Services are generally considered as an activity offered by one party to another and are essentially intangible and does not provide an ownership (Kotler and Armstrong, 2010). Sustainableservices can be perceived as a subset of services which provide offerings satisfying customer needs while at the same time improve the social and environmental performance along the whole life cycle in comparison to conventional offerings (Belz and Peattie, 2009). Eco-efficient services are sometime referred to as sustainableservices and are defined as services which facilitate eco-efficiency of activities by influencing the consumer behavior in combination with eco-efficiency of the technology applied and materials used (Zaring et al., 2001). Halme et al. (2006) argues that most of the sustainableservices terminology refers to the eco-efficient services and neglects the social aspect of sustainability. They gave a pragmatic definition to sustainableservices as services which contribute to positive impact on at least two of the three dimensions of sustainability. The current period faces a boom in technological advances and calls for ethical concerns in achieving sustainable development, which is promoted through sustainableservices.
Sustainable service is that which fulfills customer de- mands and that can be continued for long periods of time without having a negative impact on either the natural or the social environment. Furthermore, it is imbued with sustainability as its primary value and as a “super-service” in and of itself. Herein, an innovative approach that uses nature’s ground rules to characterize sustainableservices and choose between different service alternatives was demonstrated. It was suggested that sustainable service should mimic natural processes, and in so doing achieve energy efficiency, use future-oriented and life cycle per- spectives, and evolve to adapt smoothly to changes in its environment. Moreover, it should incorporate sustain-
Microcredit: Microcredit products may be appropriately differentiated in terms of maturities, instalments, services and collateral requirements (ranging from joint liability and personal guarantees to tangible collateral and pawning), rather than in terms of loan purpose, which is costly to appraise and, for fungibility reasons, difficult to control. Viable and sustainable microcredit schemes require: prudent adjustment to household savings, investment and repayment capacities; small loan sizes, with ceilings growing over a cycle of repeat loans up to a level determined by the absorptive capacity of the microenterprise and household economy; dynamically growing savings-to-credit ratios; market rates of interest autonomously determined by financial institutions and differentiated according to costs and services provided; loan maturities and repayment modalities according to customer needs and differentia ted, in case of wholesaling, according for each level of intermediation; short maturities, no grace periods and short instalment periods in case of initial loans; insistence on, and incentives for, timely repayment; and the development and provision of cost-effective monitoring systems.
foundation that has been in existence for only 3 years, I can extrapolate strategies concerning leadership attributes, donor cultivation, marketing, funding tools, and performance from leaders who have been in the industry. These participating organizations have maintained sustainable service for both internal and external stakeholders. I understand the importance of being a mission-focused foundation and demonstrating to the stakeholders that the mission is woven throughout the strategies, relationships, events, and funding selections. I now have a comprehensive grasp of methods to sustain the delivery of services through challenging times: if a person believes in the mission, then he or she will creatively explore strategies to effectively and efficiently sustain the service. Whether this involves a reallocation of funds, restructuring of responsibilities, or another strategy, I now have the tools to effectively implement changes to positively impact sustainability.
The above table is not exhaustive, even though it enables the drawing of some interesting observations. The first is that sustainable supply chain management is a relatively new field. The second is that only one defines explicit service as an important element of supply chain management according to sustainable consideration. This situation could be the result of prevalence definitions of the supply chain focusing on processes related to the good creation, transportation, delivery as the main aim of its management. In fact, the most traditional and commonly recognized definitions of supply chains refer to the different organizations working independently for product creation and its delivery to final customers, thus regarding materials, services, finances and information as flows from upstream to the downstream of the supply chain (Mentzner et al., 2001). That reflects a goods-dominant logic perspective, where operand resources are moved downstream by independent entities. Within supply chains we deal with processes that may seem to be characterized by immateriality and intangibility too, e.g. logistics services, but they do realize highly value-added activities (Mentzner, 2001; Tokman and Beitelspacher, 2011). In fact, many processes of supply chains are themselves services (Lusch, 2011). Adding that in business-to- business relationships, the order winning criteria have become service-based rather than product- based (Christopher, 2005), the impact that can have flexibility or reliability on customer satisfaction is enormous. Companies are economically successful if they offer sustainableservices (Cocca and Ganz, 2015).
social impacts (noise pollution, security, hazards etc.). Further sustainability assessment was carried out on the alternative renewable energy and the key factors considered such as the cost of acquiring the alternative renewable energy, maintenance and running cost and the greenhouse emission and social impacts. The significance of this research project will help in cutting down the overall expenditure of the telecoms industry thereby leading to profit maximisation. It will also reduce the environmental risk through mitigation of carbon emission thereby helping the ecosystem and supporting sustainability. It will increase the call power and internet usage of subscribers while it will also allow easy entrance for new investors in the country’s telecoms industry due to reduced initial capital investment. Finally, this will improve the telecoms sector’s good image and status through their Corporate Social Responsibility (CRS) commitment and sustainable development.
The tourism sector is characterized by considerable diversity. Tourism subsectors include transportation, accommodation, food and hospitality services, travel agents, visitor attractions, retail and other services (such as insurance). Tourism operators differ in terms of ownership (government, nongovernmental organi- zations, private businesses), size (there is a predomi- nance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the sector, but also many international conglomerates), and purpose (for profit or non-profit, as well as heri- tage-natural conservation, education, and community development mandates). Tourism operators have adapted to provide tourism services in every climatic zone on the planet and are affected by climate in a number of ways. All tourism destinations are climate- sensitive to a degree in that they are influenced by nat- ural seasonality and demand, which are defining char- acteristics of tourism worldwide. Tourism destinations are affected either positively or negatively by inter- annual climate variability that brings heat waves, unseasonable cold, drought, storms, and heavy rain, which can affect not only tourist comfort and safety (and thereby satisfaction), but also the products that attract tourists (e.g. snow cover, coral reefs) or deter them (e.g. infectious disease, wildfires, tropical cyclones, heat waves). Climate variability also influences various facets of tourism operations (e.g. water supply and quality, heating-cooling costs, snowmaking require- ments). An international survey of 66 national tourism and meteorological organizations found that a large majority (81%) felt that weather and climate were major determinants of tourism in their nation (Wall & Badke 1994). As a consequence of this diversity, there are extensive differences in the nature of climate sen- sitivities and abilities of tourism operators worldwide to incorporate climate services into decision-making.
By considering the shared, cultural and plural value of different SLM options through deliberation, landscape scale changes in land management may occur, that are consistent with actual preferences and more deeply held values of local communities. However, given the complex tenure arrangements that exist in many rangeland areas (for example the three tenure types outlined in the Kalahari case), there remains a danger that economic policy instruments, for example PES schemes, may lead to unintended social justice con- cerns (Stringer et al., 2012a), in a similar way to the privatisation of communal land since the 1970s in Botswana (see also Dougill et al., 2012). Privatisation conceives that compared to historic communal ownership arrangements, private owners will be more highly motivated and able to prevent natural capital from crossing thresholds that may endanger the ﬂ ow of ecosystem services from their land (principally provisioning services on which their liveli- hoods are based). However, in the same way that privatisation can focus on maximising one ecosystem service (cattle production), often at the expense of others (e.g. climate regulation, habitats for wildlife and water quality), mechanisms such as PES can favour the supply of services for which there are markets (e.g. climate regu- lation via carbon markets) over those for which there is no market (e.g. habitats for wildlife). In the same way that privatisation concentrated natural capital in the hands of the rich at the expense of poorer communal pastoralists, there is a danger that PES schemes will be more accessible with lower transaction costs for richer, landowning pastoralists, who may capture the market before it is possible for communal pastoralists to organise them- selves sufﬁciently to enter the market-place (Stringer et al., 2012b). It is therefore imperative that the creation of new markets for ecosystem services is seen as one of a number of policy instruments available to governments (see ELD Initiative, 2013 for others), and that these markets are carefully regulated to prevent the provision of certain services at the expense of others. There may also be a role for government to promote social capital among groups of communal pastoralists, to enable them to access PES or agri- environment schemes and compete effectively with private landowners.
Capgemini has strong IT portfolio and smart meter expertise. Capgemini scores best in class for its IT portfolio and residential smart meter capabilities. It offers a variety of governance and strategic IT consulting services such as 'GreenScan for Strategy' and Green ITIL (for a comprehensive sustainable IT Service management) to enable a continuous improvement process and easier alignment with the business. In addition it offers consultancy services for green data centre retrofits and green data centre new builds based on its extensive experience in its own data centres. These include its Merlin data centre in the UK, which is one of the world’s most sustainable and energy efficient data centres. It has over 15.7 million meters deployed and 1.7 million meters under management in both Europe and North America , and in 2011 won a contract for the deployment of four million meters in Canada. As a more focused supplier Capgemini achieves only moderate scores on six of the other capabilities. In the UK it has a strong internal sustainability record, but its overall momentum score reflects the fact that beyond the UK its sustainability programme is at an early stage.
Abstract: The monsoon season is a natural phenomenon that occurs over the Asian continent, bringing extra precipitation which causes significant impact on most tropical watersheds. The tropical region’s countries are rich with natural rainforests and the economies of the countries situated within the region are mainly driven by the agricultural industry. In order to fulfill the agricultural demand, land clearing has worsened the situation by degrading the land surface areas. Rampant land use activities have led to land degradation and soil erosion, resulting in implications on water quality and sedimentation of the river networks. This affects the ecosystem services, especially the hydrological cycles. Intensification of the sedimentation process has resulted in shallower river systems, thus increasing their vulnerability to natural hazards (i.e., climate change, floods). Tropical forests which are essential in servicing their benefits have been depleted due to the increase in human exploitation. This paper provides an overview of the impact of land erosion caused by land use activities within tropical rainforest catchments, which lead to massive sedimentation in tropical rivers, as well as the effects of monsoon on fragile watersheds which can result in catastrophic floods. Forest ecosystems are very important in giving services to regional biogeochemical processes. Balanced ecosystems therefore, play a significant role in servicing humanity and ultimately, may create a new way of environmental management in a cost-effective manner. Essentially, such an understanding will help stakeholders to come up with better strategies in restoring the ecosystem services of tropical watersheds.
As shown in Table 4.2, a CHW intervention delivered by a CBO to Lewiston-based Somalis is estimated to cost $178,000 over three years, with an annual cost of approximately $60,000. We assumed a caseload of 260 per CHW, based on the assumption that a large number of clients will require relatively low- intensity services, such as class participation or a one-time consultation; only a minority of patients is estimated to require more intensive and repeated services, such as multiple home visits or being accompanied to clinic visits. In addition, the Lewiston area is more densely populated than the rural areas covered by the CHW models described above, and thus would require less CHW travel time. We assume that the same CHW employee will continue to be employed over three years (no staff
and species interaction. Bonaudo et al. (2014) analysed and discussed agro-ecological practices in a French and in an Amazonian system which shifted from systems with co-existence of crops and animals, to an integrated crop-livestock system, meaning that they created or re-created links between soil crops and animals through a diversified production, with the additional benefit of giving economic resilience to market shocks. They maximized ecological (predator-prey) or production-based interactions, e.g., by improving complementarities between production cycles. These systems illustrated how elements of agro-ecological practices under two widely different sets of conditions, could contribute to robust and viable systems, and led to the conclusion that there are several paths to building more and more sustainable systems. In practice, they minimized losses and external inputs, optimized the nutrient availability for crops and animals through temporal management, and developed the collective management at the landscape level, including the semi-natural elements (Bonaudo et al., 2014).
This is not to say that the NPM has had no positive impacts upon public services delivery. This would be facile. As we argue below it has been significant in addressing the prior poor design of public services in many countries (Barraza et al 2009, Radnor 2010), it has revealed the importance of balancing efficiency and effectiveness in delivery public services and provided important tools to do so (Hogstrom et al 2014, Dahler-Larsen 2014. Also the use of contractual mechanisms within a NPM framework has sharpened the focus of service delivery in many cases (Wistow et al 1994). Some have also argued that it has been an important tool of reform to drive broader societal reform in central and eastern Europe (Sorin & Pollitt 2015). However our argument is that, valuable as these benefits have been, their impact has been diminished by the flaws of NPM in practice as discussed above – and particularly by the extent to which it has produced an introspective and short- term culture and strategic orientation that has diminished the ability of PSOs both to respond to external change and to deliver external effectiveness and public value.
1 January 2000, integrating three formerly independent providers of antenatal care: TAIHS, and Queensland Health services — the Community Child Health Service and the Institute of Women’s and Children’s Health at Townsville Hospital. The program has a young-family focus (not the traditional antenatal–postnatal care model), and is open to all pregnant women and families with children under the age of 8 years. The program has evolved within a quality improvement framework, including annual clinical audit, client survey and regular pro- gram refinement.
Previously, different standards were followed to develop individual components in a system of smart city, for example smart meters, smart grids, smart living and many other. Recently, the strategies to develop smart city services has changed horizontally, following unified standards for accessibility, environment monitoring and others. However, in the unified system, standards are more of a requirement than a conventional method, it additionally provides more usability and reduces unnecessary costs of cross platform problem solution development . Inclining to this strategy researchers also define cities as smart, ‚when investments in human and social capital and traditional (transport) and modern (ICT) communication infrastructure fuel sustainable economic growth and a high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources, through participatory governance‛ . Generally, it can be abridged that there are two standards in the present smart city discourse: 1) the ICT and innovation centered approach and 2) the general population arranged approach. It is called a measurement of shrewd urban communities going from methodologies that objective the productivity and mechanical progression of the city's hard foundations (i.e. transport, water, squander, vitality) to those concentrating on the delicate framework and individuals. Other illustrations used to classify smart city sees are top-down versus base up activities and supply versus request driven methodologies .
In pursuit of unending material growth, western society has increasingly favored insti- tutions that promote the private sector over the public and commons sectors, capital accumu- lation by the few over asset building by the many, and finance over the production of real goods and services. Steady decline in median income and marginal tax rates have reduced the funds available to spend on public goods while simultaneously contributing to rising income disparity and ecosystem degradation. At the same time, many developing countries are on a path to replicate this system, creating a more extreme version of this disparity within their own boundaries. 2