energy to reduce costs. The cycling of human waste could be integral to future resource-efficient sys- tems when studies provide viable technologies. Essential to creating a research agenda that objec- tively evaluates alternatives is an educational model that promotes creating thinking in the combining of theory and practice; in the integration of production, economic, environmental, and social concerns; and in better understanding of food webs and farming as human activity systems. Focus in the future on a research agenda that evaluates local food systems using methods from both biological and social sciences can help us better understand food security and sovereignty. A number of key issues were presented in the “Sustainable Agricultural Systems Science White Paper” from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Research, Education, and Economics Division in 2012, and these are included in the following discussion of future foodsystemresearch priorities (Office of the Chief Scientist, USDA, 2012). An articulate presentation of the rationale for diversified farming systems based on agroecological models as compared to industrial agriculture was provided by Kremen, Iles, and Bacon (2012).
sustainabilityeducation is to foster a community culture that will promote the emergence of sustainability in complex adaptive systems with social and ecological components. This research explores how place-based education can promote sustainability of a particular community foodsystem. Through participatory action research, the paper develops and demonstrates pedagogical components of sustainability that are applicable to formal and non-formal educational contexts. This work is based at the Effie Kokrine Charter School (EKCS), a junior-senior high school in Fairbanks, Alaska that teaches with an Alaska Native approach, emphasizing place-based, experiential, and holistic education by utilizing students’ natural and human communities to facilitate learning. The collaborative design of an Interior Alaska gardening curriculum serves as both an organizing framework for the project’s fieldwork as well as an outcome of the research. The resultant gardening curriculum and the rationale behind its design demonstrate components of pedagogy for sustainability, including systems thinking, place-based and problem-based learning, eco-cultural literacy, eco-justice values, and appropriate assessment. This pedagogical framework has theoretical and practical implications in multiple educational settings and indicates ways for our educational institutions to participate in the global sustainability revolution.
We argue that certain contemporary forms of food systems education fall into this same racist logic, assuming that school gardens and courses on nutrition are the key to improving the health and well-being of students of color. Nonetheless, we agree that more discussion about food systems in schools is a critical component of integrating youth into a collective struggle for more equitable food systems. Drawing on over six years of research with the Brazilian Landless Workers Movement (MST), we propose critical food systems education (CFSE) as an alternative to the “unbearable white- ness” of food systems education. The MST is one of the largest social movements in Latin America, with over 350,000 families that have addressed food insecurity and poverty through occupations of unproductive land estates that force the govern- ment to redistribute this land to these landless farmers (Branford & Rocha 2002; Wolford, 2010). An alternative educational model is a central com- ponent of this struggle, as MST leaders have devel- oped a series of organizational, curricular, and ped- agogical initiatives that encourage youth to stay in the countryside and become peasant-intellectuals, helping to contribute to the sustainability of these new rural communities (Meek, 2015; Tarlau, in press). This educational struggle is in direct opposi- tion to a racialized discourse of the “peasantry” as backwards, ignorant, and a soon-to-disappear seg- ment of the population. The leaders of the MST reject the goal of education as producing “urban (white) modernity,” and instead implement altera- tive educational programs that posit the peasantry as a political subject who can produce a more equitable foodsystem, based in agroecological farming methods, in the twenty-first century Brazilian countryside.
Globally speaking, there is a growing consensus that the quest for sustainability is one of the major societal challenges of our times and that education has a vital role to play in tackling it (Van Poeck, König, & Wals, 2018). The process of fostering an ecologically literate citizenry is complex and not straightforward but it is undoubtedly a process in which educators are required to break away from traditional teaching and include more constructivist ideologies (Goodwin, 2016; Monaghan & Curthoys, 2008; Teisl & O’Brien, 2003). Ecological intelligence is inherently collective, and because school communities theoretically come alive through networks of relationships, they become ideal places to nurture ecological sensibility (Goleman, Bennett, & Barlow, 2012). Yet, despite the increasing support for sustainabilityeducation (Chawla, 2014; Wisconsin Dept. of Public Instruction, 2018) and improved knowledge frameworks of effective environmental action (Chawla, 2014; Simsekli, 2015), fostering ecoliteracy has been historically more difficult than anticipated (Monaghan & Curthoys, 2008; Wiek et al., 2013). This is conclusive with Goodwin’s (2016) observations of common deficiency in ecological and systemic thinking amongst our society and educational institutions. Therefore, studies like this one are important as educators try to blend theory into practice in classroom settings.
The solution of these resulting problems, fight in preventing food waste and hunger will be possible with increasing the coordination between the retailer and farmers and raising the awareness of stakeholders such as producers, retailers and consumers who are the people in the food chain. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (UNFAO), The Environment Programme (UNEP) and their global partners in the globe have launched a campaign called “Think, Eat, Save, Reduce Your Food Print” (UNFAO, 2013). With this action, targets were determined to minimize the waste for consumers, retailers and service sector. Through this campaign, families, supermarkets, hotels, schools, sports clubs, private sectors, public sectors, social organizations, mayors and world leaders are asked to raise their voice on the food consumption and conduct researches on this matter.
The main focus here is in eliminating pathogens that have already contaminated food during production, storage or preparation. Such destruction can takes place via thermal processing (mainly cooking-heat temperature at recommended levels accordingly for different foods); non-thermal processing (irradiation, pulsed electric fields, oscillating magnetic fields, high pressure processing, pulse light technology, and freezing at commercial level); antimicrobial and sanitizers (ozone, chlorine, iodine, and organic acids at commercial level); or hurdle technology (combine interventions methods to prevent bacterial growth at commercial level). The Canadian Food Inspection Agency has an online document alerting the population about the proper way to cook meat and poultry products while other online resources offer food storage guidelines for cupboard, refrigerator and freezer [26,27], in various languages such as Dari, Cambodian and Zulu . The ‘Food-Safe School Action Guide’  reinforces cooking time and temperatures, and the importance in maintaining heat in hot foods; separation of raw meat from cooked foods and vegetables including cleaning cutting boards that contacted raw meat; chilling food by refrigerating leftovers promptly and at right temperature; keeping purchased (refrigerated) food chilled until getting home; and reheating leftovers properly.
justice, knowledge, participation, health, diversity and val- ues (Kloppenburg et al. 2000), equity (Blay-Palmer 2010) and concern for proximate and distant others (Psarikidou and Szerszynski 2012). These descriptions are typically applied to food provisioning arrangements that are ‘alter- native’ to and putatively more sustainable than prevail- ing, ‘conventional’ arrangements. For example, Allen explicitly conflates ‘alternative’ with ‘sustainable’ (Allen 1993, p. x) and finds that ‘alternative’ agrifood arrange- ments, compared with ‘conventional’ ones, are ‘more equitable, environmentally sound, and better for human health’ (Allen 2004, p. 80). It is hard to find depictions of social sustainability applied to industrial food systems. Lang (2010) provides a rare example—in his framework the overarching goal would be to feed everyone equitably and healthily, while care would be taken to protect eco- logical resources and build the skills necessary for future generations. This framework would apply the ‘green filter’ that distinguishes sustainable social policy; and would also apply a ‘social filter’ (c.f. Raworth 2012), to embed social justice in, for example, plans to adapt farming to mitigate climate change. A more recent example is the Sustainabil- ity Assessment of Food and Agriculture (SAFA), produced for the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation, which has social indicators covering, e.g., workers’ rights including child and forced labour, public health, fair pricing and transparency of contracts (SAFA 2013).
Another common reason for not obtaining BCG immunization is the inconvenience felt by the mothers or parents about taking their children to the nearest health center or hospital. A negative relationship appears between mothers' education and the proportion of children whose mothers gave this reason. In this case, the percentage decreased continuously from 26 per cent for children whose mothers had no education to 10 per cent for children whose mothers had more than 4 years of education. It was observed in the present study that mothers with lower level of education tended to work in jobs where they were paid daily. If they wanted to take their children to receive immunization , they would have had to spend at least half a day travelling and waiting for the service, which means they would lose the wages for that day. Another reason is that less educated mothers, if not in any paid employment, had to look after their children and worked in the house. If they had to take any one child to be immunized, they would have to find someone to take care of the other children. Hence, these mothers felt more reluctant to go for such services.
We calculated a reference scenario based on the most recent FAO projections for agricultural production patterns and food production and demand in 2050 , and a range of scenarios with a gradual reduction of FCF ranging from the reference scen- ario (referred to as 100% FCF) to 0% FCF. Each scenario presented provides the same amount of per capita energy as the reference scenario as the main measure of food availability. Additional scenarios, for constant per capita protein supply and for constant land use are given in the electronic supplementary material, §2. By-products from food production (brans, oilseed cake, whey, etc.) are assumed to be fed to animals in each scen- ario (electronic supplementary material, §1.3.5). Livestock numbers were derived from per-animal feed requirements and the available feed supply in each scenario. Land no longer required to supply animal feed was allocated to plant food pro- duction, according to the mix of crops in the reference scenario until the global levels of energy or protein for human consump- tion match the requirements of the reference scenario. For making the scenarios more comparable, grassland areas were kept at the level of the reference scenario . Yields per animal were assumed to drop with reduced FCF. To account for the uncertainties regarding this effect, we computed the uncertainty range of 0–40% yield decrease with such feed pattern changes (electronic supplementary material, §1.4.3). The values presented in the paper refer to the mid-value of 20% yield reduction. Values for the boundary cases (0% and 40%) are presented in the elec- tronic supplementary material, §2. Fish and seafood also decreased with a reduction of FCF, as such feed is used in aqua- culture (assuming fed aquaculture to comprise about 20% of fish and seafood in the current situation, about 45% in the reference scenario [47,48], electronic supplementary material, §184.108.40.206). For the scenario with 0% food-competing feedstuffs (0%FCF), the induced reductions in animal protein supply were compen- sated by adjusting the share of legumes in cropping patterns to at least 20%, by allocating larger shares of the areas freed from feed production to legumes (electronic supplementary material, §2). This allows keeping the share of energy delivered through protein at recommended levels of at least 10% also without animal products. Average crop rotations were thus assumed to include a legume crop once every 5 years. This is also feasible agronomically, e.g. regarding breaking disease cycles in legumes. The effect of climate change on yields was assessed by means of sensitivity analysis based on the references and details given in electronic supplementary material, §1.4.3, covering a range
The UN itself was surprisingly ill-prepared for the 2007-08 price spike policy crisis. No major conference on food insecurity was in the pipeline. The 5 year review of the 1996 World Food Summit (WFS) actually occurred later than planned in 2002. The world’s economy was booming. Then suddenly there was the 2007-08 price spike, brought on by the banking bubble deflating. At short notice, a bio-energy conference was converted into a high level gathering in Rome, June 3-5 2008 (FAO, 2008c). This presented the crisis as primarily one for the developing world, exacerbated by unfair destabilisation such as the USA and EU incentives to grow biofuels (the impact of which is still much debated) (FAO, 2008d). This analysis made little connection to other strands of thinking within the UN, let alone the FAO itself, about food’s impact on the environment or public health, and the economic cost of the nutrition transition on developing countries, all of which were studied and acknowledged by the FAO or its sister UN bodies such as the World Health Organisation or the UN Environment Programme. The food crisis was presented as one of under-consumption due to changed prices, in terms that would have been familiar in the 1930s or 1970s, previous crisis points. The modern complex analysis was sidelined. The opportunity to explore and develop policy options based on a full and deep analysis was not taken, despite there being within the FAO (a large organisation) strong evidence showing the biodiversity loss from modern farming systems, the water-stress from undue reliance on irrigation, the implications of exponential growth in animal production, and the health impact of rising consumption of meat and dairy products (WHO / FAO, 2003, FAO, 2006, FAO, 2008b, FAO, 2010a).
It is important to recognize how The Stop CFC itself has been shaped by its context. In the same way that any future CFCs should be developed to take into consideration the specifics of local geographies and histories, The Stop CFC is itself a product of these factors. The Stop CFC is a creature of its environment, both practical and discursive; its activities have been supported and at the same time bounded by its funding sources, as well as by the understandings of its leaders, staff, board members, volunteers, and members. The evolution of The Stop CFC into an innovative and important actor within the regional, national, and potentially global food movement is due in part to its location in a city where considerable other related work is taking place (see Wekerle, 2004) and to its active participation in a community of food practice. The activities of other local organizations (e.g., Food- Share) and local government (particularly the formation of the Toronto Food Policy Council) have created fertile ground for the expansion of the organization in innovative ways. At the same time, broader societal pressures, such as the ongoing withdrawal of the state from social service provision, and the restructuring of the agricultural sector in ways that limit the ability of small farms to access the market cost-effectively, have shaped the organization’s activities. Similarly, broader societal discourses have made particular framings of social justice more palatable than others, and this in turn shapes the practices of the organiza- tions operating within these contexts.
The British public expect supermarket shelves to be filled with a wide range of reliable, fresh and affordable foods. We have argued previously that ‘cheap’ is not actually cheap. There are large externalised costs from today’s highly processed, industrial foodsystem due to its adverse effects on public health and the environment. Compared to the 1960s, spending on food by the British public, in terms of the share of disposable income devoted to food, has halved from about 20% to about 10%, although people on low incomes spend proportionately more of their money on food, while the rich spend a far lower share. Despite those adverse externalities and rampant inequalities, the foodsystem has often enabled people to spend more on non-food items, such as cars, housing IT and holidays. The vast majority of people in this country take for granted the performance of the complex, logistically sophisticated, evolving and unstable system on which our food supply and food markets depend. We may see the large lorries on our roads, but we don’t see the satellites and the computers that are integral to the logistics revolution. The cash tills that tally the consumer’s purchases at the checkout also directly communicate with the supply chain to order replacements. Much of the stock and storage is in trucks on the motorways and autoroutes.
The Swiss Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita accounted for 74,000 CHF (€ 61,400) in 2012 (BFS 2014a). In 2009, it dropped 3.5 % as a consequence of the economic crisis. Since then it continuously increased annually by 0.1 to 2.2 %; reaching the level of 2008 again in 2011. The rate of unemployment showed a contrary development. The unemployment rate increased by 0.9% in 2009 and fluctuated in the following three years between 4.0 and 4.5% (BFS 2014b). Between 2008 and 2012 the GDP per capita was almost constant around 74,000 CHF with a slight decrease in 2009 to 71,100 CHF. Meanwhile, there was a GERD increase of 2,210 million CHF (+13.6%) (BFS 2014c). Overall it seemed that the weakened economic growth between 2008 and 2012 had no negative influence on the expenditures on R&D. According to the last Global Competitiveness Report (Dutta et al. 2014), Switzerland has the highest global competitiveness index. The report emphasizes that the Swiss economy is mainly driven by the stability of the macroeconomic situation and ii) the innovation of their companies. Macroeconomics of the Agri-Food Sector
In both developed and developing countries, street food has often been at risk of intoxication. Assessment of risk factors in this sector in Lomé could help to take appropriate measures for their control. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 988 street vendors while standard methods were used to search for bacteria in 270 ready-to-eat (RTE) foods sampling in Lomé. The results obtained indicate that out-of-home catering sector is mainly driven by women (96.86%). About 63% of vendors have attended primary school and 72.57% are between 25 and 54 years old. Half of the sellers (50.2%) do not have professional health card. Only one bath of soap and one bath of rinsing water are used in 56.98% of cases to wash the plates. There are no Garbage cans in 26.01% of cases. Briefly, 68.89% of the samples of RTE food analyzed were unsafe and unhygienic to good health. Total coliforms (TC), thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli induced 47.03, 58.14 and 33.33% non- conformities, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was counted in 52/270 samples but Salmonella were not detected. Food contamination level, preparation of food and sale conditions and types of water used in catering, would constitute potential risks of toxi-infection related to the consumption of street food in Lomé. Education and sensitization of the actors of the street food sector and a follow-up by the health authorities is recommended to guarantee food without major risk of poisoning in the streets of Lomé.
The main focus is to have a better understanding of the global food price increase and its impact on child education outcomes in Africa, as education is at risk, and the international community needs to identify the threat to education posed by the economic crisis and the rise in global food prices, some countries have achieved extraordinary advances. Benin started out in 1999 with one of the world's lowest net enrolment ratios but may now be on track for universal primary education by 2015, the concern is that the increased vulnerability of poor households and rising child malnutrition caused by the food crisis will impede efforts to achieve universal primary education and the wider international development targets set for 2015.
The papers in this theme underscore the value of linking diverse methods and tools, or nesting and stepping their deployment, to help build resilience and sustainability. The built-in methodological trade-offs mean that there is no one tool, one framework, or one indicator set that is appropriate for the different purposes and contexts of sustainability assessment. A diversity of linked tools can capture the best features of each and assist the different “layers and players” to combine efforts. The papers emphasize an overall conclusion and expectation: if the key stakeholders are not given a responsible and full role in the development of any assessment tool, it is less likely to be fit for their purpose and they are unlikely to take ownership or have confidence in it. Ultimately they are less likely to use the tool or heed its signals. This is not to say that sustainability scientists and other distant decision makers are not important—they have potentially vital roles of detecting, interpreting, and underscoring impending opportunities and threats for the stakeholders involved in the practice of producing food, fiber, or biofuels. A combination of both emic (insider) and etic (outsider) perspectives can build resilience by proffering early warning of distant drivers of change and opportunity, identifying a wider set of choices for local decision makers, and sharing potential tools for picking the best choice for local actors.
This study examined three food labelling variables, each at three levels. Using a factorial design this generates 3x3x3 = 27 treatments or food scenarios. The variables were provenance (China, Australia, Tasmania), organic status (null, Organic, Certified Organic) and eco-labelling (null, Natural, Eco). Each subject put a value, in each case in the range $5.00 to $10.00, stepped in 25 cent increments, on each of the 27 generic food scenarios, and answered eight demographic questions, and additionally there was an optional comments box. The instrument was presented on the World
The Participatory Process: Community Role We embed our participatory praxis in the AFP’s collaborative governance framework known as Dynamic Governance (now Circle Forward) (Buck & Villines, 2007; Kunkler, 2017). The tristate AFP leadership team evolved over five years to include more than 10 university faculty and staff, 7 gradu- ate students, and 12 community partners from North Carolina (NC), Virginia (VA), and West Virginia (WV). This leadership group created specific teams to address project objectives and activities. Each team, like the AFP curriculum team, brought its progress to the leadership team to discuss at a regional and/or state-specific level as needed. The community partners involved in the decision-making for the CFS course started with the AFP leadership team. As the course developed further, decisions were operationalized at the local level in VA and NC. This occurred through the earlier food systems course offered at Virginia Tech with 10 VA partners involved in the design and implementation of a community food security assessment. All became involved in the course through their interest in building networks to better connect the experiences of people working for food systems change across Appalachian VA. During a community meeting in late 2013, commu- nity members proposed sharing stories of their individual work and life experiences to better understand and build upon them for greater regional understanding. With support of a Virginia Tech faculty member, the group agreed to co- launch a narrative project to create and share their stories to enhance regional connectivity as a prac- tical first step. The group also agreed that the course could serve as the backdrop for the
demand further interrogation. It is also the case that the drive to reduce food waste has highlighted the ten- sions between food safety and food waste management policies. While all initiatives were committed to produc- ing, cooking or redistributing food safely, they took is- sue with the characterisations of risk and responsibility that legislation articulated. In particular, the framing of their actions as ‘business’ and the requirement to iden- tify ‘responsible’ individuals to take the burden of liabil- ity in relation to food risk for the initiatives’ activities caused concern. In some cases these concerns are ideo- logical and based on the view that food should not be commodified (Vivero-Pol, 2017), in others it is a prag- matic response to the often limited capacities and capa- bilities within grassroots initiatives to take on the oner- ous task of accepting responsibility for food risk manage- ment. Certainly, the stringent regulations hamper wider participation in surplus food redistribution networks and raise concerns for community kitchens in areas, such as Dublin, without a strong framework to support citizen- driven food provision. Yet, innovative responses are pos- sible, as illustrated by food sharing initiatives in this study that use different forms of ICT alongside face-to-face in- teractions to facilitate rapid and traceable connections between large numbers of people and between organisa- tions. Adopting such socio-technical innovation reduces the time it takes to get edible food to those who need it and leaves digital traces that can respond to existing food safety demands for transparent information around the movements of food. More detailed research is still needed, however, to fully understand the nature of par- ticipation that ICT is supporting and to explore the extent to which these new ways of engaging serve to reorient control within the foodsystem to facilitate both sustain- ability and the right to food.
In this study 452 obese female students aged 11 to 14 years, who had BMI more than 2SD above the WHO 2007 reference point, were randomly selected from several schools in three areas of Tehran. After obtaining written consent, demographic information and food security information were collected using a General and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) questionnaire. Anthropometric indices and fat percentage were also measured, based on skin fold and by calipers. Finally, the data were analyzed using SPSS software.