Primary data were collected by conducting field work, researching and writing up the case study. Less structured modes of observation took the form of individual semi- structured interviews with informants during the field study, e.g. project managers and homeowners of the Witsand housingdevelopment. A questionnaire and personal observation were used to gather data; the questionnaires were used to measure the satisfaction and level of awareness of sustainability amongst new homeowners in the Witsand project and personal observations determined the new homeowners’ attitudes and adherence to their responsibilities towards sustainability. The houses built by the City of Cape Town in the Witsand area were also evaluated by means of observation in accordance with the strategy document guiding the City of Cape Town’s sustainablehousingdevelopment. Probability sampling is normally used with an implementation evaluation research design. For the purpose of this study, however, a non-probability sampling approach was used. The sampling methods used to conduct the interviews with homeowners were purposive and accidental. The interviewees who were known beforehand were the project manager of the Witsand housingdevelopment and the key role players working for the City of Cape Town with regard to sustainabledevelopment.
Malmö has a population of about 250,000, making it the third largest city in Sweden. In the past, the development site, known as the Western Harbour area, was home to many industries including a shipyard, a car manufacturer and a housingdevelopment. During the 1970s, a recession in the ship building industry forced many of the area’s companies—and, by extension, their employees—to move away, taking with them corporate and income taxes.
Malaysia is still in the progress of understanding the concept of sustainablehousing. The effort to implement sustainability concept into every sector especially the housing sector is gaining attention from various parties. But the implementation process is still very slow and only a number of developers are willing to accept the concept (Zainul Abidin, 2009). Even though, the concept has not yet been implemented, it is equally important to develop sustainablehousing structures on the terrace or hillside as this area is very charming and hence can forester aesthetics. Numbers of sustainablehousingdevelopment projects in Malaysia are forging ahead. It seems that the key players in the housing industry are not sure whether or not they have ever considered and implemented sustainable elements into the housing projects (Said et al, 2009). Based on the National Housing policy (2010), the effort to adopt sustainabledevelopment is to balance the implementation and use of environmental friendly housingdevelopment concept with new technologies and innovations. The green technologies can help to preserve the environment in the circumstance of energy efficiency especially in building design. The use of recycling materials and the development of smart buildings can lift up quality of life and preserve the environment. Sequel to the CEO of Asian Strategy &Leadership Institute (ASLI), Dato, Dr. Michael Yeoh in the 13 th National Housing and Property Summit Conference in 2010, the issues of sustainable growth is not yet timely in the light of the 10 th Malaysian Plan but also serves as an important incentive for the Housing and Property industry to growth in line with the Government’s goal of achieving high income nation status. He also reminded developers that they should not only take
Case study 4 is a 144 lot sustainablehousingdevelopment on the Gold Coast, 90 kilometers south of Brisbane. The estate, 65% complete, consists of detached housing of 1, 2 or 3+ bedrooms, for either single family housing or co-housing. Extensive and quite prescriptive covenants are applied over and above existing state and national building regulations. These covenants attempt to embrace a very broad range of sustainability considerations that could be loosely characterised as environment protection (of land, soil, hydrology and landscape), resource management (of energy, water, waste, materials) and social cohesion (reducing transport needs, accessibility, and balancing security, safety, privacy and social interactions). House construction costs, based on study of eight houses 2008-2011, ranged from slightly less than a ‘standard’ house on the Gold Coast built to minimum regulation standards to costs similar to a medium level finish of an architecturally design executive home (2010 prices). Performance evaluation of the eight homes revealed no correlation between house construction costs and environmental performance outcomes.
By using a 3D printer, buildings or their components can be literally ‗printed‘ out asan object in three dimensions from a 3D digital model. For developing countries,  opined that there are numerous benefits accrued to the implementation of 3DP due to the limitation on some building materials and shortage of skilled labour. In addition,  recorded that 3DP through personal manufacturing can result in the reduction of poverty, decrease in waste and decrease the gap between large and small manufacturing firms in developing countries.While some fear that 3DP technologies are costly to implement,  argued that the technology is becoming economical due to the availability of free 3D digital models online.The concept of 3DP can be well integrated in the construction industry like other information and communication technologies (ICTs) products in use [7, 8]. Therefore, this study examines the benefits that can be accrued in the use of 3-dimensional printing (3DP) of houses as a sustainablehousing solution for Africa‘s most populous country in solving its housing needs.
Though the essence of the sustainabledevelopment concept is clear enough, the exact interpretation and defini- tion of sustainabledevelopment has caused strong discus- sions. The sustainabledevelopment concept merges two urgent goals: a) to ensure appropriate, secure, wealthy life for all people – its is the goal of development, and b) to live and work in accordance with bio-physical limits of the environment – it is the goal of sustainability (Čiegis, 2002). These goals might seem contradictory, but some relative data on environmental quality and natural re- sources utilisation and income per person, allows us to make a presumption that environmental quality improves and income inequality diminishes with the increase of in- come per capita level. This interrelation between the na- tional income per person and emissions of pollutants is called the environmental Kuznets curve (Kuznets, 1955), analogous to traditional curve, proposed by Simon Kuznets (Figure 1), which demonstrates a similar relationship be- tween actual income per person and income inequality (Čiegis, Čiegis, 2002). This relationship proves that eco- nomic, ecological of sustainabledevelopment can be achieved together by implementing effective management of sustainabledevelopment (Stokey, 1998). So regulation in market system is necessary because there is no feedback mechanism to guarantee, unregulated market economy would never exceed its ecological capacity of the environ- ment (Daly, 1991).
The housing sector needs to be catered for meeting the existing backlog as well as tomeet the future demands of the expansion happening in the city. The present deficiency of housing is computed as below, assuming an optimum household size of 5 for the city, over the Census 2001 population data and future housing projections. The table below shows the total shortfall in number of Houses required for the population as per zones in the Surat city:
Krueger and Gibbs (2007) detailed that the discourse of sustainability is more frequently found in urban and regional development strategy than ever before. They explained that sustainability “exists as a diverse set of policy provisions being rolled out around the world,” but that what remains unclear is “how those policies mesh with the social relations that attend our current form of capitalism and raise critical questions about the prospects of sustainability and how it must be engaged if it is to live up to its tripartite concerns of economic stability, social equity, and environmental integrity” (p. 9). Raco (2007) described “implementation deficits” as an area of concern and distinction between discourses of sustainability and implementation practices; he noted a “significant difference between the aspirations of policymakers and the institutional structures and resources that exist, or are created, to bring policy measures to fruition” (p. 225). Taking comments from Krueger and Gibbs and Raco together, the prospects of sustainability depend on the ability to move beyond policy and into implementation stages which
Housing is among the essential necessities of man, (Celestine et al, 2013) as it is a fundamental prerequisite for human livelihood. Olotua and Taiwo, (2015) considers housing to be a vital requirement for decent living. It is likewise a indicator of a man's way of life and of his or her status in the general public, (Morakinyo et al, 2015). As indicated by Ebie, (2009), housing ought to be considered as a right for all, due to its significance and the part it plays in the life of a society and its inhabitants. The right to access better protected and clean housing accommodation at moderate costs or rental with secure residency cuts across all categories of individuals that make up the general populace including the physically challenged, the old, the less privileged, and even the psychotics, (Celestine et al, 2013). unfortunately, quantitative housing provision in Nigeria has missed the mark regarding this general interest; since housing approaches and policies created by successive governments in Nigeria have not yielded the required impact to salvage the growing housing needs, (Agbo, 2012). For example, the national housing plan between 1975 and 1980 planned to deliver 202,000 housing units to the public achieved only 28,500 units, representing 14.1%. Also, out of 200,000 housing units planned to be delivered between 1981 and 1985, only 47,200 (23.6%) was constructed, (Funmilayo, 2013). Awareness campaign for the provision of decent habitable housing units at an affordable rate by world leaders had formed one of the major issues discussed in some global summits such as, 2014 United Nations Habitat summit at Istanbul, the 2000 New York, United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) summit, 2002 World Summit in Johannesburg and the 2005 La Havana, UN manageable Cities Documentation of Experience Program (Oladunjoye, 2005; UN-Habitat, 2007; UNDPI, 2008), they examined the requirement for developing habitable houses at reasonable rates for all particularly the low income earners who formed majority of the universes' populace. In a related move the united nations Statistical Commission at its thirty-eighth session, in 2007, considered the draft principles and suggestions for housing censuses. This principles stresses on the requirement for consistent housing statistics in order to create a housing database that will serve as a reference to developers and policy makers in the housing sector of each country.
Sustainability is finding ways to harmonise the human economy with the ability to protect the cyclical character of the Earth’s systems (Prugh and Assadourian 2003). Since the industrial revolution, the natural cycles have been increasingly ignored or altered by humans causing a long-term and dangerous depletion of natural capital (Prugh and Assadourian 2003). Harvesting renewable resources sustainably, reusing and recycling materials, and rebuilding and nurturing soils are essential towards restoring the Earth’s cyclical system (Prugh and Assadourian 2003). Current technology allows a building to be designed to provide not only an aesthetically pleasing structure, but also the essential provisions of comfort, shelter and a healthy indoor environment (Parry 2014). There are plenty of technologies available to enable enhanced sustainability of the construction and design and energy and water efficiency of a dwelling. Among them, simple upgrades such as, solar passive design, low embodied energy materials, and low flow water fittings may have little or no additional construction cost while saving considerable money every year (NatHERS 2018). Over the years, numerous dwellings have been built in Australia without proper planning, site orientation, source of materials, quality and overall efficiency consideration. Although higher standards are becoming requirements and sustainability technologies and products are evolving at a fast pace, its diffusion and implementation to the housing industry have been occurring at a slower pace than necessary to provide Australians with affordable, healthy, comfortable and environmentally friendly homes.
Achieving sustainability in Housing requires major societal changes, restructuring of institutions and management approaches. It requires the appropriate political will based on the conviction of responsibility of government to its citizens and the need to create a humane and decent environment for dignified living. In order to realize sustainablehousing provision, the housing needs of the Nigerian population have to be put into proper focus and a coordinated program to achieve this should be thoroughly worked out. Sustainablehousing provision is thus contingent on a number of underlying factors. These are Policy formulation and decision making, Policy execution and monitoring and social acceptability and economic feasibility.Also, the task of providing adequate and affordable housing for the urban poor could be tackled by the increased use of alternative building materials such as laterite bricks/ stabilized bricks, cement- fibre roofing materials and bamboo. These materials have been shown to have lower cost advantages over conventional building materials. The efforts of the Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute (NBRRI) and some local companies in Nigeria have yielded suitable equipment such as VS Cinva ram press, a multipurpose brick making equipment as well as interlocking brick press.These efforts should be encouraged. The lack of willpower and general acceptance has been the bane of the use of alternative building materials in Nigeria. Government could set the right examples by building prototype houses using indigenous approach for mass housing schemes.
The first formulation of the goals related to SustainableDevelopment emerged in 2001, with the adoption of the millennium development goals (MDGs) by the UN members. Namely, it has 8 objectives related to education, health, environment, partnerships, and non-discrimination, which expired in 2015. The United Nations has been keen to conceptualize and formulate sustainabledevelopment during the second phase 2016-2030. Thus, the outcome of the Agreement on the SustainableDevelopment Agenda 2030, which includes 17 objectives; 169 targets; and 244 variables. In general, SDGs 2030 has three dimensions integrated together which are the economic dimension; the environmental dimension; and the social dimension. In fact, not all the 244 variables are available to measure the sustainabledevelopment of all countries, which considered a major challenge to follow the progress of sustainabledevelopment at the level of each country (H. Amin-Salem, M.H. El-Maghrabi, I. Osorio Rodarte, and J. Verbeek, 2018). Table (1) summarizes the framework of SDGs 2030.In addition, an explanation of the percentage of data availability in each target for Egypt. Therefore, the availability of variables needed to measure sustainabledevelopment in Egypt is about 43%, and the most available targets for variables are 9 th ; 5 th , 8 th , 6 th , 3 rd , and 3 rd . The least available
In this regard, Mackillop (2012) indicated that cheap is not necessarily affordable and there is a need for a different way to view affordability as more than just the price o f a house and land; but also to include the cost o f getting to and from work, to social and family activities, which can infinitely outweigh the perceived “savings” achieved by buying a house at the urban fringes. M ulliner and Maliene (2011) also stated that providing affordable housing is not simply about cheap and decent homes; they must consider a lot o f other factors such as the sustainability of housing and its environment. They added that not only housing costs and household income will affect housing affordability, but also the other criteria that influence the quality o f life o f a household. Therefore, housing affordability should be mutually discussed with sustainability issues since they are affecting one another.
DOI: 10.4236/adr.2018.63012 127 Art and Design Review nitary conditions and perfect personal privacy. At the same time, the living mode and bad sanitary conditions in this environment can easily lead to the spread of disease. Modularization and sustainable temporary housing summa- rizes the advantages of the temporary housing, realizes factory production, fold- ing and disassembly. It also takes account of environment, human psychology, and other aspects so as to create a complete functional space for life. First, mod- ularization design of the functional space of temporary housing not only im- proves the speed of construction, but also facilitates the rapid assembly of con- struction sites. Second, the functional space of the temporary housing is com- plete to meet the needs of peoples’ basic comfort and privacy, and modular pro- duction can be done according to the function of the house at the same time. Third, temporary housing is sustainable to satisfy the repeated use of residents, it also can improve the efficiency of production and storage, and finally reduce costs by recycling. Fourth, temporary housing has high efficiency of installation. Modular sustainable temporary housing has small storage space, but large un- folded space to meet daily activities. On the other hand, it has the characteristics of installation and assembly integration, which is similar to IKEA’s home. It ef- fectively saves space and manpower. Above all, the modular sustainable tempo- rary housing is easy to assemble, and the factory prefabricates the collapsible structure. Ordinary residents can use simple tools to complete the house and put into use. In 1997, when summing up Los Angeles’ experience in reconstruction, the California government of the United States put forward an important pro- posal: reduce the construction of temporary shelters and transitional resettle- ment houses, then build the permanent and simple housing for the affected res- idents directly so that the disaster victims can return to normal life more quickly (Li, 2008). While the modularization and sustainable temporary housing has greatly improved the residential function of temporary housing, and realized the sustainable reuse of temporary housing so as to satisfy the higher economic re- quirements.
The NV market reaches a sufficient volume of activity to lead to the growth of an indigenous and autonomous appropriation of the NV concept. The NV technique takes an equal place among others in the construction market. The realities of the construction sector and the intrinsic qualities of the NV concept lead to a continuous growth of the NV market and to a resolution of the housing problem over time.
This thesis is about an innovation in the Dutch construction market: NoM houses. Social renting houses who are not energy efficient, are being renovated into energy neutral houses. These energy neutral houses are called NoM houses. The social renting houses belong to the social housing cooperatives. At the moment, the costs for renovating these social renting houses are still too high, however it is expected that these costs will decline in the future due to amongst others the learning effects and the application of industrialization practices in the construction market. The purpose of this thesis is to set up a tendering strategy for social housing cooperatives to reduce the costs of a NoM renovation to at least €30,000. The estimation of the cost price is done with a learning curve. After using a start price of €130,000 per NoM renovation and a learning rate of 90%, the learning curve is calculated. Take into consideration that currently the NoM renovation price floats around €60-70,000, we conclude that there is still space left for further cost reduction based solely on learning effects. Though, the learning curve tend to flatten around €40,000, which is not enough, because the market wants to go to €30,000 or even less. The remaining €10,000 of the cost reduction should thus come from economies of scale effects such as joint procurement activities and industrial construction practices. Regarding the distribution of the number of renovations over the 5 year, it can be concluded that the renovation production should start prudently with a low number of renovations and that this should be increased in an incremental and exponential way over 5 years.
In this report, we follow up on a number of points brought out in our last strategic analysis (Godley et al. 2005). We focus on the residential real estate market and examine the effects of pos- sible changes in current trends in the price of real estate on the financial condition of households and their spending behavior. After reviewing some recent perspectives on the state of housing prices, household debt, and economic growth, we investigate the level of housing prices in rela- tion to rental and vacancy rates. We examine the level of debt of the household sector and show that even with the sustained deterioration in household balance sheets, borrowing has grown rad- ically in recent years. Despite low interest rates the burden of servicing this debt has reached new heights. Rising home prices have done little to improve the equity position of households, and any fall in housing prices will worsen matters. We show that the precarious financial position of households stems largely from loose lending standards and the heightened cash-out refinancing of recent years. Noting that when and where housing prices have fallen, borrowing and growth have slowed, we turn our attention to the plausible effects of a slowdown in housing prices on household spending, economic growth, and sectoral balances. We show that the optimistic fore- casts of the Congressional Budget Office rely on sustained private-sector borrowing. We then simulate the impact of a drop in house prices and reduced borrowing and conclude that GDP