 700 self-administered questionnaires were distributed in Cairo and Giza governorates. Statistical analysis was conducted and the results showed a positive relationship between perceived supervisor support and perceived organization support, job conditions and perceived organization support and that females possessed higher levels of felt organization support compared to males. The discussion of results, managerial implications, and research limitations were explored based on the research findings.
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psychological processes through which HRM practices impact attitudes and behaviors of employees (Zhang & Agarwal, 2009). Hence, there is dearth of knowledge of how these HRM practices influence perceptions of employees, their states of mind, behaviors, their attitudes and their thinking and how they respond to the practices (Deery, 2002). Besides, little explanation has been given related to how these HRM practices impact decision of individual to stay with the organization (Allen et al., 2003). Hence, this study will fill the gap in body of knowledge by including the six main HRM practices in this study (i.e. compensation, training and development and supervisor support).
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Drawing on Conservation of Resource theory (COR), Crain (2012) applied FSSB to employees’ physical research, and found out that FSSB moderated the associa- tion between supervisor positives pill over and employee sleep duration . Sa- mantha and Jonathon (2013) collect data from 628 employees of a health system, using path analytic tests of moderated mediation, provide support for the me- diated effect of family-supportive climate on employee work-family conflict (through family supportive supervisor behaviors) . Qing and Zhou (2017) use a 2-wave survey conducted over a 5-month interval, results revealed that FSSB at Time 1 increased bidirectional work-family enrichment and work engagement at Time 2, bidirectional work-family enrichment was found to fully mediate the re- lationship between FSSB and work engagement . Similarly, Rofcanin et al. (2017) proposed that the positive association between subordinates’ perceptions of FSSBs and work engagement was moderated by family supportive organiza- tional culture . Germeys and Sara (2017) argued that family supportive su- pervisor behaviors moderate the relationship between experiencing home-work conflict and an employee’s performance of counterproductive work behavior . In a survey of healthcare workers, Yragui, Demsky, Hammer, Dyck, & Ne- radilek (2017) testified the moderating effects of family-supportive supervisor behaviors on the relationship between two types of workplace aggression and employee well-being and work outcomes .
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