The Glasgow SustainableUrbanDrainageSystem (SUDS) Management Project satisfies the first phase of the Glasgow Surface Water Management Project. This is Glasgow City Council’s contribution to the Transformation of Rural and Urban Spatial Structure (TRUST) project, one of the European Union’s (EU) interregional (INTERREG IIIB) funded research projects. The remit of this EU project comprises also other representative regions in Europe. The project shows also how SUDS can contribute to the overall catchment dynamics of cities such as Glasgow, ultimately relieving stress on the current predominantly combined sewer system. Fifty-seven sites within 46 areas of Glasgow were identified for investigation. A detailed soil chemistry analysis, a preliminary SUDS feasibility assessment and a desk study relating to historical planning issues that may be relevant for subsequent future development and regeneration op- tions were undertaken. Detailed design and management guidelines were then drafted for selected repre- sentative demonstration areas (Belvidere Hospital and Celtic FC Stadium Areas) of high public and prop- erty developers interest, and education value. A combination of infiltration trenches or swales with ponds or underground storage were the most likely SUDS options for the majority of the demonstration areas. Soil contamination issues were considered when selecting SUDS because heavy metals such as lead and zinc can cause environmental health problems.
Ahilan, S, Wright, NG, Sleigh, A et al. (4 more authors) (2014) Flood risk management of a small urban river using a sustainableurbandrainagesystem: Wortley Beck, Leeds, UK. In: Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Hydroinformatics. 11th International Conference on Hydroinfomatics (HIC 2014), 17-21 Aug 2014, New York City, USA. City College of New York .
Other benefits of SuDs retrofit is in the reduced cost of infrastructure by the introduction of green infrastructure. Ellis (2013) argues that conventional drainage systems cannot provide the expected solution to any flood mitigation process but an extended approach based on the introduction of retrofit SuDs, in the likes of micro-and meso-vegetative SuDS systems into a wider green infrastructure(GI) framework, can effectively address on-site and catchment urban surface water issues. Foster et al. (2011), identified the importance of the aesthetic value of a building or location which is increased by the installation of SuDs retrofit by way of green infrastructure, creating habitat for wildlife, by constructing swales and other forms. Health improvements from the use of SuDs is also an important benefit to every citizen. Lamond et al. (2015) affirm the importance of an improved flood risk management system to manage the growing pressure of the effect of flooding events on the health of the occupants of any community. Greenough et al. (2001) address the health effects of flooding which are typically associated with disasters. These are direct morbidity and mortality and secondary or indirect health impacts. A direct impact includes an impaired public health infrastructure, reduced access to health care facilities, and psychological and social effects. While indirect effects could result in the alteration of ecologic systems which may result in land covers (i.e, grass, asphalt, trees etc) being damaged, and the abundance and distribution of disease-
In existing cities, the requirement to ‘grab’ land to retrofit sustainableurbandrainage is a major barrier to implementa- tion. Spatial scale considerations are critical because, while the encouragement of piecemeal adoption of Suds by individuals can make a large contribution to runoff reduction, there may also be the need for a Suds train and that will require a great deal of coordination, planning and potentially regulation. The city of Portland, Oregon, instigated a widespread ‘green streets’ programme including stormwater gardens – the intention was to reduce surface water flooding while obviating the need to install new piped drainage in the city (Kurtz, 2010). Although green roofs are encouraged, the uptake is much smaller: in Melbourne, Australia, Wilkinson and Reed (2009) found that most of the buildings suitable for green retrofit were privately owned and therefore in the hands of a disparate group not readily influenced to undertake sustainable retrofitting. In terms of retrofitting in dense areas, the cost of allocating land to Suds features is a major consideration in the selection of appropriate devices, leading to a preference towards dual- purpose installations such as permeable pavements, rainwater harvesting, green roofs and amenity features. Indeed, cost effectiveness is a critical factor in designing and selecting appropriate Suds and can be a major barrier to their implementation. There is, however, strong evidence that, in many circumstances, the retrofit of Suds can prove cost beneficial. The use of ecoroofs in Portland, Oregon was calculated to be capable of saving the public purse US$60 million compared with the cost of improving the stormwater system; the estimated benefit to an individual property owner was estimated to be US$43 500 over the expected 40-year life of the roof (in reduced energy bills for heating and cooling) (Escop, 2008). Similarly, Doneux (2011) reported that an overall saving of US$0?5 million had been made by employing multiple BMPs instead of replacing stormwater sewers in Arlington, Mississippi, USA. Adams et al. (2010) observed that, in three redevelopment contexts in the USA, the provision of either traditional or LID drainage made no difference to the costs over a 50-year scenario. Recent research indicates that improvements in design are likely to make the cost–benefit equation more favourable. For example, Jia et al. (2012) modelled a variety of improvements to the Beijing Olympic Village and found that the optimal solution (maximising flood control benefit while minimising cost) was to modify the existing green roofs by doubling the soil depth (from 0?3 m to 0?6 m).
Finally, various studies have shown the SuDS approach (especially when using vegetated SuDS techniques) can contribute to reversing habitat fragmentation by acting as wildlife corridors and buffer zones to connect and protect separated and isolated habitats due to urbanisation (Kim, 2004; Brenneisen, 2006; Oberndorfer et al., 2007; Jackson & Boutle, 2008; Viol et al., 2009; Tonietto et al., 2011; Ksiazek et al., 2012; Moore & Hunt, 2012; Bates et al., 2013; Briers, 2014). Nevertheless, stand-alone SuDS systems are not adequate in contributing to the efforts to reverse habitat fragmentation. SuDS sites (in particular sites that contain “micro-and meso- vegetative SuDS systems”) should work with existing urban green infrastructures (parks and gardens) as together they can provide not only a fully sustainable surface water management system, but also connectivity to habitats fragmented by
ecosystem services to promote cross-sector and multi-disciplinary working (Ward et al., 2012). Evolution of practical design guidance and evaluation models has an important role in accelerating transition to sustainable approaches to drainage. As SuDS design progresses to encompass diverse ecosystem services, distinctions between SuDS and other urban water and environmental management solutions (green infrastructure, urban forests, urban river restoration, etc.) blur as narrow disciplinary interests coalesce into net contribution to sustainableurban design (Everard and Moggridge, 2012). Everard and McInnes (2013) identify a ‘systemic solutions’ approach, defined as “…low-input technologies using natural processes to optimise benefits across the spectrum of ecosystem services and their beneficiaries”, that can contribute to sustainable development by recognising and averting
The SuDS approach is deemed to be an important tool to enable the UK and other signatory countries to achieve the Water Framework Directive’s good surface water status by 2021 for interim targets or 2027 for full compliance (Environment Agency 2014). Sustainabledrainage is an ap- proach that facilitates surface waterbodies to achieve the Water Framework Directive’s good surface water status by offering various storm water management and treatment ser- vices via a set of storm water best management practise tech- niques (e.g., rainwater harvesting, pervious pavements, filter strips, swales, green roofs, ponds, infiltration devices, wet- lands, below-ground storage and bio-retention) according to Scholz (2015). These techniques can facilitate four ecosystem protection activities (1) to combat the changing rainfall pat- terns caused by climate change by promoting a more natural way of draining surface runoff (Carter et al. 2015); (2) to compensate the loss of permeable land due to increased Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article
of Sponge city in various practical background, with 164 papers. It’s worth noting that, most case studies are from practice of China, the number of papers is 66, accounting for 40.24%, far more than case studies from other background. For example, Sponge city practices in Beijing [59, 60, 61], Tianjin  etc. The type IV describes the development of new technologies, tools or approaches in this field, such as green roof [63, 64], rain garden [65, 66], urban hydrology , which includes 109 papers and represents 11.331%. As for the type V, review of Sponge city, only takes up 7.173% of the total research, that is, 69 papers in all during the period of 1980 to 2018. This statistical result also stresses the significance of this paper, which also belongs to review, covering the history of development of Sponge City, research trends and challenges in the future. The previous reviews also contribute in different aspects, such as different practices [68, 69], effectiveness , technologies , challenges in the background of climate change and urbanization . The type VI focuses on water quality, waste, and pollution control or management. Morihama et al., for example, studied on urban runoff control in Brazilian metropolitan regions and put forward integrated solutions . Freni et al., researched the uncertainty of water quality modeling through the approach of variance decomposition . Besides, Daigger also made contributions on wastewater management . This type contains 45 numbers, occupying 4.678%. The type VII is primarily clustered as sustainability evaluation and analysis with 38 papers accounting for 3.95% in sum, such as the sustainable development of urban stormwater practice , or sustainability of urban water system . The type VIII refers to intelligent management or intelligent metering for urban water, for example, Fern´ andez et al. developed a geographic information system(GIS) water management system by using some free and open source software . Likewise, Fuchs L et al. also discussed the approach of using GIS to make flooding analysis in urbandrainage . There are just 29 numbers in this group, which takes up 3.015% of total. Finally, type IX is about policy analysis and recommendations. Only 10 papers are in this type, including sustainable water management policy , policy recommendations in Chinese urban flooding , and California zero trash policy coupled with its impacts on urbandrainage .
Conventional systems on roads employ either open concrete drains and/or pipe drains (Owuama, Uja, and Kingsley, 2014). The drains mainly rely on gravity, and are therefore not sustainable in areas with insufficient slope, particularly in developing economies where socio-economic and cultural practices affect their maintenance (Owuama, 2012). Urban roads are often designed with camber towards open concrete drains on both sides of the road. Culverts are provided at crossings over open concrete drains (Owuama et al., 2014). Construction of road network in an urban or semi – urban settlement requires a good drainagesystem that can convey stormwater runoff from impermeable surfaces. The rate of urbanization affects the extent of impervious area – the roads, roof tops and large expanses of paved surfaces, where there is very little or no earth surface into which rainfall could infiltrate (Olukanmi, Adebayo, and Tenebe, 2014). Tucci (2001) observed that urban development alters the vegetation cover, affecting the elements of the natural water cycle in a number of ways. Roofs, streets, paved areas and patios make the ground impervious; the water that previously soaked into the soil now runs through the drains, so increasing surface runoff. The degree of imperviousness also affects the volume of runoff obtained in cities. Urbanization therefore has enormous effects on elements of hydrological cycle, like precipitation, infiltration, percolation, transpiration, evaporation, and surface runoff (Musa, 2012).
PAP005133 - Roof maintenance impacts on roof runoff quality in France PAP005134 - Locating illicit connections with DTS: classification of findings PAP005136 - The Impact of Green Roof Configuration on Hydrological Performance PAP005137 - Factors influencing the infiltration of pharmaceuticals through soils PAP005138 - The role of stormwater management in the Urban Water Cycle
From the investigations conducted and as presented by photographs, reduction in service lifespan and it is evident in the deterioration of drainages and subsequent road pavement conditions which are visibly noticed in the form of edge failures of road pavements, formation of pot holes along the drive way of road pavements, and blockage of drainage channels such as culverts manholes and underground drainage networks. Also this poor maintenance culture results in open and closed drains blockage with dirt weed, silt sand accumulation over time and in the growth of vegetation inside and around the side drains which has resulted into total failure of the side drain and its structures.
Due to the growing concern about the un- desired consequences of development in the urban transportation, achieving a sustainable transportation in cities is an accepted strategy among the decision-makers. According to a popular definition for sustainable develop- ment, the concurrent interaction among eco- nomic, social, and environmental features of urban transportation should be equally consid- ered in a sustainability study, and this makes such studies more complicated. In the current paper, the situation of Mashhad transportation during 1994 to 2044 using a system dynamics model has been portrayed. The system dynam- ics models are able to consider the simultane- ous influence of different variables on each other. Therefore, they are good approaches for monitoring the status of economy, environ- ment, and social factors resulting from trans- portation. In order to model Mashhad trans- portation, firstly the city was partitioned to five regions and the model was calibrated and validated for the year 2009 (base year).
Abstract: The strategies for developing urban public transport systems are implemented nowadays through policy based on the principle of population mobility realisation with a limited use of passenger cars. The system of public transport with its performances, technology, quality, costs and environmental impacts represents one of the important factors that exert influence on the operation, location, size and structure of contemporary cities, their economy and social relations. A state-of- the-art trolleybus subsystem is an efficient tool for attaining the goals of sustainable development and quality of life, especially in the areas of small and mid-sized cities. The trolleybus subsystem has a set of technical and technological, ecological, and economical advantages over other passenger transport subsystems.
solids. Models have been designed to estimate the suspended solids load and its dynamics during rainfall events, leading to better understanding of receiving waters being polluted by hydrocarbons. Concerning various pavement systems, Booth showed that infiltrated water had significantly lower levels of copper and zinc in comparison to the direct surface runoff from the asphalt area. Motor oil was detected in 89% of samples from the asphalt runoff, but not in any outflow water sample from the PPS. Diesel fuel was not detected in any sample. Infiltrate measured five years earlier displayed significantly higher concentrations of zinc, and significantly lower concentrations of copper and lead. Permeable pavements can operate as efficient hydrocarbon traps and powerful in-situ bioreactors. Coupe et al. found out that a PPS specifically inoculated with hydrocarbon- degrading microorganisms does not successfully retain a viable population of organisms for the purpose of increased hydrocarbon degradation over many years. Naturally developed microbial communities (i.e. no inoculation with allochthonous microorganisms) degrade oil successfully. For the successful biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, certain environmental conditions need to be met. Degradation takes place when prolonged aerobic, sulphate reducing and denitrifying conditions occur. Very large hydrocarbon spills can be contained due to absorption processes within the pavement. Wilson incorporated an oil interceptor into a porous surface construction. Tests were carried out for worst-case scenarios such as the worst possible combined pollution and rainfall event to assess how the system retains pollutants within its structure. The results successfully demonstrated that this system can retain hydrocarbons, and can therefore offer outflow with improved water quality. However, where certain detergents are present in the pavement system, they can cause contamination of the outflow water, which may require secondary treatment to improve its water quality.
Much of the emphasis of the Thematic Strategy will inevitably fall on recommendations for action by the European Commission, the Member States and local authorities. However, the individual citizen also has a vital role in achieving a sustainable, healthy urban environment. Public participation in decision making is recognised as a prerequisite for achieving sustainability. Initiatives such as the Aarhus Convention and the Governance White Paper promote opportunities for public involvement and any proposals in the Strategy for plans to be drawn up by municipalities would include appropriate provisions for public participation. More fundamentally, individual decisions and behaviours have a strong influence on the success of any local plan or framework for action. Individuals can choose whether to walk, cycle, take the bus or take their car. They can choose which energy source they use to heat their homes, and whether to invest in better insulation. As set out in this Communication, a lack of public awareness of the environmental consequences of their actions is sometimes a considerable barrier preventing a more sustainable approach. Raising awareness of the public and changing behaviour are necessarily important elements of any strategy to achieve a high quality and healthy urban environment.
The digital platform chosen was Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), a simulation software for runoff conveyance in developed areas [12-13]. The runoff element of SWMM works on a group of subcatchment areas that collect stormwater and create stormwater runoff. The convey system of SWMM transfers this runoff through a network of channels, pipes, pumps, storage devices, and regulators. Information such as flow rate and flow depth in each channel and pipe, and the quantity of runoff produced in each subcatchment would be obtained from the simulation. Listed below are some of the design criteria of a bio-retention system.
This paper describes the nature of the underlying concept of integrating knowledge management and ICT in urban management towards sustainable competitiveness. The consistent and rapid growth of the Malaysian economy since the 60s has undoubtedly resulted in an increase in the urban growth in Malaysia. The question that arises is, whether this growth is sustainable or not? Local authorities are responsible for the urban planning as well as making sure it is also sustainable. Thus, this paper will explore the potential of the implementation of knowledge management system as a tool in local authorities to manage urban growth. According to Garry L. Adam and Bruce T. Lamont (2003), knowledge management system (KMS) is a networked system that share information and leverage knowledge throughout the enterprise. In this case, enterprise refers to the local authorities. This model consists of five key elements; contents, technology, people, process and context that are related to each other and needed for the development of knowledge management systems. It will be used to help organizations to develop knowledge management systems more effectively that support all activities. KMS is a model that can play a role in the development and maintenance of sustainable competitiveness advantage over time. Sustainable competitiveness is an ability to consistently maintain the surrounding environment and while the city continuous to grow. Sustainable means the involvement the people, facilities, environment and governance within the city. Thus, this paper will also highlight the role, tools and techniques of KMS which might assist local authorities. It is an integrated and complex social process, culture, people, finance, technology and organizational structure.
to territories (Porter, 1990, Krugman, 1994, Camagni, 2002, Turok, 2004, Kresl, 2007), the attention of scientists to the concept of urban competitiveness arises and the number of scientific researches grows. This is determined by the more intensive competition among the cities, independent from their size, location or economic power. The scientific researches shows, that the firm remains the central element in the scientific approaches in the studies of competitiveness and designing a policy by the city. As the firms are direct users of the competitiveness of the city and urban economics, this justifies the necessity to disclose the essence of competition among cities more widely. Referring to the authors (Piliutytė, 2007, Begg, 1999) cities are in competition and compete internationally, nationally and at regional level. Regardless of what factors the competition among cities is analyzed by different scientists, all of them stress the same aim: to be attractive city for business, residents, investments, tourists, financial support of EU, etc. According to Turok, et al (2004), cities compete for the position of regional service centre, for nationally and internationally traded products, for inward investment, for skilled mobile population, and in “episodic markets” to host international conventions, cultural festivals, sporting fixtures and other hallmark events. Globalization, advances in information technology and structural changes (i.e. European, global integration) make cities similar to a certain extent. Because of this similarity, the inter-city competition increases. The academic discussion is provided about the market of urban competitiveness. Piliutyte, 2007 stressed that in order to increase the competitiveness of a city, it is crucial to correctly identify the markets of the competition. The markets in which cities compete may be defined in terms of spatial scale (regional, national or international) or type
the development phase in urban environments as surfaces are stripped of their natural cover and their bare soils exposed, which is supported by more recent findings from Nelson and Booth (2002). As urban areas spread and mature, the supply of coarse sediment is gradually reduced as soils are sealed and impervious surfaces preclude interaction with the bare mate- rial below. As a result, sediment reaching urban channels tends towards finer composition, inclusive of suspended sedi- ment washed in from adjacent urban surfaces (Duncan 1999). A comprehensive review by Taylor and Owens (2009) high- lights the complexity of sediment dynamics in urban areas, where contrasting land uses impact on the volume, dimen- sions and nature of urban sediment (Franz et al. 2014). In conjunction with the loss of coarse sediments, impervious surfaces and the stripping of bank vegetation result in increased stream power and flashier stormwater runoff response, leading to an increase in erosive flows (Konrad 2013). Previous research has demonstrated that urbanisation often results in enlargement of urban channel cross-sectional area (Hession et al. 2003, O ’ Driscoll et al. 2009), incision of the stream channel and separation from the riparian zone (Groffman et al. 2003, Richardson et al. 2011) and lateral channel migration (Hession et al. 2003, Leopold et al. 2005, Wolfert and Maas 2007). In developed countries, engineering solutions are often applied to mediate the impacts of erosion in urban streams, resulting in the artificial lining of channels with concrete, rock or geomembrane materials (e.g. LLDPE, reinforced polyethylene and XR-5). Extreme examples of this are streams that are entirely culverted in concrete channels, flowing beneath urban areas and reducing the risk of surface flooding, often entirely destroying urban river ecosystems, though a recent move toward stream restoration ( “ daylight- ing ” , where streams are returned to their natural states) has sought to restore
As per the data available from the city master plan prepared by the municipal corporation of Ratlam, the city generates 88 Tons per day (TPD) of solid waste daily, at the rate of 350 grams per person per day (as per 2010 population of 245911), out of which the municipality daily collects around 41 TPD (Ratlam Master Plan, 2015). The municipality area has been divided into three zones, each zone under one sanitary inspector. Under each inspector there are several supervisors who supervise the process of collection of municipal solid waste. Sources from Ratlam Municipal Corporation say that at present some 1100 labourers, both permanent and daily wage sweepers, are employed for the collection of municipal solid waste as well as for the cleaning of the drains, gutter and roads. There is no system of door to door waste collection. Waste is collected from about 139 community dust bins placed at 49 municipal wards (Ratlam Master Plan, 2015).