Hajj pilgrims receive health promotion and education messages while they are in Saudi Arabia for Hajj but many also have such campaigns administered in their country of origin before the pilgrimage. Such campaigns should include education on the appropriate use of antibiotics and should address the common belief of the advantages of prophylaxis use of antibiotics during Hajj as well as the practice of carrying antibiotics with them from their country of origin to KSA. Engagement of healthcare professionals, pharmacist as well as pilgrims health missions and community and religious leaders in this endeavor is important. Within the Kingdom, rational use of antibiotics and the consequences of antibiotic overuse or misuse should be part of the health education programs for pilgrims. Education of healthcare professionals especially those in contact with pilgrims as well as enforcing the legislations prohibition over the counter sell of antibiotics are crucial given that many pilgrims in our study had acquired antibiotics from pharmacies in the Kingdom without prescription.
In conclusion, our results support the usefulness for STs of educational campaigns and additional training about vaccines and misconceptions about vaccines and vac- cine practices in order to fill their knowledge gaps. The primary objective of these interventions should be rais- ing the awareness of STs regarding VPDs, emphasizing that the teachers themselves are at significant risk, and that they may potentially become the source of potentially life-threatening infections for their students and relatives. Moreover, these campaigns should also be aimed to con- vince STs about safety and efficacy of vaccines, in order that they could proactively share and disseminate up-to- date evidence across the school settings. Cornerstone of these campaigns should be identified in healthcare pro- fessionals strictly interconnected with the school environ- ment and well aware of the specific characteristics of the school settings. In health system lacking significant stake- holders such as school nurses and school physicians, the contribution of OPh may be significant.
difference between having heard of eye injury/foreign body between the participant groups (Table 4). Corneal ulcer, AMD, glaucoma and diabetic eye disease were excluded from this analysis. A higher proportion of the older participants had heard of trachoma compared to the other age groups - this could be an indicator of trachoma having been more of a problem in the past for the older generation than it is now for the younger generations. Trachoma was better known among the older age group (35.5%) as compared to the parents of young children group (10.7%) (Table 4). This is likely to be associated with early trachoma campaigns. A higher proportion of females (33%) had heard of trachoma
The survey sample is the set of survey participants selected from the larger survey population. The survey sampling plan will determine how participants are selected and can address the generalizability, certainty, and precision of results by defining who is included in the survey and how many people are needed . To provide the most appropriate survey sample while considering time and resource constraints, the sampling plan should be developed with the assistance of someone knowledgeable in survey methodology in order. In general, there are three main categories of sampling – random, purposeful, and convenience sampling (Table 2) . While random sampling may be the most methodologically rigorous, each of sampling method has advantages and disadvantages. Thus, it will be necessary to decide which will be most feasible in the setting of a cholera outbreak and reactive vaccination campaign.
Under the pressure of full call loading, however, you may discover ways to better configure your next campaign. The following section re-examines the most important configuration parameters, and how they can influence the effectiveness of a campaign. If you have any difficulty with configuration, or your campaigns aren’t running the way you intended, check the troubleshooting guide on page 28 for solutions to common problems.
The origins of the SP can be traced back to 1964 when Daan Monjé and Nico Schreven, both members of the Communist Party of the Netherlands (CPN), which was a split off from the SDAP, founded the Marxist-Leninist Centre (MLC) based on the ideas of Mao Zedong (Stuurop, 2017a) . For this action, the two were removed from the CPN. In 1968 the MLC collapsed and Monjé and Schreven continued in the Communist Unity-movement of the Netherlands (KEN) (Stuurop, 2017a). In the 70’s, due to disagreement between Monjé and Schreven, the KEN split up and Monjé founded, together met Hans van Hooft and Koos van Zomeren the Communist Party of the Netherlands (KPN) (Stuurop, 2017a). The KPN, in order to diversify its ideology, rebranded itself in 1972 to the Socialist Party (SP) which name it still uses (Stuurop, 2017a). The party is not able to convert its regional success in national success and fails to gain seats in the 1977 parliamentary election. It continues as an ‘actionparty’ which campaigns permanently in order to improve healthcare and environmental protection (Parlement.com, 2017e). In 1986, the party has 40 seats in different municipal councils but still no parliamentary seats (SP, 2017). In a national congress, the SP decides to ‘modernise’ socialism in order to compete on a national level, this becomes the SP’s main priority (SP, 2017). In 1993, the party starts a radical opposition campaign with the slogan: Vote against, Vote SP (SP, 2017). This strategy pays of and the SP gains its first two seats in the 1994 parliamentary election. After the national breakthrough, the SP continues to grow, both nationally and regionally, this under the leadership of frontrunner Jan Marijnissen. In 2008 Marijnissen steps down due to health issues (SP, 2017). He is replaced with Agnes Kant but she resigns in 2010 due to disappointing results in the local elections. Emile Roemer takes over and is able to minimize the damage in the following elections and continues to receive the support of his party and stays on as a frontrunner in the 2017 elections. In 2017 the SP won 14 seats.
* After studying at The University of Montana School of Law for two years, and just before she turned 41, Emily Sloan was admitted to practice in Montana in 1919. She moved to Billings where she opened her law practice and then moved to Carbon County where she ran for county attorney in 1922, 1924, and 1926. After she lost the election in 1926, she returned to Billings where she practiced until about 1938, when she moved to Washington to be with her daughters. For more biographical informa- tion about Emily and women in politics, see Bari R. Burke, Foreword to When a Woman Campaigns: Emily Sloan’s Races to Become Montana’s First Female County Attorney, 74 Mont. L. Rev. 343 (2013). Emily wrote a memoir, This Life of Mine, that has not been published. Her daughter, Elsie Amlong, preserved a copy of the memoir, partially in hopes that someone would recognize Emily’s historical significance and courage. Included in her memoir is this chapter, “When a Woman Cam- paigns.” It is unknown when Emily wrote her memoir; she died in 1973. Bari Burke added footnotes and made minor grammatical edits for clarity and historical perspective.
Social scientists theorize about the role of individuals’ or groups’ “social capital,” or the power of their personal relationships in public will campaigns. They note the utility of such ties in influencing policy decisions, allocating resources and influencing media coverage. So, for example, when advocates began organizing a movement for a cigarette tax increase in California that passed as Proposition 99 in 1988, one of their first contacts was California Assembly Member Lloyd Connelly, a respected politician with considerable social capital and influence. Connelly helped forge connections between new groups, lobbyists, and influential individuals. It was partially due to this networking that the Coalition for a Healthy California was created.
Earlier studies showed that the better nutrition knowledge is related to better dietary habits (21-23). So it is necessary to know the knowledge level of population to determine the eating habits. To our knowledge, no study was assessed the KAP status toward fast food, soft drinks, salt and oil among Iranian population in urban and rural regions. And, due to the increase of chronic diseases and the role of diet as a modifiable factor, furthermore the comprehensive study about the consumption of these foods has not been done yet in Iran, the important of this study is clear. So the aim of current study was to investigate the KAP level about fast food, soft drinks, salt and oil in urban
Our study sample contained parents of all geographi- cal areas of Greece (Peloponnesus, islands, Athens, Northern Greece, and Central Greece). A school-based stratified geographical clustering sampling was used to select a representative sample of students, whose par- ents were asked to fill in the questionnaire by a letter explaining the importance of the subject (i.e., the defi- nition and nature of URTIs and the problem of injudi- cious antibiotic use) and their cooperation in the study. The population of children aged 5 or 6 years old in Greece was approximately 240,000, according to the census of 2001. The number of required geogra- phical clusters was calculated to be 200 based on the mean number of students in each class (n = 40). In total, 100 kindergarten (age 5 years) and 100 elemen- tary schools (first year students, aged 6 years) were randomly selected and stratified according to the population of children in each region. The sample size was estimated taking into consideration the geographi- cal cluster sampling methodology (double the needed sample) and the expected percentage of non-respon- ders (20%). Approval was given by the Ministry of Education to contact the parents through the selected students. A total of 7704 parents with children aged between 5 and 6 years old were invited to participate in the survey. The survey was conducted between January and July of the same school year. The study design and questionnaire was approved by the educa- tional institute of the Ministry of Education and Gen- eral Assembly of the Medical Faculty at the University of Thessaly (reference number: 401/15 - 02 - 06).
seem to learn more during election campaigns (Ondercin et al., 2011 ). However, this find- ing is likely not a gender effect per se but rather a result of the different initial levels of knowledge and efficacy among men and women. Therefore, we expect that the impact of this variable is negligible once we control for other factors, particularly initial levels of knowledge. Finally, we include age as a variable in the analysis. We expect age to have a significant, negative impact on learning, and thereby perhaps also on efficacy, for two rea- sons. First, absorbing political knowledge requires cognitive skills, and aging tends to have a negative impact on a number of these skills, such as memory and “speed of processing” (Lau & Redlawsk, 2006 , 2008). Second, younger voters generally have less stable attitudes than older voters (Jennings & Niemi, 1978 ; Stubager, Hansen, & Goul Andersen, 2013 ). Thus, younger voters might be more motivated to acquire new knowledge on which to base their opinions. Thus, we propose the following hypotheses.
We recommend that campaigns should be based on a solid foundation: databases of road accident statistics, offences, research (observations, surveys, market studies, theoretical models for predicting and explaining behaviour, models of behaviour change). Campaigns can also be based on emer ging issues. Statistics are generally the first aid to defining the theme of a campaign because they provide initial information about the target audience. However, statistical information is not suffi- cient in and of itself. It is therefore useful to base the campaign on available studies, and/or to conduct additional studies designed around theoretical models whenever the necessary information is not available. Such custom-designed studies can provide in-depth information about the problem behaviour and factors that might predict it, while existing published research helps in identifying the target audience in detail and segmenting it into smaller groups.