The primary element in an analysis of food markets is clarifying a nature of the business mechanism of their functioning. In this way, Gusakov et al. (2008) refer to this mechanism as a system of measures, which provides a balanced market activity. The balance here is understood as a condition, with which the supply and the demand for agricultural resources completely cover each other. However, achieving such a condition is an extremely complex application. Markets are permanently at a point close to the equilibrium, but far from it; any movement towards the absolute balance faces a confident response from uncertainty, leading the system off from the relative deficit of the supply to its subsequent surplus, and vice versa. All this traditionally encourages maximization of effects from production or consumption. On the one hand, in a direct increase of output when there are increasing prices in place and a food shortage. On the other hand, in building- up or restructuring consumption in time of a decrease in prices and food surplus. I think that difficulties in achieving the balance appear in an unboundedness of a respond by the parties. With a shared impulse to action (which actually contributes into the equilibrium in the markets), each participant takes an independent decision. Moreover, such decision is uncoordinated with respect to others. It is obvious that a result is an available continuous cycle, which in its movement often crosses a point of equilibrium. It is worth mentioning that following the conservation equation, it is only possible to balance any market if and only if its adjacent markets have been already balanced. This is a typical example of self-organization. On the contrary, in conditions when adjacent markets have not been balanced, an achievement of tranquility in economic development is executed in establishment of rigid boundaries. It mostly refers to a natural volume of food flows. At the same time, food prices are getting a factor that induces flows to their movement guiding then for purposes of profit maximization. All this is only a manifestation of reasonably allocated resources for economic reasons. Supply barriers within the foodsecurity
While there is an important debate on whether organic farming is efficient only per unit of area rather than per unit of food output, this focus on efficiency only is partly misleading. Some negative environmental externalities such as GHG emissions are global in nature. In this case, organic farming tends to perform worse than conventional farming. For instance, nitrous oxides emissions per kg of food produced are higher for organic farming compared to conventional crops when the yield gap exceeds 17 % (Skinner et al. 2015). On the other hand, most environmental impacts are relevant within local ecosystem boundaries. Here, measures that relate impacts to total areas are most appropriate, and organic farming tends to perform better than conventional farming. For instance, nitrates or pesticides leaching into the ground water compromise the quality of local drinking water sources. Farming may harm the soil microbial and faunal biomass that is important to rebuild and maintain soil quality, and to reduce susceptibility to erosion. It may also adversely affect weed and insect diversity that, in turn, affects bird populations via the food chain. The latter are significantly higher on organic farms (Christensen et al. 1996, Kragten & de Snoo 2008). Thus, performance both per agricultural land area and per ton of food produced must be considered when looking at the ecological and social impact.
Adherence to terms of certainty creates incentives to achieve rigid autarchy. With balanced and self- sufficient national markets, this concept has no internal contradictions. However, in a case where national markets have been balanced only in parts, and an access to global markets has been limited, it would lead to greater fluctuations in national food prices. One reason for an increase in prices and their non- permanence are supply shocks, resulting from imbalanced development. Another scenario assumes that a change to values in world markets would not be essential. Then, a foreseeable result from protection in a national market would be suppressing a growth in prices, but for a time only until there are available reserves. Government control in the food market should seemingly reduce an impact of price uncertainty. Keeping rates and restrictions in a turnover of goods and services naturally prevent a transmission of price fluctuations from unstable foreign markets. Global markets are usually more balanced; therefore, they experience a less effect from factors of risk and uncertainty. Due to economy of scale, they manage to balance supplies owing to redistribution in available flows of foods. In some cases, it is a government intervention that is a source of inner disturbance causing a drastic or essential change to prices. We should add here that at the expense of the same economies of scale, dynamics in the cost of foods and agricultural raw materials in world ’s markets is described with distribution viscosity.
tenure and exclusion from affordable credit limit the aspirations of small farmers (Countries in Crisis, Food and Agriculture Organization). There is also neglect in the area of agricultural research, especially in developing countries. This has led to poor food production and minimal innovations in this field. Biotechnology is a major aspect in agricultural research which is at times termed as agribiotechnology. It involves the use of microbes majorly used as vectors and the use of plant and animal cells. Biotechnology is important in increasing crop yields and improving the production frequency in a given season. Production of food crops with superior qualities or characteristics is made possible with biotechnology. Drought and pest resistant crops have been produced through biotechnology together with the production of nutritionally dense food products. With all of the above factors, this paper will focus on improving security, especially with the objective of coming up with a product that will help alleviate malnutrition, more so, in children. All this is done using locally available ingredients to come up with an indigenous product employing biotechnology in innovation. This paper is based on a research done at small scale and the details highlighted therein. The rationale behind this research is to actually improve the nutritional and health value or benefits of home made plain yoghurt. This was done by fortifying it with soy flour and culturing it with a starter containing probiotic bacteria; this with the aim of increasing the protein and iron amounts specifically in the yoghurt. Yoghurt is low in iron content (0.1 mg/100g) compared to soya flour (12.0 mg/100g) (Aileen & Hans, 2007). Yoghurt is low in proteins compared to soya; yoghurt has 21% protein per 100g while soya has 33% per 100g.
Noting the fact that a major part of emerging diseases in humans are caused by animals, foodsecurity and sustainablefoodsecurity can only be performed in a condition that animal health and welfare are secured and sustainable livestock raising is established. Taking into account the fact that animal health directly affects human health and animal products are undisputedly necessary in human nutrition, it is deduced that human health depends on animal health. According to the World Health Organization, more than 60% of infectious agents affecting humans and newly described in the last decade are caused by animals or products of animal origin. Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in the world. Toxoplasma gondii, intracellular protozoan, is a food and water-borne parasite that has recently infected about 1 billion people in the world. In this context, in both humans and animals toxoplasmosis threatening health and causing important economic losses is known as a most important protozoan-related zoonosis. In the context of this presentation with the specified reasons, concise knowledge was given on presenting of knowledge belonging to present condition, concerns, sharing of preventive medicine/public health approaches in the prevention and control of infection, actions to be taken, and solution proposals related to Toxoplasma gondii important but yet ignored in many regions in Turkey and the world.
A government in ASEAN may also establish sole and specific independent authority, body or commissioner which comprises of expertise in various fields, in order to provide complete set and well-structured mechanisms starting from planning, execution and monitoring in order to move forward towards sustainablefoodsecurity governance at the national level. Monitoring mechanism for instance can act as tool for check and balance pertaining to foodsecurity governance and it is essential in order to make sure viability of certain plans and executions and provide proper implementation of activities towards sustainable development of food in Malaysia that may encompass various sectors such health, agriculture, and trade. The role of independent body is essential to avoid conflict of interest in implementing or executing certain measures in near future.
Irrigation can be defined as an artificial application of water for the aim of supplying the moisture in the plant root-zone to prevent stress that may cause reduced yield and/or poor quality of harvested crops . So, this is an planned action made by human to apply water for growing crops, especially during dry seasons where there is a shortage of rainfall or to supplement it . Irrigation practice is one means by which crop production can be increased to meet the growing demand of food and other services in Ethiopia . A study also indicated that one of the best alternatives to consider for reliable and sustainablefoodsecurity development is expanding irrigation development on various scales, through river diversion, constructing micro dams, and water harvesting structures, among others . Irrigation has been practiced in the country since ancient times producing subsistence food crops. However, modern irrigation systems were started in the 1950’s with the objective of producing industrial crops in Awash Valley and Rift Valley. Private concessionaires who operated farms for growing commercial crops such as cotton, sugarcane and horticultural crops started the first formal irrigation schemes in the late 1950’s- Metri-Agro industry in the upper and Amibara in lower Awash Valley. In the 1960’s, irrigated agriculture was expanded in all parts of the Awash Valley (Metahara and Wonj in middle Awash) and Bilate farm in the Rift Valley .
Soil management practices are according to land use to enhance best productiv- ity. Yam is a popular tuber and staple food in Nigeria, its global largest producer, and has many species and varieties. It thrives on sandy clay loams and on most soil types provided the yam holes are properly dug and filled with organic mate- rial. For optimum tuberization, pH of 4.5 - 6.5, ample moisture in the first 12 to 20 weeks after planting and a temperature of 25˚C - 32˚C required of the soil (Coursey, 2013). Most farmers praise the yams with great tubers as shown in Figure 5, without reference to the soil that provided the enabling environment. The proverb says it is good to acknowledge a gesture in totality i.e. acknowledg- ing the seen and unseen persons that created opportunity and action.
Business as usual will not be enough to tackle the critical issue of having sustainable increase in agricultural productivity and foodsecurity, which Pakistan is facing at the moment and in future it can become very alarming. Innovative approach is essential for food policy, for enhancing agriculture productivity on sustainable basis and ensuring foodsecurity. This paper figures out how sustainable increase in agriculture productivity and foodsecurity is linked with a comprehensive food policy. Agriculture productivity respond to the external environment more than tailor made targeted schemes for agriculture. New Growth Strategy GOP (May, 2011) includes all the basic ingredients, which are important for changing this external environment. These include growth of prosperous cities which derive demand for food upward and compel market activities sequentially create employment, connectivity which makes the flow of market information process efficient besides reducing the cost of transportation as well as reduce post harvest losses, entrepreneurship in agri-business leads to fair market competition and standardization and certification of products. These external aspects complement in enhancing productivity as well as solve the problem of food insecurity by augmenting the purchasing power of the masses. In addition there should be a National strategy in which federal and provincial governments should develop a strategy of bringing hunger to zero level in next 5 to 8 years. Key word: New Growth Strategy (NGS), megacities, connectivity, entrepreneurship malnutrition
Given the above, this paper should be seen as one step further in the process of indicator design which may inspire the formal SDG review process. The novelty and complexity of the SDG framework opens a wide range of research ave- nues, of which we highlight three. First, the threshold values proposed here do not say much on whether countries are on the right track to achieve SDG-2 targets, unless monitored over a longer period. Although SDG targets are the same for all countries, the pathways they will follow will differ. Historical trends may offer hints on a country’s future, but there is no guarantee that past trends will persist. Second, synergies and trade-offs across SDGs and analytical scales should be examined to inform coherent policy design under different scenarios. Third, agricultural trade among the countries examined in this paper deserves greater attention and has direct implications for nutrition and environmental indicators, especially when food access and availability are considered over the short and long terms. In all cases, the identification of research methodologies well-suited to tackle the spatial and temporal scalar complexity of sus- tainability targets is crucial.
This article aims to assess the impacts of climate change towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal number two (SDG 2) as well as examining the poverty alleviation strategies by subsistence farmers in South Africa. Widespread hunger and poverty continue to be among the most life-threatening problems confronting mankind. Available statistics show that global poverty remains a serious challenge around the world. Across the globe, one in five people lives on less than $1 a day and one in seven suffers from chronic hunger. Similarly, the developing world is adversely affected by poverty and hunger. In the sub-Saharan Africa, research has revealed a higher prevalence of hunger, malnutrition, poverty and food insecurity. SDG 2 focuses more on eliminating hunger and promoting sustainable agriculture. The study employed an exploratory design and a qualitative method. Snowball sampling was used in selecting relevant sources which led the researchers to other research work on the same field through keywords and reference lists. The researchers employed discourse analysis to analyse data. The study discovered that there are numerous potential effects climate change could have on agriculture. It affects crop growth and quality and livestock health. Farming practices could also be affected as well as animals that could be raised in particular climatic areas. The impact of climate change as well as the susceptibility of poor communities is very immense. The article concludes that climate change reduces access to drinking water, negatively affects the health of people and poses a serious threat to foodsecurity.
At the moment a global industrial food system, which is very big, but also very brittle, is producing most of the world’s supply of food. Typically, it is reliant on the massive growing of single crops like wheat, corn or rice, which in turn are assisted by commercial agriculture inputs such as hybrid seeds, chemical based pesticides and fossil fuel-based fertilisers, as well as an overuse and abuse of water. Global industrial food is praised for its efficiency and high yields, and this tempts small farmers to try to get big. But then they become dependent on expensive commercial agricultural inputs, and have to borrow money to pay for them, and gradually become deeper in debt and despair.
However, the international literature reveals three respects in which the UK approach could benefit from further refinement. First, although Defra says its indicators for household foodsecurity are “largely outcome-based” (Defra, 2009c, p98), it does not assess or include nutritional outcomes. The UK Food Standards Agency’s regular National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (e.g. Gregory et al, 2000; Hoare et al, 2004) and the Low-Income Diet and Nutrition Survey (LIDNS) (Nelson et al, 2007a) offer data that could be used for such as assessment. These surveys provide evidence that although average consumption of some foods recommended for a healthy diet, including fruit and vegetables, fall below recommendations across the general population, they are lowest among the low-income population (Nelson et al, 2007a). Earlier research on food and poverty in the UK demonstrated a gradient towards lower consumption of iron, calcium, vitamin C and dietary fibre with increasing degrees of poverty, defined in terms of employment and access to benefits (Dowler, 1998). Second, Defra’s approach appears underpinned by a rational consumer choice model, built on the notion that food will be treated as a high-priority basic need. The indicators of access include monitoring food prices and, although fluctuations in competing expenditure demands (such as rent or fuel costs) are not part of the bundle proposed for monitoring, there is at least recognition that price variations should be included. However, the assumption seems to be, crudely put, that people will buy appropriate food for health at the cheapest price available if they have sufficient knowledge
The evaluation results of Sustainable Competency: 3-They work cooperatively and responsibly, which correspond to SUST 3, show all the groups except one attained a very good command of the competency. During the work performed through POL for over two months and throughout the research presentations the students gave to the university community, it was observed that the members of the different groups shared the work equally and they worked well together. The intention of using POL was to promote teamwork, which requires dialogue and consensus in addition to the distribution of tasks. In view of the results, it may be inferred that the POL methodology is ideal for teamwork.
Abstract- Food is a basic human need so that it must be fulfilled qualitatively and quantitatively. This prompted the government to issue a policy in the form of a sustainablefood house area program. The purpose of this study was to determine the implications of sustainable reserve food garden (SRFG) area programs for the sustainability of food fulfillment in Pacitan Regency, East Java, Indonesia. This research was conducted in the Dersono Village (Pringkuku Sub-regency), Tahunan Baru Village (Tegalombo Sub-regency) and Nanggungan Village (Pacitan Sub-regency), Pacitan Regency. Field data were taken by observing the condition of the home garden of the SRFG program participants, which includes the elements of the yard and the types of constituent plants. In addition, interviews were also conducted with the community regarding the benefits of home garden plants to support food needs, as well as with local governments regarding the plan, implementation and evaluation of SRFG program activities. The results showed that the plants planted in the SRFG participant's house were mostly food crops that had benefits for staple foods, vegetables, fruits, medicines and ornamental plants. The significances of the implementation of the SRFG have had the result of decreasing the cost of community consumption, increasing community income and increasing soil cover in the home garden area. The implementation of SRFG also provides economic, environmental and social services for the community. The local government seeks to provide assistance, guidance, monitoring and evaluation of the development of the SRFG so that the program runs sustainable. The local government provides assistance, guidance, monitoring and evaluation of the development of the SRFG so that the program runs sustainable
Abstract: A theoretical framework of the link between climate change, rural development, sustainable agriculture, poverty, and foodsecurity is presented. Some options to respond to climate change are described. Current knowledge and potential effects on agricultural productivity is discussed. Necessary conditions for successful adaptation includes secured property rights to land, institutions that make market access possible and credit possibilities. The options of mitigation and enhanced adaptive capacity and the requirements for their implementation are discussed.
This study, in terms of methodology, is an analysis of existing trends in global food development and the state of the level of global foodsecurity. The study employs the methods of content-analysis based on materials from leading international organizations (in particular, the United Nations and the World Bank) dedicated to relevant issues related to foodsecurity around the world as a whole and within specific countries and regions. Major attention is devoted to the state of foodsecurity in the Asia-Pacific region. The author employs economic/statistical analysis as one of the major analytical tools. On the strength of analytical data obtained, the author puts forth key inferences which help establish that ensuring foodsecurity depends, in large measure, on the sustainable development of the agro-industrial complex, which, in turn, cannot be attained outside the innovation context. The innovation context incorporates reserves for intensifying the production of food resources needed to preserve modern human civilization and ensuring its development in the long run. Ensuring the sustainable development of the agro-industrial complex is proposed, in terms of methodology, to be based on the triple helix model as a modern institutional basis that fosters conditions for growth in the innovation activity of agro-industrial business entities.
FoodSecurity and Nutritional Security are the most important challenges confronting the developing economy like India. Government enacted FoodSecurity Act to provide essential commodities like Rice, Wheat, Pulses, Oil and Sugar to the needy sections of the society. The foodsecurity empowers the people to tide over poverty, hunger, mal nutrition and physical problems. This paper attempts to demystify the critical elements involved in the success of FoodSecurity System in India. The critical elements identified for the success of foodsecurity system in India are convenient location of ration shops, adequate stocking of food grain, timely supply of commodities, and quality of ration goods and behaviour of staff at foodsecurity system. The success of the foodsecurity system depends on government policies and administrative staff. The affordability and accessibility of food is an important factor contributing to the effective functioning of FoodSecurity System.
This paper examines the relevant issue of insecurity in Nigeria and its implication for socio-economic development, with the available data on the level and magnitude of insecurity in Nigeria exposes an increase over time, which constitutes serious threat to lives and properties, obstructs commercial activities and discourages local and foreign investors, all which suppresses Nigeria’s socio-economic growth. This rising wave of insecurity has not subsided but has assumed an unsafe facet which is threatening the communal existence of the country as one geographical entity. In the light of the above, the paper recommends that government must be pre-emptive in dealing with security issues and threats, in view of managing security challenges. The real solution lies in government accelerating the pace of economic growth by creating an economy with a relevant social, economic and physical infrastructure to support business and industrial growth. This research paper carries out empirical research on the effect of insecurity and investment on the economy of Nigeria from 2007 to 2017, using three variables as input Nigeria Terrorism Index, Foreign Direct Investment [Inflow], Oil Prices. The study employed the use of correlation and regression techniques to analyse the collected data. Using Nigeria Terrorism Index as a proxy for insecurity and Foreign Direct Investment [Inflow] as a proxy for investment.
The British public expect supermarket shelves to be filled with a wide range of reliable, fresh and affordable foods. We have argued previously that ‘cheap’ is not actually cheap. There are large externalised costs from today’s highly processed, industrial food system due to its adverse effects on public health and the environment. Compared to the 1960s, spending on food by the British public, in terms of the share of disposable income devoted to food, has halved from about 20% to about 10%, although people on low incomes spend proportionately more of their money on food, while the rich spend a far lower share. Despite those adverse externalities and rampant inequalities, the food system has often enabled people to spend more on non-food items, such as cars, housing IT and holidays. The vast majority of people in this country take for granted the performance of the complex, logistically sophisticated, evolving and unstable system on which our food supply and food markets depend. We may see the large lorries on our roads, but we don’t see the satellites and the computers that are integral to the logistics revolution. The cash tills that tally the consumer’s purchases at the checkout also directly communicate with the supply chain to order replacements. Much of the stock and storage is in trucks on the motorways and autoroutes.