The three pillars of sustainability framework is a multidisciplinary implemen- tation and solutions oriented approach that recognizes most successful and scalable sustainability solutions require the presence of, and are driven by, all three pillars simultaneously: 1) technology and innovation; 2) laws and go- vernance; and 3) economics and financial incentives. The three pillars frame- work is strategic because it often reveals or describes specific and feasible changes that advance sustainability solutions within markets and institutional settings. The section on technology discusses the crucial role that technology plays in creating new ways for doing more in our rapidly urbanizing com- munities by using less resources and energy inputs. The section on economics discusses problems with current conceptions of economic welfare that meas- ure growth (flow) rather than the asset base (wealth), and explores possibili- ties for integrated and multidisciplinary analysis for coupled economic and social systems. The section on laws and governance considers the role of legal frameworks related to incentives, regulatory baselines, and in public policy formation, including influences and feedback effects from social norms, changing culture, and sustainability education. Technological development and engaging economic markets are at the center of our best and most rapidly deployable sustainability solutions. In that context, a specific focus is given throughout the discussion sections to the key role of laws and governance in supporting relevant, effective, and sustainable technological and economic development, as well as to highlight the crucial (often final) steps the law plays in successfully implementing new sustainability projects. As the discussions and examples (taken from Asia, the US, and Europe) demonstrate, the three pillars framework is flexible and useful in a number of contexts, as a solutions template, as an integrated planning approach, as a decision making guide, and How to cite this paper: Clune, W.H. and
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Members of the community as a group is the main actor in a CBRT product as the existence of the tourism activities is often initiated by a group of people willing to be involved and participate in the process and operation of rural tourism activities in their community. Firstly, prior to the setting up of a CBRT product/programme in a rural area, community capacity building must be executed to ensure they have enough understanding, capability and motivation to develop a CBRT product with sustainability in mind . In the case of the Malaysian Homestay Programme, regular trainings are given to the homestay operators and local community to guarantee that the tourism activities are managed well. This is in accord with Bhuiyan suggestion that CBRT operators need to be trained and guided on how the process of a CBRT product operates until they can manage their programme well independently . The training process and initiatives are usually organized by the Government or the Non-Government Organization (NGOs) which are closely related to the environmental conservation. For instance, most operators of the Homestay programme in Malaysia who are registered under the Ministry of Tourism and Culture of Malaysia are trained by the government. However, there are a few homestay programmes which are trained by NGOs such as the Misowalai Homestay in Sabah.
Despite these strengths, there are a number of import- ant limitations in this study that some of which suggest a set of future research activities. First, concept mapping is a useful and flexible research tool, but at its core it is reliant on expert opinion. Therefore, it will be important to validate the framework to show that the various domains are all important aspects of sustainability and, more importantly, relate organizational capacity for pro- gram sustainability to sustainability outcomes such as those outlined by Scheirer and Dearing . Also, al- though we have suggested that our capacity for sustain- ability framework may be applicable to programs in the clinical and social service areas, the items in our frame- work came from public health experts and literature. So, specific work remains to be done about determining the boundaries of this sustainability framework. Finally, the presence of many frameworks but few applicable tools suggests a need to organize the field and develop a single set of measures to assess capacity for program sustain- ability. Future efforts by the project team will include development of a tool based on the sustainability frame- work and validation of the tool across a range of public health programs. This framework grounded in the litera- ture presents domains we believe to be critical for public health decision makers to consider when developing and implementing sustainable programs.
Abstract. Sustainability nowadays has become new evolution of quality and efficiency indicator for product and process. Key performance of certain product or process need to be quantified throughout it is life cycle. Polymer processing is one of the chemical processes that need attention in term of sustainability. Hence this paper presents the development of sustainability framework for assessing the sustainability performance of hollow fiber membrane module by considering the reaction of each raw material and process involved. Assessment was carried out by applying fuzzy logic approach by developing its linguistic variables and fuzzy code according the requirement. A framework to assess the sustainability performance for hollow fiber membrane processing was proposed in order to identify its sustainability score for each sustainability element; environmental, economical and social.
A sustainable sport development approach should therefore be one that manages the sport process and practices so that all stakeholders including profit based companies, government agencies and individuals are all contributing to the enhancement of human, natural and financial capital of their communities. The emphasis here is on providing regional councils (and other local government agencies) with an analysis and decision framework to help prioritise and allocate resources to regional sport and recreation programmes and facilities. Not only does a sustainability framework account for the complex and diverse nature of sport and sport stakeholders but it helps to overcome the bias of agenda and short-term decision focus associated with agencies managed by elected politicians.
This paper will provide theoretical evidence of the need for a sustainability framework to aid local government decision makers in their investment in sport development for their regions. An overview of the issues related to Australian sport funding and investment highlight the need to provide a framework for decisions relating to sport investment and development, which is ideally aligned with sustainability principles. Previous research on sustainability and community based programs is reviews and a conceptual framework for analysis of sustainable sport development is proposed.
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UNESCO (2005) contends that education will play a vital role in sharing, applying and creating knowledge in a globalizing world. Universities will fuel the driving forces of transformation towards a global knowledge society. They have the capacity to steer and eventually correct the direction of (negative – unsustainable) trends within globalisation. The process of sustainable development requires that we all attain the skills needed to handle the complex challenges of change and uncertainty, and the ability to communicate with a large number of stakeholders. In this sense universities are working at different levels to become engines of wider societal change - to address both global and local needs and prior- ities. The contribution of universities to the sustainability agenda is being expressed in trans- disciplinary research and knowledge exchange activity and more recently embedded within teaching and learning provision. Universities have a dual responsibility – to provide graduates with the attitude, knowledge and skills to lead this process, while also developing the knowledge to support research on Sustainable Development (SD) & share knowledge with external partners. In responding to this challenge, universities are developing not only their capability to articulate a vision of a better world (and solutions to today’s problems) but also their willingness and ability to reach out towards an unknown future by working in partnership with many others, both locally and globally.
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The problem is that a significant number of those engage in microfinance services continue to struggle with sustainability. Most empirical studies on this subject matter have rather focused mainly on the role of microfinance sector and challenges facing MFIs without considering its impact on sustainability in the Ghanaian context. (Afrane, 2002; Gallardo, 2002; Adjei, Arun, &Hossain, 2009; Awojobi, 2011; Bateman, 2012; Akinlawon, Otchere, Pomerantz, & Smith, 2013). Meanwhile, there have been a number of empirical studies that focused on the challenges facing the microfinance sector in some countries; however, such studies in the Ghanaian context are limited. Muhammad (2010) study focused on the opportunities and challenges of the Pakistan microfinance sector. Nasir (2013) also studied the contemporary issues and challenges facing the microfinance sector in India. One of the more related studies in the Ghanaian setting was conducted by Boateng and Agyei (2013) on the success factors, development and challenges of the microfinance companies in Ghana. The findings obtained by Boateng and Agyei (2013) indicated that there were a number of challenges facing the MFIs in Madina, however, no quantitative analysis was performed to ascertain how these challenges influence the success of the MFIs. Although, Muhammad, (2010); Nasir, (2013); Boateng and Agyei, (2013)and Boateng, (2015) study came out with some useful discoveries as regards the contemporary challenges; however, their study fell short in determining the statistically significant impact of these challenges on the sustainability of microfinance institutions. The researcher is therefore motivated to conduct this present study since much has not been said in the Ghanaian context regarding quantitative empirical evidence let alone high order statistical inferential. The present study, therefore, seeks to extend the work of Muhammad, (2010); Nasir, (2013); and Boateng, (2015) by establishing the quantitative statistical significant impact of these challenges on the sustainability of MFIs in Ghana.
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The most popular reason for selecting a particular course or field of study was the chance of enhancing employability (54%) which reinforces the need for close consultation with external stakeholders when identifying necessary graduate attributes. Approximately half of respondents (53%) stated that their research topic or course choice does not relate directly to sustainability issues and almost the same amount (48%) felt that not enough emphasis is placed on sustainability issues in their particular field of research / course choice. Significantly, 46% of respondents said that their current course does not give them the opportunity to mix with students from other disciplines and to learn inter-disciplinary skills, and a large majority (85%) feel that the chance to interact with other disciplines would be beneficial to their studies. Students were asked to rate in order of importance, the skills they believe are necessary in dealing with the main challenges posed by sustainable development in the context of their field of research (see Table 1). Interestingly, the results concurred with those from the external stakeholder group in their selection of the ‘ability to prioritise tasks and manage time’, closely followed by ‘knowledge of sustainability’. However they differed in their ratings of ‘knowledge of recent advances within your field’. Communication and networking skills were seen as more important as technical knowledge, which concurs with important skills identified in relevant case studies.
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This study began with the general hypothesis that enhanced recyc- ling would promote sustainability of food systems, and this was tested with specific research questions. Recycling of organic matter from the demand chain back to agriculture and from animal husbandry back to crop production is here seen as a mean of localising inputs. Recycling is also a natural consequence of localisation of food systems because the diversified local production, implied in a local food system facilitates recycling between animal husbandry and crop production. A local food system will also make recycling within the food system more effective through the shorter distances for transportation of organic matter and, especially in rural areas, through the reduced environmental and health risks. Helenius (2000) has also used recycling as a metaphor for a local food system with tight inherent ecological, economic and social inte- raction.
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Abstract—Sustainable sewerage infrastructure projects are essential in achieving sustainable development, as infrastructure directly affects all measures of such development. However, sewerage infrastructures face a variety of challenges and threats to their sustained performance throughout their life cycle, including effects of aging, aggressive environmental factors, inadequate design, underfunding, improper operation, and maintenance activities. These challenges lead to the enhancement of the risks of failure, for example, sewer leakage, overflow, and odor. These issues can have serious impacts on the environment, public health and safety, the economy, and the service lives of assets. Only a few research has focused on assessing sustainability at the project level, and to the best of researchers’ knowledge, no study has assessed sewerage throughout its project life cycle. In response to this issue, this study proposes a sustainability assessment framework that focuses on all aspects of sustainability throughout the project life cycle. Furthermore, this framework supports the decision-making process throughout the life cycle of assets, ensuring the long-term sustainability of the projects and providing greater transparency for the stakeholders.
Consequently, a framework for the evaluation of different mobility players is proposed within this thesis that enables MaaS provider to systematically select the most promising and suitable partners on the mobility market. Key criteria and indicators, such as availability or technical maturity, were developed that define the drivers of the quality of an MSP for a MaaS provider. Additionally, a focus was placed on sustainability aspects, as the development of sustainable urban mobility systems is described as one of the central goals of MaaS platforms in research (Li & Voege, 2017; Utriainen & Pöllänen, 2018). Another reason is that MSPs potentially cause adverse effects on an urban environment. A recent example are micro-scooters (also known as kick-scooters or electric-scooters), which are controversially discussed regarding safety issues, short lifetimes, vandalism and excessive usage of public space (Sikka et al., 2019; The Verge, 2019). Moreover, recent studies and reports are questioning the positive impact of micro- scooters as a first and last-mile solution (Hollingsworth, Copeland & Johnson, 2019; Johnston, 2019). Therefore, a sustainability dimension was added to explicitly point out the strength and weaknesses of MSPs regarding sustainability factors.
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system describing the dynamics of the economic and non-economic (sub)system(s), their interactions, and the concept of sustainability of economic development. Then, we discuss the major aspects of sustainability in this framework, in particular, drivers of sustainable development and their direct and indirect/cross-system impacts on development indicators, dynamic equilibria in relation to sustainability, cross-system feedbacks, intra-system interactions, critique of non-interdisciplinary studies of sustainability, and design of sustainability policy. The importance of the study of sustainability in a multi-system framework is obvious. In presence of cross-system interactions, an isolated study of the economic system makes little sense in the context of sustainability, since long-run economic dynamics are not only determined in the economic system but also in the non-economic system. That is, the effects of economic dynamics and policies on the non-economic system and their feedbacks on the economic system must be studied for assessing the (long-run) sustainability of an economic growth strategy/process.
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Application of the PESTER framework, to interviews with key stakeholder organisations, has provided a synthesis of the factors influencing planning, design, decision making and delivery of water-energy integration in the context of sustainable urban growth in the Ashford area. Overall, negative political factors appeared to demonstrate the most influence on processes, but these were inherently linked with other factors. Re-contextualisation of the PESTER analysis led to the derivation of key messages relating to the need to incentivise adaptability, enhance enforcement of regulation, increase knowledge dissemination, emphasise the importance of scale and provide clarity on the complexities of regulation and schemes that overlapping sectors. The PESTER framework (with sub-factors) is demonstrated to be a useful tool for the analysis of complex socio-technical processes.
Current sustainability approaches and definitions are targeted mostly towards minimizing resource consumption. For example, some defined sustainability based on how much land area is used to provide a product or a service to the society (footprint), some defined as how much emission in terms of water, land and air, and energy is consumed in the entire life cycle of a product or service (LCA). The essence of sustainability is meeting human need now while having the ability to fulfill future need. Human fulfills their need by exploiting resources, by implementing economic and technological instruments. The ability of the human beings to function, survive and sustain in long term is the key to sustainability. Sustainability goals are fundamentally targeted towards reducing resource consumption, improving people's health and well-being, and to be able to deal with changing environment. Therefore, it is important to view sustainability beyond the triple bottom line and focus also on other aspects of sustainability such as ability of the system to deal with changing conditions, and public health. Sustainability in this study is defined in a different way, where probably for the first time uncertainties with respect to time and other factors are considered, hence a process based approach is argued for, and focus is on resource, people and change – management.
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Sustainable use of non-renewable resources The reserves of proven non-renewable resources have to be preserved over time. The consumption of non-renew- able resources like fossil energy carriers or certain mate- rials calls for a particularly close link to technology and technological progress. The consumption of non-renew- able resources may only be called sustainable if the tem- poral supply of the resource does not decline in the future. This is only possible if technological progress allows for such a significant increase in efficiency of the consumption in the future that the reduction of the reserves imminent in the consumption does not have negative effects on the temporal supply of the remaining resources. So a minimum speed of technological pro- gress is supposed. The rule of reserves directly ties in with efficiency strategies of sustainability; it can be really seen as a commitment to increase efficiency by technolo- gical progress and respective societal concepts of use for the consumption of non-renewable resources. One alter- native, which also depends on the crucial contributions of technological concepts, would be substituting non- renewable resources in production and use of technol- ogy with renewable ones (e.g. the reorganisation of the energy supply for transport from mineral oil to electri- city from regenerative sources).
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The study of the failure of IS projects highlights several issues such as project overrun, cost overrun, inability to fulfil the user’s requirements, poor audit trail, failure to achieve the objective of the project and inadequate management and technical practices (McManus et al., 2007);(Nayan, Zaman and Sembuk, 2010) and (Boldt et al., 2012). Even though there is a large amount of unsuccessful information systems development dealt with in the literature, this issue is almost hidden and often underreported by public agencies due to public sensitivity (Goldfinch, 2000). Management control is a major control level within an organisation which often influences the effectiveness of internal control. COBIT is a comprehensive framework of IT governance that provides an extensive guide for IT managers, but many organisations find COBIT too complex and difficult to implement (Bartens et al., 2015). From the sustainability perspective, Merhout and O’Toole (2015) claimed that COBIT 5 does not adequately address sustainability within its processes due to the current absence of environmental and social stakeholder drivers, needs and objectives. Sustainability limitations within COBIT 5 include IT policies for outsourcing, sustainability procedures for utilisation and disposal of IT assets, failure to support the control and implementation of a sustainable information system, lack of emphasis on the organisation’s attitude towards sustainability and overlooked sustainability considerations with regard to information systems development.
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Nanotechnology applications (nanoproducts) have entered the market or are expected to do so in the near future. Robust and science-based criteria are required to appraise and manage their sustainability. This paper describes the approach used to develop a comprehensive and reliable framework of criteria, which was missing until now, for evaluating the sustainability of nanoproducts. A literature review of the frameworks and tools employed to assess nanoproducts sustainability implications was ﬁrstly performed to select an initial set of criteria. A survey of experts in the sustainable nanotechnology domain was then conducted to elicit their knowledge in terms of completeness, reliability and validity of the criteria set. Ranking and correlation analyses completed the research by identifying the parameters of major interest as well as the links and dependencies between them. A total of 54 and 65 experts replied to the pilot and main survey, respectively. The reliability and validity of the criteria was assessed with the responses from both questionnaires, whereas the answers from the main survey were used to calculate the relative index of the criteria as well as their correlations. This research resulted in a framework composed of 68 criteria, which are structured into six main areas: (i) economic performance; (ii) environmental impacts, (iii) environmental risk assessment; (iv) human health risk assessment; (v) social implications and (vi) technical performance. This study helps to broaden the understanding on the identiﬁcation of criteria for sustainability assessments. It also provides those interested in evaluating nanotechnology implications with the basis for real case studies, possibly by integrating available information with the stakeholders using tools that support decision-making.
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As mentioned in section 1, sustainability strategies exist of many value judgments rather than hard data. In many scientific literature is therefore the "Balanced Scorecard" discussed as a method for the assessment of sustainability strategies.The term “Balanced Scorecard” refers to the classic Framework first described by Kaplan and Norton (1996). The classic Balanced Scorecard is a method by which the most important parts of an organization in a systematic manner can be measured. According to Figge, Hahn, Schaltegger, and Wagner (2002) The Balanced Scorecard supports the alignment of all business activities according to the strategic relevance by linking non-financial and operational business activities with causal chains to the long- term strategy of the organization. The classic Balanced Scorecard looks at the KPIs (Key Performance indicators) on four perspectives: Customers, Learning & Growth, Financial, and Internal Business Processes. Because both the qualitative and quantitative results can be displayed quickly and easily with this method, the Balanced Scorecard is suitable for use as a method for measuring sustainability strategies at Dutch SMEs. When creating a Balanced Scorecard, an organization should consider at each perspective the key performance indicators to achieve the vision and strategy of an organization (or at least consolidate).
Transitions to sustainability require radical new develop- ment pathways that are not reliant solely on socio-technical innovations in infrastructure and information technologies, but also embrace, encourage and support collective action and social movements that foster fundamental revisions in value systems and behaviours (Macebo and Sachs 2015). For instance, the scale of consumption change required for adequate climate change mitigation and living within Plan- etary Boundaries, as estimated in recent modelling (O’Neill et al. 2018), is such as to be inconceivable without major normative shifts to support transformational change in pro- duction and consumption systems and to motivate collective and individual lifestyle change. Such value shifts are indeed hard to bring about, and there is a case to be made for work- ing within established value systems rather than attempt- ing to change them (Manfredo et al. 2017). However, it is also clear that major shifts in ethical frameworks can and do occur within relatively short timescales and that the history of social movements is instructive for sustainability transi- tions (Ives and Fischer 2017). Drawing on the resources of ethical traditions and related social values for generating changes in norms and practices is widely seen as essential for sustainability transitions (Curren and Metzger 2017; Ives and Fischer 2017; Peeters et al. 2015; Voget-Kleschin et al. 2015).
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