Not only do they use up their natural resources to support the growing tourism industry, but they also deprive local population of what is rightfully theirs. Yet, all they do is taking without putting much back in. Unless appropriate action is taken, continued growth of tourism will further damage such ecosystems with serious consequences in sustaining long term development and human well being.
Introducing sustainable rural tourism within the context of Antalya, Turkey and within Bafra's region of Northern Cyprus two papers appear to have common characteristics. The work of SEDEF ALTUN, GÜLIN BEYHAN, RECEP ESENGIL offers a framework for diversifying tourism the region. Their work explores Akseki district as a case study within the context of the project. The goal of the project is to provide maximum efficiency in the economical, social, and cultural dimensions of tourism with sustainable development practices in order to dispel the incongruities of regional devel- opment. As a result of the survey carried out in the region, the "Sarihacilar" Village, located 4 km away from downtown Akseki, was chosen as the sample for application because of the unique physical environment (natural and built) that it enjoys. Through a collaborative planning process, the framework is introduced while exploring possi- bilities of alternative tourism and of accelerating progress in rural areas of this region. Within the context of the Bafra region in Northern Cyprus and in light of current discourses on sustainabletourism, ÖZLEM OLGAÇ TÜRKER and ÖZGÜR DINÇYÜREK offer an alternative to the mass tourism activities currently taking place in the region. Their work proposes sustainabletourismplanning for a unique traditional rural settlement - Bafra Village- which is located in close vicinity of this heart of tourism. The continuity by conversion of existing traditional housing stock of Bafra village for tourism purposes is critically proposed, ana- lyzed, and discussed with the aim of minimizing the potential threats of increasing tourism demands.
Based on the actors’ group, a list of government tourism heads and local community representatives was compiled and used as a sampling frame for the selection of the respondents. A self-completion questionnaire survey was emailed to solicited sample list of local tourism authori- ties and planners in Zambia, who have direct and indirect involved in the Livingstone tourism master plan. A real- time online-based questionnaire website  was used to improve response and analysis of findings. The online- based survey enabled a degree of tracking and gauge findings and easy clarifications and adjustments in cases where the questionnaire was not well-defined. To en- courage survey completion and to confine the aims of the survey to specific tourismplanning objectives (such as identification of sustainabletourismplanning implemen- tation and development in tourism strategies), without eroding the aims of the investigation, the survey design incorporated a combination of closed and open questions which was also hosted online to improve survey res- ponses and participation. Closed questions were utilised to gauge responses to straightforward questions, where a simple tick box suffices to assist in classification of res- pondents. However, recognizing the small sample spe- cific population involved in this survey, a range of open questions were included to generate a source of more qualitative, explanatory information that can add a richer dimension to understanding responses. Hence, the field- work aimed to interview representatives of the major groups. It was designed using a series of semi-structured interviews with key actors. Reference  explained the criterion used to determine sample size is an important issue in research. The study uses descriptive data analysis and explanation, and the use of appropriate theory to help explain events [69,70].
The term CBT (Community Based Tourism) has a positive connotation because in this case there is a recognition of community rights to active participation and job opportunities (Prodi Magister UNUD, 2015).It is more appropriate than by building something new and not based on the society, cultural and environmental sustainability. CBT has received special attention by the member countries of APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) in 2000, that CBT can be used as a tool in development because of its role in achieving sustainable development. CBT concept is closely related to sustainabletourism development (Prodi Magister UNUD, Ibid). Model of CBT is believed to help the local people to gain revenues, diversify the local economy, culture and environmental preservation as well as the provision of educational opportunities. Here, the local communities have control on involvement in its development and management, substantially the proportion of the benefits have largely remained in the hands of the community. Some models in Bali for the implementation of CBT that can be said to be successful are: the village of Pemuteran, the village of Tanah Lot, the village of Kedonganan, the village of Pecatu, the village of Ceking, Tenganan Dauh Tukad and the Pandawa Beach. This system is very appropriate to Bali because Bali has a social capital in the form of welfare system. Balinese society's values that all citizens are brothers (nyama Braya). This spirit can bring passion to work collectively toward a common goal. The local government support the community development programs in order to increase awareness and knowledge about tourism. Community is given the space and opportunity to develop and manage the potential tourist attraction in their respective village (Prodi Magister UNUD, Ibid).
Bernadette Quinn (2009) did a study in problematising ‘Festival Tourism’: Arts Festivals and Sustainable Development in Ireland. This paper problematises the term ‘festival tourism’. It conceptualises festivals as socially sustaining devices and argues that while they frequently function as tourist attractions, their social significance extends far beyond tourism. Using empirical material gathered in two case study arts festivals in Ireland, the paper demonstrates how festivals can contribute to arts development by inter alia creating demand for the arts, enhancing venue infrastructures, encouraging local creativity and animating local involvement. The paper contends that arts festivals, irrespective of their initial objectives almost inevitably develop tourist profiles over time and it proceeds to examine how changing tourism priorities in the two festivals studied impact upon sustainable festival practices . The findings suggest that tourism emerged as a key force promoting festival growth and expansion. It was found to be associated with increased revenue flows but also with increased arts activity on a year-round basis and with an improved venue infrastructure in both places. However, problems were identified with respect to the quality of the relationship forged between the festivals and local populations in the respective places. The paper concludes by arguing that festivals’ engagement with tourism needs to be carefully managed in the interests of promoting the socially sustaining function of festivals and of encouraging sustainable approaches to tourism development.
generational, interspecies, geographical, and procedural); process dynamics and the recognition of constant change; integration of the interests of the various stakeholders of sustainability; and normativity which recognizes the social constructs that underpin sustainability. In this paper, reference is made to an understanding of sustainability and sustainable practices that acknowledge all of these principles. They reflect sustainable approaches to the natural and social environment and its stakeholders within the specific context of tourism employment that have a focus on long-term outcomes and benefits and avoid short-termism in thinking and application. This enables us to utilize the concept of sustainable HRM in tourism as underpinning the main arguments presented here. The paper explores seeming neglect of workforce considerations within the sustainabletourism policy narrative and, as a response, proposes measures of workforce readiness, in both
Firstly, the rapidly changing face of world-wide tourism has provided increased support for enhanced levels of stakeholder participation in tourismplanning processes (Murphy, 1981; 1983; 1985; 1988). Exponential volume increases in global tourist activity have led many countries to consider the industry as an appropriate vehicle for the economic rejuvenation of peripheral areas (Brown & Hall, 1999), and tourism development in such regions is an especially common response where primary or extractive industries are in decline (Bramwell, 1994). In these circumstances, where sustainability issues may be centred around a clearly perceptible threat to the survival of an entire way of life (Gannon, 1994), the local environment is frequently rural in nature and, in many cases, is inhabited by a sizeable indigenous peoples' population (Zeppel, 1998). The thrust of much of the literature under these circumstances is to advocate extensive community control of tourism development, in the belief that local stakeholder participation will maximise community support for a change process which can seriously disrupt traditional lifestyles (Ap & Crompton, 1993).
In connection with this paper , the concept of nature is a natural of Nusa Lembongan as an area with everything included in it are regarded as one unit that includes : its government , population, environment, and culture. These symptoms can be seen from the tour to mangrove management , touring by motorcycle, trekking, and so on. This management is said already got a good response from the local community, which is characterized by the positive contribution to the survival of cultural social system they have. Even the benefits they get from the management of tour to mangrove, and tour by motorcycle, communities are able to raise awareness of the importance of mangrove management in a sustainable manner. All that can be seen with increasing awareness about cleanliness , every citizen who met plastic , bottle or glass aqua or the like around the mangrove will be collected and disposed of in the rubbish bin. They have realized that the preservation of nature will give also the preservation of the financial income.
Abstract: In the present era, the tourism industry was introduced as one of the pillars of sustainable development and as a powerful tool for economic, social and environmental impacts which, while attracting the participation of the local community in the development of the national economy, has the potential of preserving and protecting natural resources, making environmental sustainability. Today, sustainable development policy is a public approach that governments have been considering to make ecologically sustainabletourism a promising local community in the long run. In this regard, the present study was conducted with the aim of planningsustainable development in the city of Ardebil. The research method is a descriptive-analytic type with an applied purpose. The data used in the research is documentary and field research. In order to achieve the most urgent and deterrent forces in the development of sustainable urban tourism, through the completion of a questionnaire and interview with 40 experts from urban tourism, effective strategies encouraging and inhibiting the development of sustainabletourism were formulated. Then, they were weighed and prioritized, using the network analysis (ANP) model. Finally, based on the most important adversary and deterrent forces, the most sustainable strategies for sustainabletourism development in Ardebil were extracted. The results of the research show that among the forces that encourage sustainable development of the city (creation of employment) the highest priority and among the inhibitory forces of sustainable development of the city (lack of sustainable management in the urban tourism sector) have the highest priority. Seven strategies were also identified and developed for the most important adversary and deterrent forces of city tourism development. Among the strategies proposed, the strategy (optimal and targeted utilization of increased incentives for travel among people to exploit the attractions and products of tourism in order to create employment and income for the people of Ardabil city) was selected as the best strategy. Moreover, in this research, the spatial pattern of the elemental inhabitants of Ardabil city was examined using the geographic information system (GIS) and it was determined that the tourism space of Ardabil city is influenced by the historical space of the city (old texture) and covers the central part of the city (area 1).
Tourism is frequently promoted as a developmental tool and a way to improve regional communities’ well-being. However, as pointed out by McKercher (1993), the tourism industry consumes valuable community resources, requires specific infrastructure, and creates waste, all of which if not properly managed can lead to regrettable consequences for destination communities. Planning and managing tourism are indeed some of the major challenges faced by regional communities that seek to benefit from tourism development (Hall, 2000). Sustainabletourism development protects community interests and enhances residents’ well-being. Assessing sustainability of tourism development at a destination includes assessment of its impacts on human- and ecosystem (Ko, 2005), and requires a systematic and holistic approach. Tourism researchers have examined the effects of tourism on the economy (by analysing contribution of tourism to income, sales, employment, government revenue, and imports), environment/land use, political environment/governance and society and culture, with relatively fewer studies focusing on social impacts of tourism (Sharma, Dyer, Carter, & Gursoy, 2008).
Successful rural tourism development projects have demonstrated the critical importance of investment in initial assessment, community preparation and product development before marketing initiatives and programs. Handmade in America, an organization that promotes Western North Carolina crafts and grows local economies through crafts, is one example of successful local revitalization projects. Their small revitalization program for economic and community development focuses on identifying resources that form the basis of revitalization, then focus on development of needed, but missing resources such as: human resources leadership development, technical assistance and others.
ACSBD Working Paper No. 1 Climate Change and Australian Tourism 7 STCRC climate change tourism projects on destination impacts and carbon footprints were presented at the CAUTHE National Conference in 2009 and 2010 and in the UK at Travel & Tourism in the Age of Climate Change in 2009. Other papers presented at these conferences were about carbon offsetting flights (Mair & Wong, 2010) and tourist views on climate change (Prideaux et al., 2009). Some 22 journal articles have been published about Australian climate change tourism topics up to 2010. The first article in 1996 was about ‘climate change and snow-cover duration in the Australian Alps’ (Whetton, Haylock & Galloway, 1996). These climate change articles focus on alpine ski resorts (n= 4), carbon footprints, economic impacts on tourism destinations, energy use at accommodation, renewable energy, greenhouse gas emissions of marine tours, coastal tourism impacts, resilient reef tourism, carbon trading at hotels and resorts, tourism climate change assessment, local government planning responses, tourist responses to climate change (n=3), and green tourists. These articles appear in tourism journals including: Current Issues in Tourism, Journal of Ecotourism, Journal of SustainableTourism, Tourism and Hospitality Planning and Development, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Tourism Recreation Research, and Tourism Review International. Two of these journals have produced special issues on climate change and tourism: Journal of SustainableTourism, 2010, 18(3) and 2006, 14(4), and Tourism and Hospitality Planning and Development, 2010, 7(3). Other articles on climate change and Australian tourism appear in a range of environmental journals. These include: AMBIO, Australian Journal of Environmental Management, Climatic Change, Geographical Research, and Renewable Energy. The articles relate to ski resorts (n=4), carbon trading, and energy.
sustainable townships meet land use and compact planning are the characteristic of a green development, which encourages the usage of battery vehicle with in the township and leads to gradual decrease of greenhouse emissions. The outdoor air quality is enhanced by providing landscaped areas, encouraging the use of clean fuels for vehicles. Noise levels are reducedby provision of vegetative buffer. Green buildings and energy efficient infrastructure further aid in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. public spaces encourage physical activity and help in improving public health.
economic sector of Spain, accounting for between 12 and 25 per cent of total employment and contributing 11 per cent of total national GDP. However, the highly season nature of employment in the industry creates a situation whereby a high proportion of jobs are lost each winter. Since social tourism programmes are often directed towards economic efficiency (the ready availability of spare capacity in the industry at a very low cost), they can offer very effective solutions to such destination regions that are searching for counter-seasonal tourism efforts. Cisneros-Martínez et al found that by focusing on domestic tourism demand patterns, and specifically on those trips generated by the IMSERSO programme for senior Spanish citizens, that administers the financial aid for this social tourism activity, there is a noticeable effect on the seasonal concentration of tourism demand (2017). In addition, their study examined the effects on season employment and found that social tourism did have a similar effect on the concentration of employment in the Hotel industry. In other words, the IMSERSO programme helps to spread demand more evenly, which could be considered to exert less pressure on the environmental resource, and has economic benefits for the regional economies, creating more stable and sustainable employment, in addition to the benefits felt by holidaymakers. And yet, the IMSERSO programme has suffered from incremental budget reductions since the onset of the global financial crisis, and which has had a decremental impact on seasonality.
The second reason which is partially linked to the first, is that “undetected tourism” has caused an unruly cementation, in order to fulfil the need of public and private structures for this kind of tourism. This explains why in each Calabrian common there are structures and infrastructures, such as soccer fields, tennis courts, etc., which do not have an economic or social motivation for their existence, since in the best cases for 10 months each year they are almost never used. According to us, this would act in opposition to the interests of “undetected tourism”. In a context in which a hidden tourist economy prevails, it is merely possible to offer tourists common services which are present on the municipal area, such as those planned and accomplished by local public administrations, but which cannot be run for their economic unproductiveness. This reason, together with all the motivations discussed till now, justifies the state of degradation of the majority of public constructions and infrastructures supporting tourism.
Council Decision 86/664/EEC of 22 December 1986 1 establishing a consultation and cooperation procedure in the field of tourism foresees that “each Member State shall send the Commission, once a year, a report on the most significant measures it has taken and, as far as possible, on measures it is considering taking in the provision of services for tourists which could have consequences for travellers from the other Member States”.
Sustainabletourism development requires the informed participation of all stakeholders as well as strong political leadership to ensure wide participation and consensus building. Achieving sustainabletourism is a continuous process requiring monitoring and control of impacts as well as of the implementation stage of corrective sand mitigation measures and the effect of policy responses. This process can be very efficient if quantitative indicators are used that describe in an unbiased way the changes that are of importance for tourism development and management. This paper describes the identification of potential sustainable indicators for tourism destinations and enterprises in Iran, and their pilot application to a well-known tourism destination in Iran, i.e. Eastern Azerbaijan, to develop and implement an Environmental Management System for SustainableTourism in the area. In addition, the findings showed that tourism development is conducive to the sustainable development of rural business. Finally, according to research findings presented practical suggestions.
A strong will and policy drive exists for the stimulation and development of the social economy and for generally promoting low impact tourism. This, together with a barely acknowledged pride in Bristol’s status as the ‘alternative’ culture capital of the West of England, its heritage of strong local traditions and diverse and colourful cultures and the beauty and variety of its natural and built environment are the crucial strands waiting to be weaved together in the development of an exciting new tourism strategy. The City Council has made genuine efforts to resource and develop the Local Agenda 21 process and it is within this framework that the current tourism initiative has grown and developed. The cross boundary working and community ‘outreach’ culture which are axiomatic to the implementation of Local Agenda 21 has promoted and fostered the partnerships and understanding which are the natural pre-cursors to holistic and inclusive planning and policy development.
Tourism is definitely one of the most important forces shaping our world nowadays (Cohen & Kennedy 2000). This could easily be evidenced in the worldwide interest in tourism as a fundamental sector in almost every development plan in either developing or developed countries, as well as the plethora of tourism-‐related texts, journals, conferences and research studies (Botterill et al 2002). Researchers commonly believe that this expansion of interest has been basically fuelled by the rapid growth of tourism as a significant economic contributor, especially over the last six decades, where statements such as “one of the largest and fastest growing industries” (UNCTAD 2013, p.3), “one of the major players in international commerce, and…one of the main income sources for many developing countries” (UNWTO 2015) have been frequently used to describe tourism. This overwhelming emphasis on tourism economic significances has resulted in a deeply-‐rooted conviction that tourism is an economic-‐ oriented industry.