Mentorship plays an important role in shaping how the students will subsequently practice as a qualified nurse or midwife. Although applied differently in different institutions, mentorship still stands out to be a good method of teaching and assessing students in clinical settings. It is clear that there are many lessons to be learnt in order to continue improving mentorship or to develop a good mentorship programme. It can also be con- cluded that mentorship will be beneficial to students if a good relationship is established between the mentor and mentee, as this is the beginning of the experience. Despite having designated mentors, the overall interaction students have with all members of staff during clinical placement is essential for effective learning. A friendly and yet supportive environment where feedback is given is central to the learning of students. Finally, all staff members should be willing to supportstudents in learning and they should be able to give constructive feedback to the students about their progress for the students to learn and develop the knowledge, skill and attitudes that are necessary to their learning.
When asked the respondents gave feedback to student midwives with regard to clinical training, 29.5% of the respondents said ‘other times, 23.3% said when they requested, 19.3% said at the end of the course, 15.9% said at the end of the semester, and 11.9% said at the end of the year. The participants in the FGD also identified lack of motivation as the reason most supervisors delay in giving feedback. The factors identified to cause this were mainly staffing levels and at- titude of supervisors. The fact that most supervisors are not trained in clinical supervision also contributes to them not giving feedback regularly even when problems have been noticed in trainees. Studies have also found that knowledge gap between nurses and tutors hindered clinical skill acquisition by students. Most students reported that they had noted a discrepancy when it came to per- forming of procedures among the tutors themselves as well as the clinical nurses. It is vital that nurses understand what is meant by clinical supervision and what it is they are being urged to take on. Nurses should also be aware that there may be different but equally valuable perspectives on supervision and not allow this to become yet another barrier to its implementation; Nurses are expected to take on greater responsibility an appropriate support network that encourages explo- ration of practice can only be of benefit   . The aspect of professional responsibility and accountability towards work including supervision of students need to be strengthened for school staff and clinical staff to frequently liaise to help impart knowledge to students.
Unfortunately, there is an acute shortage of health personnel in Cameroon with ratios of 2 doctors and 16 nurses for every 10,000 patients . Considering the workload on the available human resources, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends tasks shifting from doctors to nurses, midwives and other non-clinicians staff in the management of HIV and AIDS . In Cameroon task shifting has become a common practice along the care and treatment cascade in most HIV/AIDS treatment facilities. Consequently nurses and midwives are ex- pected to perform HIV counselling and testing, clinical assessment, initiation and monitoring of antiretroviral therapy in addition to adherence and psychoso- cial assessment and support along the continuum of care . Nurses and mid- wives are also involved in primary data collection, record keeping and reporting which makes monitoring and evaluation of services feasible, guide decision making and ensure the provision of quality services .
With regards to interaction with staffs, the odds of having a positive attitude towards clinicalpractice were found to be 2 times higher among students who had good communication with clinical staffs [AOR = 1.89, 95%, CI (1.05, 3.41)] compared counterparts. The finding of our study is consistent with previous studies conducted in Jamaica , Spain , and Iran . This might be due to the fact that clinical staffs are the key stakeholders to shape students with necessary skills, creating condu- cive clinical-environment, and socializing students with their profession . Similarly, students who practiced in a well-equipped hospital were more likely to have a favorable attitude towards clinicalpractice compared with counterparts [AOR = 1.76, 95%, CI (1.01, 3.06)]. This might be due to the fact that students could have a bet- ter picture of the clinical setup which derives the learning objectives. The finding is supported by the studies done in Australia , and Afghanistan .
At the end of the educational semester a researcher-developed questionnaire, whose validity and reliability had already been approved by test-retest, was distributed among the students of both classes to eval- uate their attitude and learning based on the Likert scale. This study was carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsin- ki, the anonymity of participants was guar- anteed, and the informed consent was ob- tained from the participants. The study was conducted with coordination of Education Deputy of Shahrekord University of Medi- cal Sciences after the approval of Ethics Committee was obtained.
based learning has been reported to be effective than traditional communication skills training . Furthermore, the effect of empathy and communication skills course has been reported to have positive influence on both female and male students empathy communication skills . A similar study by Daniels et al. , reported that an experimental group made lesser communication mistakes after training. However, the study did not provide the population and the year in which the study was conducted.
The primary task and important responsibility of nursing managers is not the manager but the development of nursing talent. In the current transformation of the precision medical model of cancer, nursing managers also need to change their management thinking and develop advanced practical nurses for cancer precision cancer nursing. Recent advances in tumor markers and biomedical technologies have begun to change the basic principles of cancer therapeutics and clinical trials. In order to design innovative adaptive tests, to develop accu- rate cancer treatment plans, and to provide appropriate, safe, and effective care, nursing staff are required to undergo standardized training, master relevant bio-marker knowledge, Malignant tumor-related molecular definitions and so on . However genome testing also brings many ethical issues. Therefore, nurses need to understand the process of genome testing and the impact of the results and work collaboratively with the doctors . In the process of clinical implementation of precise nursing, caregivers should maintain the right to be recruited and consent to participate in gene-spatial-related research, while also paying attention to the privacy of patients’ health information and their willing- ness to use their personal health information. We do our best to provide the op- timal care and maximize the benefits for precise treatment of cancer patients.
The main limit of our survey was the cross-sectional study design. For this reason, changes over time could not be monitored. Moreover, a single-step TST procedure was used, although IGRA testing was systematically carried out in the event of TST positivity, thus increasing the spe- cificity of the confirmed diagnosis of LTBI. Another limit involved the difficulty to obtain adequate information concerning the time spent by the students in the hospital before being tested and their specific exposure to con- firmed cases of infectious TB, both at professional and at community level (family, social activities, etc.). Addition- ally, a lack of demographic and epidemiological informa- tion concerning the students who refused to enter the survey existed. A further selection bias of the study popu- lation with respect to the attendance of hospital wards, between medical (clinical) and nursing/midwifery (pre- clinical) students, prevented any specific risk assessment for TB infection in the different healthcare schools.
The last decade has seen much reform in the Irish health service. The developments were heralded by the release of an ambitious health strategy by the Department of Health and Children (DoHC) in 2001: Quality and Fairness: A Health System for You (O’Shea 2008). The clinical nurse or midwife specialist role has developed out of identified service needs at local, regional and national levels and is thus in a prime position to support the national health policy as outlined in this document. Moreover, the development of advanced practicenursing and midwifery roles is considered central to the current health service reform (DoHC 2003a), and their development within the framework of the National Council has been recommended (DoHC 2001a). The focus outlined was on developing existing educational and training facilities to meet the needs of this group. The Report of the National Task Force on Medical Staffing (DoHC 2003b) recommended that, in keeping with the philosophy of the Commission on Nursing (Government of Ireland 1998), there needed to be exploration of how the development of the roles envisaged could be implemented nationally. The task force highlighted the potential for nurses and midwives to enhance quality patient care and patient outcomes further, in the context of a reduction in working hours of junior doctors (DoHC 2003b). This endorsement is also evident in an expansion of nursing roles, an increase in nurse- and midwife-led clinics, which require skills and competencies that reflect practice at an advanced level (NCNM 2003), and numerous national plans that include CS/AP roles as part of future development. For example, the HSE National Cancer Forum (HSE 2006a) sets out its strategy for cancer control in Ireland with plans for providing multidisciplinary team care, including a large role for nurses. In particular, ANPs are key team members listed in the National Cancer Screening Service (NCSS) plan for a colorectal cancer screening programme (NCSS 2009). Similarly, the recent report on plans for the reconfiguration of acute hospital services in Cork and Kerry outlines the need for greater use of new extended scope roles and, lists numerous CS/AP roles as examples (Higgins 2010).
mentally or emotionally, one can say that he is stressed. “Work-related stress can be caused by poor work organisation which could mean the design of the jobs and work systems, and the way they are managed. According to Leka et al. (2003), work related stress could also be as a result of poor institutional management, poor work environment or working condition as well as lack of support from other members of the team. Research findings (Leka et al. 2003; Stoica & Buicu 2010) have shown that the most stressful types of work are those in which the demand of the job does not match the capacity and capabilities of the employee. Stress also occurs where there are too much restrictions and little or no opportunity to make choices and where the amount of external support is low. When these factors are provided for, employees are less likely to experience work related stress. There are several know sources of stress experience by nursingstudents. These sources are sometimes acting in isolation or in combination with other stressors to weigh down on individuals at either work or elsewhere. According to Zuccolo (2013), stressors are categorized into physical or psychological sources. These are further classified into environmental, social, physiological and cognitive-emotional stressors. Physical stressors impact on our five senses and these may include factors like noise, pollution and weather. Other types of physical stressors are changes arising from physiological changes like puberty, menopause, adolescent and aging among others. Social stressors include psychological stressors arising mostly from the demand of daily living like at work or relationships. Finally, the cognitive-emotional is the type arising from our thoughts as a response to change in our environment.
Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) is a process, which helps healthcare professionals to remain up-to-date and make effective clinical decisions (1, 2). At the practice setting, EBP emphasizes on integration of the best research evi- dence with clinical expertise and patient values (3). In other word, EBP requires nurses to integrate technical skills and professional knowledge with up-to-date sci- entific evidence to diagnose their clients’ problems and to design, implement, and evaluate evidence-based care plans to solve these problems (4, 5). However, a consid- erable gap exists between research evidence and the current nursingpractice (4, 6, 7). Therefore, there is a strong emphasis on educating the skills needed for EBP through nursing educational programs (8). According to the American Nursing Colleges Association, possess- ing the knowledge and skills required for practicing EBP is a crucial need in undergraduate level of nursing
Two tools were used to collect data for the study. The first one was interview questionnaire sheet for socio demographic data as age, marital status, number of children and academic year. Second tool was interview schedule consisting of three themes such as Students‘ Positive clinical learning experiences, challenges and anxiety producing situations and the best and worst moments in their training. The content validity of these tools was determined by expert colleagues from the same college who judged for its adequacy and to ensure that these tools measure what it intended to be measured. An informed consent was taken after the purpose of the study was clearly explained to the students. Students were informed that they have the right to withdraw from the study at any time and each one was given the free opportunity to refuse to participate. The PI was assured that ―all data both hard and soft copies must be stored within the KSAU-HS, premises and access by the research team only.
conceptualisation. We believe it takes education and experience to use them appropriately. A major concern that the authors have about the measurement of competencies is the tendency to overlook those aspects which are more abstract and more difficult to quantify and measure. In the busy, at times hectic, clinical arena there is a natural tendency to put assessment efforts into evaluating readily measurable behaviours and consequently to ignore those factors which are more difficult to assess, such as attitudes. This tendency is compounded by the need to demonstrate the validity of any claims that a student has failed to achieve the standard expected of them. Our concern lies with the potential for a decline in professional nursing standards because the minimum requirement has been taken as sufficient. In the clinical environment, where competency standards are increasingly complex for nurses, the group suggests that the lack of education on the use and pressures inherent in the health system tends to perpetuate their misuse. In summary, we believe that the competency standards need to remain as the foundation for assessment but that preceptors need to have a more in-depth appreciation of the purpose and the process of operationalising the conceptual framework. It is essential that we keep this debate ongoing and alive to ensure that the tool does not become the driver of the process.
others. Self-directed learners are responsible for their learning. Self-Directed learning leads to lifelong learning because it trains students who recognise their learning needs and make efforts to eliminate them . All people are capable of self-directed learning to some different degrees, depending on their learning motivation, self- efficacy, self-esteem, conscience and intelligence. Experts agree that self-directed learning has three motivational, metacognitive and self-regulative dimensions . Although different variables can influence learning in the course of learning activities, motivation is undeniably important. Motivation is the most important condition for learning. Motivation is the heart of learning and learning is the goal of education . Motivation is the creator, maintainer and director of behaviour; there are internal and external motivations. External motivation is derived from extrinsic reward, while the source of reward in internal motivation lies in what is done . The study of El-Khedr and Ibrahim revealed that there were statistically significant correlations between the desire for nursing education and total academic motivation . Motivation and self-direction are intertwined . Active, independent and self-directed learning requires motivation. Studies showed the relationship between academic motivation and self-directed learning in nursingstudents [14,18]; however, their results cannot be generalised due to cultural and social differences. Considering the increasing growth of information in the current era and rapid and constant changes, it seems essential to train nurses who constantly learn during school and afterwards. This study examines the relationship between self-directed learning and academic motivation of nursingstudents.
score of 10 and more on the Beck Depression Scale, were selected as study samples. They were randomly divided into control group and study group. The two groups were matched according to age, sex, marital status and family history of psychiatric disorders. An invitation was sent to the study group for attending the training classes for solving problem skills. From the 65 sent invitations, 50 people gave positive responses. Finally 46 students within the age range of 18 to 37, studying for a bachelor or master’s degree in nursing and midwifery were chosen as the study sample. Figure 1 shows the sampling chart. For the study group six sessions of training in problem-solving in small groups were performed during three weeks as the following:
Background and Purpose: Spiritual well-being plays an important role in the mental and physical health, and is considered as a common strategy to cope with problems. Given the importance of promoting spiritual well-being in the nursing and midwiferystudents, we must first determine the level of this state in this population. Regarding this, the present study aimed to examine the spiritual well- being and its related factors in the nursing and midwiferystudents of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was conducted on 183 nursing and midwiferystudents studying at the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in 2015. The sampling was performed using the systematic random sampling technique. The research instruments included a demographic form and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale developed by Palotzian and Ellison. The data were analyzed through the SPSS version 16 using the descriptive and analytical tests, including frequency, percentage, t-test, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: According to the results of the present study, the mean spiritual well-being was 69.70±11.62. In addition, the means of religious and existential well-being were 35.77±6.80 and 34.04±6.19, respectively. The results demonstrated no significant correlation between the demographic variables and spiritual well-being in the participants (P>0.05). However, spiritual well-being had a significant relationship with the religious and existential well-being (P<0.001).
in the simulation laboratory. These findings inconsistent results of the study conducted by Manal, who found most of the sample that the demonstration of skills done by their supervisors in the simulation laboratory (Manal, 2014). However, Jefferies and Rizzolo stated that qualified faculties who have trained in simulation assume the educator role during the simulated learning experience, clinical staff or staff specific to the patient simulation laboratory can play the educator role. In either case, it is important for the educator to have knowledge of the simulation and the material it covers (Jeffries, 2006). Hoffman et al. added that students participating in the simulated learning experience must come into the simulated clinical environment prepared for the simulation with a basic knowledge of the material and dressed appropriately for the clinical experience. In this study, nursingstudents revealed that they obtained feedback from their supervisors after the simulation sessions (Hoffmann, 2007). According to Hanson and Stenvig, positive feedback can increase self-esteem whereas negative feedback can discourage and frustrate the students (Hanson, 2008). Results of this study further presented that less than half of the nursingstudents had opportunity to practice skills during simulation sessions. These results in line with study of Manal (Manal, 2014), nevertheless, Scully was of the opinion that, mastering a skill in the classroom can help facilitate closing the theory-practice gap when applying the same skill to the clinical
Data were collected by Approached and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIS) as well as demographic information collection form. The demographic questionnaire used in this study included ten questions on age, gender, field of study and year, semester average, grade point average, place of residence, interest, awareness and previous knowledge of the field of study. To determine the students’ academic achievement, their averages were used. In order to classify the students based on the average, three high, medium and low averages were calculated through the mean and SD. Those students whose averages were higher than 1 SD of the calculated mean were categorized in high average group; those with 1 SD higher or lower than the mean and those with 1 SD lower than the mean were categorized in medium and low average groups, respectively.
It was a descriptive, interventionist and comparative study, with a quantitative approach carried out in a Public Higher Education Institution of Belém, State of Pará, Brazil, from March to April 2017. The population was represented by students of the 1st year of the Undergraduate Nursing course (Group A-morning and B-afternoon group), both genders, morning and afternoon shifts, totaling 28 participants, 14 students in the experimental group (Intervention Group - IG) and 14 in the control group (Control Group - CG) representing 56% of the total sample. For selection of participants and allocation in the groups (control and intervention) was used to randomization (simple draw), which is a selection process in which each research participants have the same probability of being drawn to form the sample or to be allocated in one of the study groups (Kara-Junior, 2014). The randomization was done in such a way that there was no combination and mixing of the classes, with the remaining A and B groups separated, only allocating to the groups (intervention and control), based on the frequency of the class. Inclusion criteria for the study were: Students of both genders, enrolled in the 1st year of the Nursing Undergraduate course in the morning and afternoon shifts in the first semester of 2017. The exclusion were: Students not enrolled in the course, students enrolled in the subsequent years of the course, students enrolled but coming from selective internal or external transfer processes, since these students had already studied curricular components that included BLS knowledge, underage students who did not bring the Free and Clarified Consent Form signed by those responsible; and students with other higher education in the area of health.
The data-gathering tools included a two-section question- naire. Section one was on demographics (eg, age, gender, domicile, major, hospital, ward, marital status, number of days of attending the ward, and grade-point average (GPA) of the three years before the internship). Section two of the questionnaire was a standard undergraduate clinical educa- tion environment measure (UCEEM). The measure was introduced in 2013 by Strand, 17 in Sweden. The tool is comprised of two main scales of learning through experi- encing and social participation; with four subscales of opportunities to learn in and through work and quality of supervision, preparedness for student entry, “ workplace interaction patterns & student inclusion, ” and equal treat- ment. The four subscales measure different aspects of clinical education from undergraduate students ’ view- points based on a Likert scale. The tool is comprised of 25 statements designed based on a Likert ﬁ ve-point scale (1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = no idea, 4 = agree, 5 = strongly agree). The minimum and maximum scores of the tool are 25 and 125, respectively, and the higher the score the higher the quality of educational environment. 17 According to the standard deviation scores, the total score and the score of each subscale are categorized at three levels of optimal, moderate, and poor conventionally. 18