Sustainable Cities and Communities

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REVIEW OF INCLUSIVE PLANNING

REVIEW OF INCLUSIVE PLANNING

were included in every policies and plan of all the participating countries, which can be taken as the first step to globalize the theory of inclusion in development worldwide. These goals of inclusion of poor and backward communities were prioritized in every levels of policy formulation and its implementation, from the national, to the regional and local level of governments in all the nations. Specific country contextual targets were set and planning was done to achieve those targets at a certain interval of time, during the period of fifteen years. The goals were the cross cutting every aspects of development among which the strokes were seen in the field of urban planning as well. Idea of inclusive urban development came into reality through the cross cutting issues such as gender equality, improving maternal and child healthcare, eradicating communicable diseases and environmental consideration in urban planning and policy. MDGs did not focus basically on the human settlement, livelihood and sustainability. Sustainable development goals were agreed to in 2015, for a target of 15 years (till 2030), with 17 goals and 169 targets. The main theme of SDGs is leaving no one behind, which is the basic principle for the inclusive planning. It consists of goals such as zero hunger, no poverty, quality education, gender equality, clean water and sanitation, affordable energy, reduce all form of inequalities, sustainable cities and communities, climate action, life in water and land and global partnership in achieving these sustainable development goals. SDG 11 with sustainable cities and communities addresses urban areas, aiming to “make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.” Targets by 2030 includes ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums, provide access to safe,
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How Sharing Can Contribute to More Sustainable Cities

How Sharing Can Contribute to More Sustainable Cities

When participants were asked what they would create, amplify, or destroy to facilitate a ‘sharing city’ in the future, a number of ideas emerged. Workshop participants stated that new social, business, and governance models to promote primarily non-economic, communal sharing should be created. In Lancaster, it was identified that values should be created through trust and transparency, particularly in models to govern the sharing city. Policies and practices should enable civic engagement and reward people for working with the community. Participants also discussed trust in relation to who would be the most ‘trusted’ host of a potential sharing network: for Lancaster-based participants, they wanted an apolitical person or group. In Birmingham, an exemplar model of sharing was identified in Birmingham City Council’s Active Parks initiative, which provides a platform to allow communities to utilise parks and streets for their own events (see beactivebirmingham.co.uk/active-parks).
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Smart & sustainable cities

Smart & sustainable cities

Glasgow City and Strathclyde University together are becoming a growing focus of attention. In 2010 Glasgow published the Sustainable Glasgow strategy – this strategy aims to help Glasgow become one of Europe’s most sustainable cities. For Glasgow this means achieving a mix of objectives – reducing carbon – but also achieving urban regeneration; delivering jobs and training; helping change the city’s image; regenerating communities, and tackling fuel poverty. A set of major feasibility studies helped Glasgow understand its carbon emissions, and identify the technically and financially viable opportunities that could feasibly reduce the city’s carbon emissions by 30% within 10 years. Since 2010 we have started to see some of the report’s major recommendations being implemented – with the designation of district heating zones in City Plan 3; creation of a waste to energy plant at Polmadie capable of handling all the city’s municipal waste; and proposals to improve the efficiency of street lighting. Next year Glasgow will host a low carbon Commonwealth Games – watched by over 1 billion people worldwide – which includes the development of district heating for hundreds of homes and other facilities in the Commonwealth Games zone.
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Managing Urban Space towards Intercultural and Sustainable Cities. A Case Study of the Neighbourhood Arcella, Padua

Managing Urban Space towards Intercultural and Sustainable Cities. A Case Study of the Neighbourhood Arcella, Padua

Much attention should be given also to Sandercock’s (2006b) focus on the role of urban planners. They are crucial actors not just in order to create urban spaces that possess the potential of becoming lively, welcoming and accessible to everybody, but also actors that can play a role in guiding communities to grow, share and face their rivalries, oppositions, fears and desires together. As Sandercock highlights (2000), managing diversity in cities is always a matter of managing fears. This problem has been often addressed with attempts to create rational cities through control, containment and manipulation. However, she proposes the idea of recognizing that fear is an unavoidable element of individuals identities, and therefore of cities. It should be recognized that ‘individual identity is often suffused with anxiety, and that these anxieties are projected onto the figure of the stranger, whose very presence seems to challenge and undermine the known social order on which our identity is based’ (idem, 22).
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Understanding sustainability in the built environment: a framework for evaluation in urban planning and design

Understanding sustainability in the built environment: a framework for evaluation in urban planning and design

Consultation Draft for the European Conference on Sustainable Cities and Towns, first annual report, Aalbourg, Denmark, 24 th - 27th June, Commission of the European Communities, Directo[r]

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Redefining Master Plans to Promote Smart and Sustainable Cities

Redefining Master Plans to Promote Smart and Sustainable Cities

Master plans, in majority of cases, have been found to promote and follow policy of exclusion instead of inclusion by focusing more on physical aspects of city planning ignoring the environmental, economic and social aspects. This approach has caused enormous damage to city fabric and its growth and development. By excluding majority of urban population, consisting of poor, informal sector and lower section of societal pyramid from the process of planning, Master Plans have ushered an era of unplanned growth and mushrooming of slums. In this process, these plans have emerged as instruments of serving the interests of elite at the cost of poor and have-nots. With cumbersome legal framework, large resources and time frame is required for preparing and approval of Master Plans. This invariably delays the preparation of such plans leading to a situation where planning is found to be invariably chasing the development. Mumbai Master Plan once took 17 long years for approval leading to largest city and economic capital of India growing without a plan during these 17 long years. Plan preparation in the present context is considered more as an official business ,carried out within four walls of town planning agencies with minimum involvement of stake holders including people, communities, institutions, industry etc, to whom this plan is supposed to serve and whose needs and interests it is supposed to cater. Master Plan thus prepared, does not reflect the ground realities and people aspiration leading to its non- implementation and rejection by majority of urban residents. Absence of latest technologies makes planning process both time
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Towards Sustainable Cities

Towards Sustainable Cities

According to the French view the ‘smart cities’ concept comprises at least the following six elements: intelligent, innovative, entrepreneurial, productive and international economy; fluid and fast mobility by accessible, modern, durable and innovative transports; orientation to environmental and energetic sustainability; attention and involvement of citizens in the life of communities; quality of life in terms of ensuring high levels of cultural interest, healthcare, security and education for people; effective and transparent administration for managing public affairs as to make more simple the life of citizens (Auby & De Gregorio, 2015). Nam and Pardo (2011a) refer to smart city concept in order to develop innovation by including three elements: technology for improving services and enabling a better use of tools technology-driven; organization for creating managerial capabilities for effective use of technology; policy as mechanism for driving institutional urban problems addressing them to construct and enable a smart city. Smart cities initiatives as policy and managerial innovation permits to elucidate that a smart city is both a municipal and global movement, service and evolution-oriented, multi-sectoral, combining and building harmony between the real world and virtual world. Technology, institutional and human factors emerge as the fundamental components of a smart city: the smart city is a center of higher education and smart workforce creativity and knowledge oriented leading to a learning dynamic environment (Nam & Pardo, 2011b).
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Sustainable cities: Research and practice challenges

Sustainable cities: Research and practice challenges

In reality, most disciplines working in the field of sustainable cities construct their own notion of what the concept means for them. We see ‘ideal states’ proliferate in many sectors. For example, in engineering, the sustainable city is defined when resources are used most efficiently. Systems are mapped, and losses and uncertainties identified. In the social sciences, sustainable cities are often described in terms of the goal of ‘social sustainability’. It is the desired ‘ideal’, realised only when a particular conceptualisation of social equity or justice is evident in a spatial setting. Within the ‘sustainable urban form’ debate, the idea of the ‘compact city’ has been favoured, above other settlement patterns in policy for a number of decades (although with less agreement by researchers in the field, Williams et al., 2000). Yet these ‘ideals’, and the debates about them, remain within their discrete worlds, and are rarely acknowledged or understood outside their expert communities.
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TeMA Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment

TeMA Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment

Some local governments are particularly active in the diffusion of their urban management practices (urban governance flows) through cooperation and, in promoting this exchange of practices, they intervene in global governance and act as network-makers or sub-nodes of the global governance network. Furthermore, on an international level, many cities are pursuing the goal to become “smart”, in the broadest sense of the concept with its multiple structuring elements - smart economy, smart people, smart governance, smart mobility, smart environment, smart living –, by working in synergy with local public and private actors to build a project and operational platform which enables them to produce high technology, reduce building energy consumption, promote clean transport and improve the overall quality of life of its inhabitants focusing on low CO2 emissions. In many cases (CITTALIA-Fondazione ANCI Ricerche, 2012), ICT tools have been used successfully in order to improve liveability, boost townspeople’s participation and upgrade their use of urban areas. Similarly, innovative research has proved capable of attracting investments in order to create real knowledge and sustainable cities through green innovation. Anyway, it is essential to put a new idea of city at the centre of the smart strategies in order to bring policies back to their former central position, since technologies alone cannot generate welfare and prosperity. Local leadership, integrated planning and a rich social fabric go hand in hand, the social capital being able to produce an added value for the cities. The main point is not introducing new sensors in the cities so much as better using the existing ones with a view to implement an efficient data management system within an organized pattern aiming at joint work between administration and citizens. We are exactly in a new phase of urban growth centred on the economy of services characterized by widespread digital technologies and new innovative organization patterns, which encourage the participation in the civic policy processes through the realization of structures to share information and data so as to define intervention policies.
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Evolution of New Coastal Urban Lifestyles in West Africa: Implications for Planning Sustainable African Cities

Evolution of New Coastal Urban Lifestyles in West Africa: Implications for Planning Sustainable African Cities

UN Habitat reports that though Africa is still the least urbanised continent of the world, it however, has the fastest rate of urbanisation. Two third of this population reside in small and intermediate coastal centres with 60% in cities of less than 500,000 inhabitants. The major trend in Africa like other places in the world shows that a larger portion of these urban areas are located in the coastal zones. In West Africa the rate of this growth is higher than the continent’s average. Urbanisation in West Africa is poverty driven with very low socio-economic transformation; this has led to the evolution of different lifestyles among the people even in rich countries like Nigeria. This rapid urban growth has led to the drowning so to say of the original inhabitants of those areas. In the area, the current thematic coastal issues of climate change and sea level rise have captured researchers interest with little focus on lifestyles of the inhabitants of these cities. The study therefore aimed at examining the possible evolution of new lifestyles over time resulting from the urban expansion and the wider implications of these especially for the socially excluded- fisher folks, wetland farmers, indigenous people, women and the youth of West Africa in these urban centres. The study relied mostly on data from Nigeria where a case study was taken. Five coastal cities were sampled and studied. These were purposively selected based on their history of rapid urbanisation in recent years and the fact that they have some incredible, outstanding and natural beautiful beaches, and extensive coastal wetlands and mangrove forest. The study covered traditional coastal cities with population of 20,000 and above. On the whole one thousand four hundred thirty six respondents were studied. The result presented similar situations in all cities though some were more pronounced in cities of Calabar, Bonny, Illaje and tended to show poor or lack of physical planning as a major indices leading to the evolution of such lifestyles. The study made strong predictions as well as suggest planning framework to improve and integrate the lives of all population groups in West African cities.
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Sustainable, healthy cities: making the most of the urban transition

Sustainable, healthy cities: making the most of the urban transition

It is clear that the urban touches on nearly every aspect of environmental change and virtually every facet of the modern human condition. It is only in the last few generations that substantial fractions of the human race began living in cities, yet we are now in the middle of an unprecedented urban transition. Although the timing of this transition has varied from place to place, the great-grandparents of the vast majority of people alive today were born in rural areas, as has been the norm throughout history. Yet, the last century has seen a dramatic shift of people to cities, and during the last decade we passed the point where most human beings are urban beings [1]. Based on the expected growth of urban populations through the middle of the twenty-first century, close to 0.2 million people will move to or be born in cities around the world today, like any other day. By 2050, 2.4 billion people will be added to the global urban population and two thirds of all humans will live in cities [2]. This transition is economic, social, cultural, and, perhaps
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Smart cities and it governance: an analysis of the Brazilian federal government project called my smart city

Smart cities and it governance: an analysis of the Brazilian federal government project called my smart city

Weill and Ross (2004) and Fernandes and Abreu (2014) consider that a planning document that aligns the organization's strategies to the ICT area is fundamental for the development of the ITG and is considered the initial step towards the establishment of a ITG plan.Weill and Ross (2004), when defining the matrix of decisions in ICTs, considered several archetypes related to the decision-making process in ICT, and established the premise that the organizations with greater performance in IT use different archetypes of decision making, referring the necessity of an institutionalized and participatory IT body in decision-making processes. Therefore, actions are properly directed, and the best decision made for the organization, avoiding investments that are not linked to the company's strategies and that do not add value. In this perspective, the i-GOVIT composition which is much more associated to aspects of management than to IT governance.Regarding the concept of smart cities, there is in the literature some agreement to define ICT as the basis for the development of a smart city (Jucevicius et al, 2014; Navarro et al, 2017; Ahvenniemi et al, 2017). However, there are divergences in the indicators that should compose its structure. The study sought to identify those indicators that were most related to the IT area, in the main index of development of the Brazilian cities (IEGM Brazil), considering that these should be the initial areas for alignment to the ICTs seeking the development of a smart city. In this sense, the environmental (i-ENVIRONMENTAL) and infrastructure (i-CITY) indicators
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Smart Sustainable Cities: A Need for 21st Century

Smart Sustainable Cities: A Need for 21st Century

parks, planting trees along the roads and woodlands and 52% of the total city area is dedicated to open spaces and water bodies. The city council has employed certain planning and design techniques to protect the climate such as passive housing, expansion of cogeneration facilities, efficient and effective use of electricity etc. A sustainable city is a city that is taking an intelligent, long-term collaborative approach to tackling the economic, social and environmental challenges that arise when more and more people come together in dense, compact areas, stretching already scarce resources. Applicable across a vast array of industries, including automotive and transport, health, education and banking, sustainable city modelling solutions come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Take for example intelligent buildings that utilize connectivity for security, energy and climate monitoring and are net producers of renewable energy, Or disaster and management solutions that use remote sensors to alert people at risk of severe weather or natural disasters. Smart meters can give consumers the knowledge they need to control their energy costs Or food initiatives where it’s possible to choose healthy and appetizing food with a low carbon/water footprint, and plan meals to avoid waste.
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Towards Smart and Sustainable Future Cities Based on Internet of Things for Developing Countries: What Approach for Africa?

Towards Smart and Sustainable Future Cities Based on Internet of Things for Developing Countries: What Approach for Africa?

The simple fact of considering countries by level of development and cities by level of evolution raises questions on all that has been proposed so far, and in general, leads to a good redefinition of paradigms around smart cities. A layered framework appears to suit better for contextualizing the evolution of commu- nities to future cities. Our main focus will be on "smart city" paradigm for developing countries. In fact, in this context, there is a question about how to clearly adapt the “smart city” concept to see peculiar conditions and the needs of the population, in terms of urbanization and so on. It is expected that the smart city have a positive impact in areas of urban traffic and trans- port, management of infrastructures, management of garbage, information and communication techniques, population’s well-being, simplification of inhabitants ‘lives, environment, administrative and governmental approaches, reduction of public expenditure, safety improvement, energy consumption reduction of, qual- ity of education, rental and living costs, productiv- ity (agricultural, industrial, ...), business opportunity, among others .... In this paper, we will discuss the definition of ideological and technological frameworks in order to situate and limit the positioning of a smart city and its components in an evolution towards future cities. We will then adapt it to the developing countries context. A set of research questions is also defined for the future. This also leads to the classification of different works based on the identified components of a smart city, and the definition of indicators to measure the degree of intelligence of each component. In this paper, we will discuss the definition of ideological and technological frameworks in order to situate and limit the positioning of a smart city and its components in an evolution towards future cities. We will then adapt it to the developing countries context. A set of research questions is also defined for the future. This also leads to the classification of different works based on the identified components of a smart city, and the definition of indicators to measure the degree of intelligence of each component. All these concepts are the legwork for an application in air pollution detection, especially in the city of Cotonou, Benin. We will also evaluate the sub-components of the different indicators. This should serve as a reference for current and future cities and a perfect starting point for researchers wishing to go in this direction. Of course, it can be better adapted
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Indigenous unemployment in rural and regional Western Australia: Is there a way out?

Indigenous unemployment in rural and regional Western Australia: Is there a way out?

Lack of mobility is also a barrier to accessing industry and education, and impacts on Indigenous unemployment (Carson and McConnel, 2011: 258). This particularly applies to geographically remote settlements, which are often too small to facilitate industry, or to supply adequate primary or secondary education. Therefore, children attend schooling outside the settlement, often within nearby towns. Although transportation is often supplied by the government to school children, this same service is not extended to job seekers or mature students who attend Vocational Education and Training (VET) courses. Carson and McConnell (2011) therefore argue for an increase in Indigenous mobility for mature Indigenous people so they can access and engage in formal education required for professional practice, to as such increase labour market outcomes. Others argue that the VET sector should better accommodate the community needs. For example, {Allison, 2006 #66} argue that VET courses should be restructured and delivered more holistically and flexibly, to help build sustainable communities in regional Australia. Further that the VET sector should facilitate the development of learning communities, where people and institutions combine their skills and expertise to make the most of available resources and develop the ability to generate even more resources should they be required. Both Allison et al. (2006). and Guenther et al. (2017) report that funding restrictions can be problematic when it comes from the Australian Government, because it fails to recognise the physical constraints of delivering courses in remote areas. Guenther et al. (2017) report that vocational training should better translate into employment outcomes for Indigenous Australians living in remote communities, but the ‘success’ of training can also imply students’ personal change, control and mastery over their lives (p. 24). Improved retention rates can be achieved by assisting learners to stay on track, building relationships with students, family and community and offering them support and a listening ear, and organising transport and administrative support. It also means attending to indicators of successful training. At a personal level, students should demonstrate enhanced self-confidence and identity, be proud of their achievements, and trainers should see the transformational impact of training. At a more collective level, communities will value and assume ownership of training because it connects with culture and local knowledge. At a pragmatic level, indicators of success are improved employment or career prospects.
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Smart Cities in Italy: An intelligent Contribution to Sustainable Development

Smart Cities in Italy: An intelligent Contribution to Sustainable Development

The ICity rate still confirms that in 2018, the situation existing in Italy, is the same as always, bivalent and inhomogeneous. The northern part of the country is rich, evolved and full of well-being, while the southern part is backward and unable to grow, with heavy structural delays in sectors such as employment, economic solidity, research and innovation, energy. This inequality has deep roots linked to historical reasons such as internal migrations and social matters, that is the low level of education of the southern population. One of the starting points for the growth of a smart city is an adequate level of knowledge and education. In fact, among the top 10 cities in the ICity rate there are almost all cities with historic or prestigious universities. Milan that has the Politecnico, Bocconi, Cattolica, Bicocca; Bologna with the “Alma Mater Studiorum”, the oldest university in the world (founded in 1088); Florence with its university founded in 1321, Venice where there is the University “Ca’Foscari” that is considered the oldest business school in Italy and the world; Turin, where there is the “Università di Torino”, founded in 1404, and “Politecnico di Torino”, excellence in engineering and architecture. This once again demonstrates the great importance of universities for the formation of knowledge and human capital, fundamental for an adequate level of urbanization, innovation and development of new solutions. Milan, despite being a metropolis with more than 1,300,000 inhabitants, is in the first position for the fifth consecutive year thanks to excellent performances in various fields such as economic growth, mobility and innovation, and was able to commit itself to being ever closer to citizens' needs, representing a model of excellence in Italy.
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Housing in The Third World Cities And Sustainable Urban Developments

Housing in The Third World Cities And Sustainable Urban Developments

The urban poor has continued to bear the burden of this problem, the overwhelming majority of the population continue to live in sub-human housing conditions. Some found abode under the fly-over bridges that dot some of the country’s urban centres; some have to cope with make-shift, ramshackle structures, while some found public buildings as the only option (Peil, 1995). Most Nigerian cities are characterized by squatter’s settlements or slums. Although many would have loved and are aspiring to own their houses, the aspiration has been greatly hampered by poverty. Many of the low – income households in the urban areas are hit by poverty, and cannot afford adequate housing so they rent room or rooms in multi-habited houses while the rural poor acquire rooms rent free in family compound houses as a result of their kith and kin relationship. High incidence of poverty in urban and rural areas of developing countries means people find it difficult if not impossible to seek decent housing or improve the quality of dwelling units, unable to participate in decision – making, devoid of property rights and prestige thus reinforcing the cycle of poverty, (Olokesusi et al., 2003). As a result of poverty a high proportion of the tenants in cities of developing countries occupy a single room in rooming or courtyard houses. This high level of overcrowding as represented by the high households and room densities are mainly a function of poverty.
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Precast Construction Technique: A Sustainable Approach for Smart Cities

Precast Construction Technique: A Sustainable Approach for Smart Cities

Due to the inefficient use of the water, many areas of the country are facing its scarcity. Reduction in the water level and interrupted supply of municipal water with low pressure compels the common residents to use their own powerful electric motors to store the water in overhead tanks. Water purifiers have been used on the large scale to maintain the purity of water, these initiatives consumes a lots of energy and increase the load on power supply and thus contributing to the rise in carbon footprint [10]. However, the quality of water is also significant factor for the construction purpose. Concrete has both the elements i.e. water and cement which reacts with each other. If impure water is used for preparing the concrete the impurities may react differently to the constituents of the cement and may affect its setting time. It may also affects the durability and strength of the concrete which may prove to be dangerous regarding the structural stability of the building [11]. Deforestation. Development demands the space and most of the time this space is extracted by deteriorating the green areas mainly the forests and the agricultural lands. India is going through a heavy urbanism phase and urban sprawl of its major cities has significantly destroyed the green cover to a great extent. Being in this situation planning of 100 more smart cities is a huge challenge in front of the Government, Policy makers, Planners and the Developers to achieve that benchmark causing minimum harm to our biodiversity. Although various steps has been taken till now including the National Forest Policy of India according to which forest and other green areas must combined to cover about one-third of the total land area of the country, but still proves to be insufficient [12].
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Tracking Sustainable Development Goals A Case Study of Pakistan

Tracking Sustainable Development Goals A Case Study of Pakistan

The last city which was selected for the data collection is Karachi which is the capital as well as largest city of Sindh. This city being over crowded with people has major concerns for the sustainability and the related goals. The literacy rate of Karachi is 65.26% which is highest in Sindh and at fourth number after Islamabad, Lahore and Rawalpindi. Population of Karachi consist of people from across Pakistan and foreigners as well thus making its culture diverse. [44]. The existence of folks from all walks of life also makes the transfer of knowledge much easy. The possible reason behind the positive result of awareness could be the high literacy rate as well as the optimum knowledge transfer. The companies from all the selected cities were considered in order to check for their engagement towards the SDG fulfilment. The organizations were selected according to the business volume as well as their attachment with United Nations. The organizations with bigger business volumes generally seem to be less committed towards the fulfilment of sustainable development goals [45]. The selected organizations from Islamabad show a very minimal concern regarding the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. Less commitment towards the cause has also been shown by the companies from Quetta and Karachi. The big organizations working in those cities are aware of the importance of sustainability in the environment but due to their big volume they seem less interested in complying with the efforts of attaining the developmental goals [46].
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EXPLORING THE SCOPE OF CSR FOR SUSTAINABLE SMART CITIES IN INDIA

EXPLORING THE SCOPE OF CSR FOR SUSTAINABLE SMART CITIES IN INDIA

Urban India is on the verge of revolutionizing when the Government of India has initiated the ‘Smart City Mission’ to build 100 Smart Cities within 5 years which is undoubtedly very promising but at the same time is incredibly ambitious in terms of financial requirements. Few provisions mainly related to basic physical and social infrastructure, in the case of ‘Smart Cities’ development, do not attract investment, but holistically are of prime importance for the community ‘Survival’ and ‘Sustainability’. Thus one of the most appropriate models of achieving ‘Sustainability’ could be the way of involving corporates under Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). In this paper attempts has been made to explore the scope of CSR for sustainable development in delivering upcoming smart cities of the country.
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