and environment. Water shortage is becoming a global concern due to increasing population, economic growth and climate change. Development of new sources of water besides their efficient use, together with conservation measures are the important components of any country’s national water plan. There are five major drivers demanding a huge expansion of water resources in the 21 st century, namely population growth, industrial development, expansion of irrigated agriculture, massive urbanization and rising standards of living. The effect of floods at some area and draught at other area can be effectively tackled with the concept of interlinking of rivers which is very familiar to world countries. The Indian rivers interlink is a large scale engineering project that aims to link Indian rivers by a network of reservoirs and canals and so reduce persistent floods in some parts and water shortages in other parts of India. The greatest advantages with interlinking would be increased generation of hydro power, drinking and Industrial water supply, water transport, ground water development and environmental protection. Even though it is difficult to execute, the interlinking will give long term benefits. The present paper reviews the concept of interlinking of rivers and what are the challenges before India, to address the ‘sustainablewatermanagement’ for tackling the issues like drought and floods.
C oncern about the availability of freshwater for use by human populations has been increasing (Gleick 1998; Postel 1999; IUCN 2000; Postel 2000). Over the last 50 years, water development projects have proliferated in developed countries and are now rapidly growing in developing countries (WCD 2000). International debate has proffered sustainablewater development— managing human uses of water such that enough water of sufficient quality is available for use by present and future generations—as a goal for human communities around the world (IUCN 2000). Unfortunately, this neglects the impacts water development projects have on other species. In the United States, freshwater species are the most imperiled and at risk for extinction (IUCN 2000; Pringle et al. 2000; Stein et al. 2000; Baron et al. 2002). To address the drastic consequences of unfettered human water use on freshwater ecosystems, concern for the species that depend upon freshwater to survive must be added to sustainablewatermanagement. The resulting ecologically sustainablewatermanagement retains the flows necessary to protect native species and sustain the full array of products and services provided by natural freshwater ecosystems while meeting inter-generational human needs for water (Richter et al. 2003).
For this research, qualitative approach is been used as a research design for data collections. According to Sakeran et al (2009), qualitative data can come from a wide variety of primary sources and/or secondary sources, such as individuals, company records, and the corporate websites. For that, semi-structured and in-depth interviews were the main method for this research. The research interviews involved respondents who work at SAMB with the designation as middle management in SAMB and involved with the management of water system. The respondents are divided into two categories; the first category consist minimum of five respondents from management department which are managers and executives that have been involving with sustainablewatermanagement at SAMB. From there, researcher gained crucial information and point of view from the managerial perspective. The second category consist minimum of five respondents consists of people in production and operation department which comprised of engineers and technicians. Where, this second category of respondents contributes technical and technology insight regarding sustainablewatermanagement at SAMB. Meanwhile, secondary data refer to information gathered from sources that already exist which can be acquired from secondary data such as company records or archives, industry analyses offered by the media, websites and others. The secondary data for this research are from books and journals written by scholars on the related field of knowledge. The literary works help the researcher obtained basic understanding of the research background.
water resources management. Many questions remain unanswered as to how to incorporate sustainability measures into water and environmental resource models. Several measures of sustainability have been proposed; perhaps the one that is most appealing from a water systems modeling perspective is the one suggested by Loucks et al. (1996), whereby the net welfare derived from alternative strategies is required to be a monotonically increasing function over time. In addition, several statistical indices are available to measure the sustainability of a project: reliability (probability that a sustainability criterion is within a range of acceptable values), resilience (probability that an unsatisfactory sustainability criteria value is followed by a satisfactory value), and vulnerability (extent or duration of system failures). If statistical indices of sustainability can be defined, they can be combined in a multiobjective framework to arrive at an overall measure of sustainability. In determining the sustainability of water resource systems, time horizons must be long enough so that allocations to present gener ation users are not affected by the length of the horizon or the terminal conditions. Only the solution for the first few periods is of real interest; future periods can be much longer and time periods can be aggregated. Modeling procedures should be sequential and adaptive. What, if any, is the appropriate interest rate to use in the Aral Sea basin models? Sensitivity analysis should be used to determine its effect on project selection. Too low an interest rate may cause marginal projects to become economically attractive even though they may not be sustainable (Loucks et al., 1996).
The most elaborate component of the house’s plumbing system will be located within the south facing structurally insulated panel (SIP) wall assembly. Comprising simultaneously building skin, cooling system, heating system, and systems/architecture integration, a so-named PV cooling loop will be introduced into the design of the house’s front elevation. This particular section of the façade is comprised of solar collectors traditionally situated on the roof. They are offset from the SIP wall by a cavity in which the cooling loop will be located. In this instance a plumbing loop has been devised to act as both water heating element and PV cooling component. The water heating portion of the system was deemed necessary by engineering calculations due to site constraints in the sizing and location of the evacuated tubes, the primary water heating element. This heating system was required to be placed much farther than optimal from the water heater, and since the overall house design and other stringent criteria forced the evacuated tube system to be smaller than would be ideal, a secondary solar heating method was sought, which led directly to the water in the wall heating system. This was devised in collaboration with a fellow studio student working on the wall assembly and PV panel integration.
Population growth accompanied by higher standard of living and ongoing drought conditions caused by changing climatic patterns tend to make water availability as a key national issue not only at present but for the decades to come. The urban cities located around the coastal areas look for the possibility of desalination of sea water whereas the inland cities explore wastewater reuse as a last resort for indirect potable use to meet the envisaged water shortage. Toowoomba City Council acknowledged that Toowoomba would run out of water in two years if the current drought persisted and, therefore, is planning to augment the present water supply with highly treated wastewater using the best technologies available. The concept of reclaimed wastewater to be considered as a resource rather than a waste has been a subject of debate. There are many instances of communities practicing the unplanned indirect potable reuse unknowingly. Tertiary treated wastewater and sometimes untreated industrial and agricultural wastes are returned to the water body from where downstream utilities withdraw water for potable uses. The receiving water bodies have the natural assimilative capacity to clean up the waste discharged into them; however, their limits have been exhausted during the last decade or so due to increased loading discharged containing synthetic chemicals. Planned indirect potable reuse aims to remove these contaminants present in the tertiary treated effluent using advanced treatment technologies with multiple barriers before discharging them into the water bodies to augment the drinking water supply downstream or of their own. Considering the facts that many conventional sources of fresh water become scarcer and more contaminated but emerging innovative state-of-the-art technologies are available to remove the contaminants, planned indirect potable reuse could be a promising solution for sustainablewater resources management. This has been reflected in that many utilities around the world have either been planning or already implementing the advanced reuse systems. This paper reviews some indirect potable reuses practiced in the world, the treatment methodologies adopted and discusses how stakeholders can contribute for continued sustainable supply of these water resources.
During the last decade, several researchers have been concentrating on evaluating the effectiveness of different treatment processes in removing the newly emerging organic contaminants like EDCs, PPCA (pharmacologically active components (PhACs) and personal care products (PCAs). The summary of treatment methodologies and their effectiveness as reviewed by (Snyder et al. 2003) indicates that the reverse osmosis is excellent in removing all types of contaminants followed by ultrafiltration. Membrane technology has been widely used for surface water and wastewater reclamation showing an exponential growth (Law 2003). The most recent example comes from NEWater from Singapore, where secondary treatment is followed by membrane filtration, reverse osmosis, UV disinfection followed by stability control and chlorination. They have produced reclaimed water of a better quality than the local water supply or drinking water. Reverse osmosis is an excellent membrane technology that can remove the emerging chemical and microbial contaminants to provide clear filtrate. However, membrane processes are physical processes that do not alter the chemical nature of the constituents. While the filtrate is free from the contaminants depending on the membrane nominal pore size, the rejected waste stream will have very high concentrations of them. So long as the contaminants remain in the water media, they have the potential to contaminate the receiving water bodies since complete closure of water cycles is an essential part of sustainablewater resources management. Therefore, concentrate stream deserves effective treatment prior to disposal or reuse. Currently, the concentrate stream is either disposed to the coastal sea (if the treatment plants are located closer to sea) or directed back to the inlet of the wastewater treatment plants. Evaporation basin is an option; however, site has to be selected on relatively impermeable soil to avoid groundwater contamination by salt infiltration, while research needs to be done whether the recovered salt could be safely used for any commercial purposes (John 2004).
A pilot study was conducted before the main data collection, which took place in September 2010, a two-month pilot study was conducted between June and August 2010 in the four selected regions, handing the questionnaires and conducting the interviews to test their validity and reliability. Ten copies of the questionnaire were handed to the farmers in each of the four agricultural regions of Libya, individual farmers being selected through convenience sampling. The participants in the pilot study were selected by snowball technique and asked to review the questionnaire and provide their opinions on the appropriateness of questions, the clarity of the concepts and to understand whether or not the questions posed were understood by the sample. Some of the themes which were raised in the pilot study were discussed with one academic water expert who belongs to GWA and has had lengthy experience of watermanagement in Libya. An informal meeting was also conducted with former Agricultural Minister of Libya during his presence in the UK to discuss some issues regarding water and agricultural policies and strategies. These preliminary discussions were not used in the thesis but were used to help the researcher to develop the questions. Due to the large numbers of farmers and farms in the selected area, it was impossible to undertake a comprehensive survey. The pilot survey showed that many farmers were not literate enough to understanding the questionnaires in the questionnaire and formal interviews.
Reference evapotranspiration is very important parameter in the hydrological, agricultural and environmental studies and is accurately estimated by the FAO Penman-Monteith equation (FAO-PM) under different climatic condi- tions. However, due to data requirement of the FAO-PM equation, there is a need to investigate the applicability of alternative ETo equations under limited data. The objectives of this study were to evaluate twelve mass transfer based reference evapotranspiration equations and determine the impact of ETo eq- uation on long term watermanagement sustainability in Tanzania and Kenya. The results showed that the Albrecht, Brockamp-Wenner, Dalto, Meyer, Rohwer and Oudin ETo equations systematically overestimated the daily ETo at all weather stations with relative errors that varied from 34% to 94% rela- tive to the FAO-PM ETo estimates. The Penman, Mahringer, Trabert, and the Romanenko equations performed best across Tanzania and the South West- ern Kenya with root mean squared errors ranging from 0.98 to 1.48 mm/day, which are relatively high and mean bias error (MBE) varying from −0.33 to 0.02 mm/day and the absolute mean error (AME) from 0.79 to 1.16 mm/day. For sustainablewatermanagement, the Trabert equation could be adopted at Songea, the Mahringer equation at Tabora, the Dalton and/or the Rohwer eq- uations at Eldoret, the Romanenko equation at Dodoma, Songea and Eldoret. However, regional calibration of the most performing equation could improve watermanagement at regional level.
of Sponge city in various practical background, with 164 papers. It’s worth noting that, most case studies are from practice of China, the number of papers is 66, accounting for 40.24%, far more than case studies from other background. For example, Sponge city practices in Beijing [59, 60, 61], Tianjin  etc. The type IV describes the development of new technologies, tools or approaches in this field, such as green roof [63, 64], rain garden [65, 66], urban hydrology , which includes 109 papers and represents 11.331%. As for the type V, review of Sponge city, only takes up 7.173% of the total research, that is, 69 papers in all during the period of 1980 to 2018. This statistical result also stresses the significance of this paper, which also belongs to review, covering the history of development of Sponge City, research trends and challenges in the future. The previous reviews also contribute in different aspects, such as different practices [68, 69], effectiveness , technologies , challenges in the background of climate change and urbanization . The type VI focuses on water quality, waste, and pollution control or management. Morihama et al., for example, studied on urban runoff control in Brazilian metropolitan regions and put forward integrated solutions . Freni et al., researched the uncertainty of water quality modeling through the approach of variance decomposition . Besides, Daigger also made contributions on wastewater management . This type contains 45 numbers, occupying 4.678%. The type VII is primarily clustered as sustainability evaluation and analysis with 38 papers accounting for 3.95% in sum, such as the sustainable development of urban stormwater practice , or sustainability of urban water system . The type VIII refers to intelligent management or intelligent metering for urban water, for example, Fern´ andez et al. developed a geographic information system(GIS) watermanagement system by using some free and open source software . Likewise, Fuchs L et al. also discussed the approach of using GIS to make flooding analysis in urban drainage . There are just 29 numbers in this group, which takes up 3.015% of total. Finally, type IX is about policy analysis and recommendations. Only 10 papers are in this type, including sustainablewatermanagement policy , policy recommendations in Chinese urban flooding , and California zero trash policy coupled with its impacts on urban drainage .
Quantifying groundwater discharge to rivers is a difficult and challenging task given the complex nature of the interaction. There is a vast body of literature available with countless studies on the topic. Examples from country’s across the world include; China [11, 12]; Africa [13-15], South Korea , Australia , New Zealand , Canada  and the USA [20, 21]. In many developing world countries, the task of quantifying groundwater discharge is challenged by a lack of data, financial resources and technical staff allocated to execute such studies [3, 22]. Studies therefore often focus on quantifying river baseflow, or the baseflow index (BFI), which is often used as a proxy for groundwater discharge to rivers [3, 20, 23, 24] due to the minimal data requirements. However, comprehensive baseline data on baseflow is still typically lacking in many countries. This baseline data is the prerequisite for sustainablewatermanagement approaches such as Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Conjunctive water use, and further the quantification of the impacts of human pressures and climate change on our water resources.
The rapid growth of cities under modern development pressure has resulted in surface water flooding becoming an increasing hazard and future climate change uncertainties may exacerbate this threat still further: retrofitting sustainable drainage systems to attenuate stormwater runoff has been advocated as part of an integrated solution required to address this problem. Many of these adaptations not only enhance a community’s resilience to flooding, but may also offer additional benefits in terms of improved environmental amenity and quality of life. The evidence base for sustainable drainage is critically evaluated in respect of the implications for urban planning, as applied to existing housing stocks and business properties in urban areas worldwide. It is concluded that this approach can make a substantial contribution towards urban resilience as part of an integrated approach to managing extreme storms. This will be of interest to urban planners and designers considering the implementation of integrated flood risk management.
Six of the water tanks, one to east of castle and five of the series to the south of it, have been fully or considerably explored while a few others or other related features are testified in check digs. 66 It was found to be the largest, grandest and best-furnished reservoir of rectangular shape measuring 73.40 m N-S and 29.30 m E-W (ratio 5:2) at the top while above that there should have been a 1 to 1.20 m high embankment as evidenced at the four corners. 67 Till three levels its floor was excavated by ASI and the deepest (10.60 m) has been discovered so far. At three corners, the north-western, north-eastern and south-western, it was provided with a flight of 30 steps each while at the fourth, there should be a waste-weir that still remains to be determined by more excavation. 68 While the embankment served as a broad walkway on two sides, it was found to be a part of a wide causeway connecting it to the entrance appurtenances of the castle and, on the west, it should be flush with a 20 to 22 m promenade that lay between the castle wall and the reservoir. Inside the water structure there was found a rock cut well with a few rock cut steps and a stone-made enclosure of a later date. It is well-nigh presumable that some kind of tank was there right from Stage I. 69 Probably the tanks surrounded the settlement from three sides hence one thing is certain that it was accessible to all the city-dwellers whether living in citadel, middle town or lower town or even outsiders. Besides, it was, perhaps, used by all on some social or religious occasions. 70 To answer how such giant structures were created ASI answers that it was created by partly excavation through the alluvium and partly by cutting the underlying rock and also that it was fed with the water from the Manhar largely. The picture given bellow describes where they must have made the catchment areas for collecting water from
The Earth has a finite supply of water resources stored in aquifers (30.1%), surface waters (0.27%) and the atmosphere. Ground water is seriously vulnerable to pollution and depletion and becomes polluted when toxic substances become dissolved in water at the land surface and are carried down, or leached, to the aquifer with the percolating water. Sometimes ground water contamination occurs naturally, but serious contamination is usually the result of human activities on the land surface (PSEP, 2012). Contaminants are expensive to remove and they make the water virtually unusable for years. Contamination is often widespread before being detected because ground water moves slowly and many years pass before a pollutant released on the land surface is detected in water surrounding the aquifer. The hydrological cycle involves the cycling of water in biosphere in different phases
The study area for the water allocation model MIKE HY- DRO begins in Alar and ends on Taitema Lake (see Fig. 1). MIKE HYDRO is a deterministic, semi-distributive and physically based model system that can be used for the simulation of water consumption, actual evapotranspiration, irrigation management, crop yields and plant growth. For large-scale modelling, the Tarim River has been divided into four main sections, which were marked by discharge gauges (see Fig. 3): Alar Xinqiman (A), Xinqiman-Yingbaza (B), Yingbaza-Qiala (C), and Qiala-Taitema Lake (D). In each of these sub-regions, the results are aggregated for water con- sumption and biomass production and passed to the DSS.
It is generally agreed that over abstraction is not merely confined to the forty low flow rivers identified by the NRA (NRA 1993) and the issue needs further investigation (CPRE, 1993; English Nature, 1992a). The present system of abstraction licences where existing users are protected irrespective of the sustainability of the use of that water must be reviewed. Various alternatives have been suggested. A levy could be charged on both authorised and actual consumption or abstraction permits could be tradable (CPRE, 1993). However, further investigation into the potential use of tradable permits and their environmental consequences is required in order to assess their benefits over the present system. Tradable permits could prove very useful in areas of high irrigation for example in East Anglia. English Nature suggest that all abstractions should be reviewed periodically in order to monitor actual use; monitor the effects on the environment and to determine the sustainability and appropriateness of their use. The NRA must be given the power to revoke or alter any licence as a result of such reviews.
hills and piedmont areas . Mountains constitute the largest ecosystem in the region and are highly significant for the country’s environmental balance and sustain- ability. They are an important source of land, water, bio- diversity, energy and mineral resources, and have a determining role in climate and landscape diversity. West Tien Shan and Gissar-Alay are the major mountain ranges of Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan’s climate is subtropical, sharply continental, hot and dry, with marked differences in day time - night time and summer-winter temperatures. Its climatic features are due to a combination of three major factors: solar radiations, general atmospheric cir- culation and the local terrain . Favourable climatic con- ditions, land and labour resources stipulated the develop- ment of cotton, rice, vegetable growing, gardening and vineyard which are characteristics of dry subtropical zone and require essential water consumption.
The agriculture growth and development depends on judicious use of land and water. Since mid-60s India has experienced a steady growth in food grain and the cash crops by adopting the high yielding variety of seeds and assured irrigation in under ‘Green-revolution’ programme in the north western part of India, On the other hand, the dominancy of rice in the north-western part of India and some of parts of western part of Godavari district of Odisha has given rise to lope-sided regional approach to the agricultural policy makers in India. In addition, this trend has given rise to development of millions of hectare of waste land, water logged lands and saline and alkaline lands within these ‘Green Revolution’ regions of India. Keeping in view the gravity of the problems, it become a paramount need to make the judicious use of land, water and other inputs so that the agriculture development may take place in a judicious way. It requires consistent efforts by the agricultural scientists, extension officials and the community’s active participation, who may contribute significantly to lead the sustainable agriculture and ensure the food security for the growing population of India.
agricultural production (economy), income and rural-urban migration (social) and groundwater level and untreated wastewater discharge (environmental) was collected. Next, a model which could forecast the future states of all these factors for different water allocation alternatives was created. With this model the impact of the different alternatives on these factors was determined. The outcomes of this model were used as input for the MCA. Three alternatives were created; two putting emphasis on either economic or agricultural growth, and one with equal growth for all sectors. Furthermore, two extreme alternatives were added in which all water would go to either agriculture or industry. Partially serving as a validation check, the optimal water allocation from the SWIMER project was used as a sixth alternative. In order to compare these alternatives, weights had to be assigned to each parameter by the decision-maker. As he was inaccessible in this case, the authors took the role of decision-maker. The weights given to the different criteria are based on the decision-makers preference and the relative impact of each criterion, i.e. a criterion that changes a lot will naturally have a higher weight.
The provincial government, being the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) holder for almost half of Barob- bob Watershed, and the municipal government of Bayombong, having jurisdiction over the remaining open access areas in the watershed, may form a technical working group who will work on the updating of the man- agement and development plan of Barobbob Watershed, giving special provisions on the conduct of community education and public awareness campaign, forest restoration projects, organizational development and manage- ment and capability-building, among others. While the plan is not yet revisited, the provincial government through the Environment and Natural Resources Office and PWWS, may intensify CEPA activities focusing on the importance and values of watershed to help water users make informed decisions. The conduct of this activ- ity will also increase the chances of getting higher WTP responses. Higher WTP percentage will also increase the amount that may be generated from a PWS scheme. If PWS is to be institutionalized, public hearings and consultation may be undertaken before bid amounts are finalized, since the estimates from this study are only contingent. Another study on the possible institutional mechanism for the operation of a PWS scheme may also be conducted.