Another frequency-based lexical resource for Swedish that is potentially appropriate for L2 learners is the Base Vocab- ulary Pool (BaseVoc) (Forsbom, 2006), that relies on the assumption that domain-specific or genre-specific words should not be part of the base vocabulary pool. The core of such a pool should rather consist of stylistically neu- tral and general-purpose words collected from as many do- mains and genres as possible (in this case in at least three genres/domains). As a result, out of 69,371 entries in the vocabulary based on Stockholm Ume˚a Corpus (SUC) (Ejer- hed et al., 1992), only 8,215 lemmas were retained as form- ing the base vocabulary pool. Yet, in spite of a proportion- ally small number of lemmas constituting the base vocab- ulary pool, they account for 88.2% of the SUC texts (Fors- bom, 2006). In the context of secondlanguage learning it means that a learner who has acquired the knowledge of these words can read and understand most of the modern Swedish texts. However, as was the case for the coverage approach of Laufer and Ravenhorst-Kalovski (2010), this list only describes a global learning goal and does not con- tain any indications for appropriateness at different levels of learner proficiency.
We have presented our work on COCTAILL, a corpus of L2 coursebooks, richly annotated for textual, pedagogical and linguistic variables. The corpus is innovative in a number of ways: there are no other existing electronic corpora that have pedagogical annotation alongside proficiency level-labelling, textual annotation, and linguistic annotation covering all the spectrum of proficiency levels interesting for linguistic modelling of learner levels. We pioneered in the development of a taxonomy of pedagogical variables for L2 coursebook annotation, which up-to- date remains the only one we are aware of. Besides, unlike a number of other coursebook projects, where only reading materials are selected or only a subset of CB language is analysed, we present a possibility to study coursebooks in their entirety with important implications for correlating proficiency levels, L2 input as well as various pedagogical and textual variables, such as target skills and competences. COCTAILL is available for browsing with password protection and is downloadable as a bag of sentences labelled with coursebook levels.
With only two years of STS skills training (a total of approximately 600 hours) the students are expected to learn as much STS as required in order to start the interpreting process. This is obviously a very short time period in which to learn a new language at a level good enough to be able to interpret to and from it. Therefore, the STS teaching per se is also very important. But while there is a growing body of research on sign languagesecondlanguage (L2) acquisition internationally (see e.g. Bel, Ortells & Morgan, 2015; Ferrara & Nilsson, 2017; Ortega & Morgan, 2015), to a large extent, this has not focused on the teaching of an L2 sign language. The university teachers who teach STS have therefore (almost) no scientific knowledge of how they should conduct their instruction in the most effective way. In the Swedish context, the government has decided that STS education will be based on both scientific knowledge and proven experience. By ‘proven experience’, the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education intends something that is more than just experience:
We chose our resources so that both our grammar and parser can be freely available and open-source. The target language is Swedish, a North-Germanic language closely related to Norwegian and Danish. The languages share most of their grammatical structures and are mutually in- telligible. Swedish is also one of the official languages in Finland and altogether spoken by approximately 9 million people. Swedish syntax is often similar to English, but the morphology is richer and the word order slightly more in- tricate. It is a verb-secondlanguage: the second constituent of a declarative main clause must consist of a verb. The first constituent of the clause is usually made up of the subject, although it likewise could consist of adverbial phrases or objects. Fronting the finite verb marks questions.
This study focuses on exploring the influences of the first-language influence on the Arabic pronunciation among Terengganuian learners. The study has involved five students, who were born in Terengganu, who communicate using the Terengganuian dialect. The students were asked to read some Arabic sentences while the researcher recorded their voices. Then, their pronunciations were transcribed and analysed. The findings showed that the influences of the Terengganuian dialect on the Arabic pronunciation actually exist. The respondents showed their habits unintentionally in pronouncing the sound /ŋ/ while uttering such Arabic words which have been spelt with the letter ‘n’. This phenomenon is very familiar among Terengganuian people in terms of their local dialect.
Technology and accessibility to technology is rapidly changing. The interviews carried out in this research indicate that, on one hand, many teachers and students in CEGEPs believe that ESL students usually value CALL as a component of their language-learning program, but not as a replacement of the ESL teacher. On the other hand, many teachers and students also find that the technological learning curve required by CALL technology is often too great given the limited amount of time available in any given language course (Goodson, Knobel, Colin, & Mangan, 2002). In earlier CALL platforms, the technology was proprietary and the software was exclusive to the CALL courses (Warschauer, 1996). Teachers and students had to learn software skills that were non-transferable to other software applications. Today, however, I note that faculty and students are generally more familiar with more recent technology and are often adept at using online applications such as text-editing and html mark up, message boards, digital media manipulation, and file-sharing services.
Constructions are more complex linguistic units than words, they are common in use and difficult to ig- nore when working with authentic text. One way to enrich SweFN with more representative examples of how to express meaning in language is to include constructions as frame-evoking units in the database. Currently work is being done on systematically linking constructions in SweCcn with frames in SweFN (Ehrlemark, 2014), but the task is not as straight-forward as identifying which frame is evoked by a certain LU. First, not all constructions evoke frames, carrying little meaning from a semantic point of view. This includes such general patterns as constructions for modification, predication, passive voice or filler-gap constructions. Second, constructions that potentially correspond with frames do not always fit the distribution pattern of frame elements described in the target frame. This group includes fig- urative constructions or constructions that are more, or less, general than the target frame in SweFN. Constructions which do correspond with frames may be called frame-bearing constructions (Fillmore et al., 2012). A frame-bearing construction evokes a target frame in the same manner as an LU, with matching construction elements and frame elements.
Despite the existence of a vast growing literature on secondlanguage acquisition (SLA) research and a heated debate among secondlanguage (L2) researchers about the applicability of research to practice, there is scanty empirical evidence in this area (Nassaji, 2012). Accordingly, this paper reports on a study investigating in-service teachers' perspectives on the interface between SLA research and L2 teaching. A total number of 119 English language teachers responded to a questionnaire which collected both qualitative and quantitative data. The results revealed teachers' familiarity with SLA research. Although they held positive views towards the relevance of SLA research to language teaching practice, a low percentage of them indicated that they seek insights from research articles. Lack of time and ability were the most frequently reported reasons for not conducting SLA research. Similarly, teachers' lack of time and the difficulty associated with SLA research articles were the most frequently reported reasons for not reading these articles. Majority of the teachers appeared to conceive of teachers' and researchers' works as related and connected. However, in almost all cases a considerably higher percentage of MA teachers than their BA counterparts viewed SLA research as more relevant and useful for teaching purposes. Teachers also expressed their expectations from SLA research to address practical issues. Further, they highlighted practical aspects of SLA research as more relevant to their practice.
Literature reports another use of concept mapping in writing. For example, Ojima (2006) applied concept mapping as an instructional strategy tool for development of writing at its planning stage. The findings revealed that in English class the learners produced better results with the help of concept mapping. Same results were also shown by (Fahim & Rahimi, 2011; Kyoko & Hiroko, 2011;Pishgadam & Ghanizadeh, 2006). The students learning foreign language for several years when feel unable to express themselves in clear and well-organized way, they need some comprehensible strategy to improve their writing power. Pishghadam & Ghanizadah (2006) report some problems in writings of students which include organization and sequencing of ideas, strong thesis and relationship between ideas. As these problems are addressed at planning stage, the stage occupies an important role to support learners in organization of ideas, setting of objectives and construction of linkage between concepts. The concept mapping thus can be used as visual representation of ideas in a creative way at different stages in writing development.
aspects of interaction from a social constructionist perspective. Tannen et al. (1997) claimed that recent research on gendered styles has focused on peer interactions. Davis and Skilton-Sylvester (2004) mentioned the need to explore how studies of gender-related social practices contribute to knowledge of language teaching and learning. Furthermore, Nunan (2005) pointed out that the new trend of studies in secondlanguage learning has shifted from traditional psycholinguistics to Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, which provides “a psycholinguistic explanation of the sociocultural circumstances and processes through which pedagogy can foster learning that leads to language development” (Nassaji & Cumming, 2000, p. 97). This study will thus use the diversity framework of gender identities and practices and zone of proximal development (ZPD) to explore the role of gender in peer interaction and its influence on secondlanguage learning.
The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of L2 on L1 collocational know- ledge. This study was done on two groups, academic educated adults. The first group were immigrants from the SovietUnion to Israel. They have been living in Israel for 2 to 40 years. They immigrated to Israel be- tween the age 11 and 44, all of them speak Hebrew and their native language is Rus- sian. As for the other group, they were 14 adults residence of Moscow, and native speakers of Russian who did not move to another language environment.
He further classifies the strategies into five. Determination strategies (DET) contain strategies used by an individual in situations that require discovering the meaning of a new word without resorting to others’ help. Social strategies (SOC) occur during interaction with other people with the aim of improving language learning. Traditionally known as mnemonics, Memory strategies (MEM) are about associating words to be retained with some previously learned knowledge, through various forms of imagery, or grouping. Cognitive strategies (COG), based on Oxford (1990) are defined as strategies that “exhibit the common function of manipulation or transformation of the target language by the learner." Metacognitive strategies (MET), on the other hand, are the ones that “involve a conscious overview of the learning process and making decisions about planning, monitoring, or evaluating the best ways to study” (Schmitt, 2000).
Heidegger’s influential treatment of the concept of anxi- ety in his work Sein und Zeit is, at one and the same time, seductively simple and staggeringly complex. Even though anxiety vibrates as an affective tone throughout the whole work, the explicit analysis of anxiety is limited to one paragraph of seven pages. Anxiety functions, for Heidegger, as a disclosure of a human being’s [Dasein] being in-the-world, involving two basic and interrelated features. The first feature is the necessary character of hu- man freedom, that is, human beings can and ought to choose themselves. Freedom is the fundamental being of human beings, and our work with this intrinsic freedom articulates the second feature of anxiety, namely, the dis- closure of the necessary and yet constantly evasive foun- dation that lurks in the depth of human existence and makes possible an authentic life. Heidegger summarises these two functions in his characteristically idiosyncratic way: “Anxiety reveals in Dasein its being toward its own- most potentiality of being, that is, being free for the free- dom of choosing and grasping itself. Anxiety brings Da- sein before its being free for... (propensio in), the authen- ticity of its being as possibility which it always already is. But at the same time, it is this being to which Da-sein as being-in-the-world is entrusted” 36 [p. 188]. The analysis
Most researches that are relevant to language learning and motivation are conducted in European countries where English has been used mainly as a secondlanguage or a foreign language; yet, not many researches have been conducted in Southeast Asia since the geographical and historical factors are much more complicated. Undoubtedly, English has been an international language used world widely including in Malaysia; nevertheless, the role of English in our country is so insignificant that on one hand, it can be viewed as a ‘secondlanguage’ as in most big cities such as Kuala Lumpur, Johor Bahru, Ipoh, George Town, etc. where English has been used in most business sectors; on the other hand, it serves as a ‘foreign language’ as in most rural areas where English is not used at all in daily life (Davison, 2005).
Practical critical approaches to TESOL advocated for English language learners in US schools and universities start from a focus on community relations or political events, moving towards agentive, alternative analyses (e.g., Vasquez, 2004; Hones, 1999). In schools and universities, these approaches also focus student reading and writing on community study, the analysis of social movements, and political activism (e.g, Kumishiro & Ngo, 2005). For high school-aged ESL students, skills development for activism might include training in public speaking and translation for public meetings, student journalism, and participation in student government and clubs. Elementary ESL students might be involved in projects with investigative, advocacy and community service components on environmental and other local issues (Wong, 2004; Chang, 2009; Vasquez, 2004).These approaches have also extended to include a focus on critical “media literacy”, the analysis of popular cultural texts including advertising, news, broadcast media and the internet. TESOL teacher education programs have developed to engage teachers as community activists (Major & Celedon-Pattichis, 2001). Recently, similar principles have been proposed for promoting activism about local issues through English language studies in non-English-speaking countries (Akbiri, 2008b).
The kind of relationships that students have with native speakers in the host culture combined with their “learner-specific personality traits” may determine the “degree of exposure and immersion in the TL and culture” (Spenader, 2008, as cited in Wang, 2010, p. 57) . The conditions of the SA settings alone cannot explain the differences between students’ experiences. It is equally important to look at “the disposition toward language learning that these same students adopted” (Kinginger, 2008, p. 107) . Successful L2 interactions in a low- anxiety context can promote self-confidence and positive attitudes toward the target culture and in turn motivate learners to further interact with members of the host community. These conditions—low anxiety level, self- confidence and motivation—according to Krashen (1988)  facilitate successful L2 acquisition. Moreover, according to Yager, learners’ attitudes toward the host community and language “may affect their language contact and how they benefit linguistically from that contact” (as cited by Allen and Herron, 2003, p. 372) . Because students can have different language socialization experiences and varied perceptions of these impact- ful experiences, the SLS framework can be very beneficial in understanding and interpreting the “often contra- dictory results of research on SA gains” (Wang, 2010, p. 57) .
But speaking a language is only part of the battle. Many ELLs struggle with reading in school because textbooks are written in academic language, rather than conversational language. Donna Ogle and Amy Correa-Kovtun (2010) state that an effective strategy for helping ELLs better understand informational texts is “Partner Reading and Content, Too – or PRC2” (p. 535). This idea can be implemented in an ESL classroom by matching up two students of approximately the same reading level. The partners are then given a book, and each silently read an assigned page. Each partner devises a question based on the page he or she just read. They then read the pages out loud and discuss the questions they came up with. Any new vocabulary words are written down in a notebook. The PRC2 method helps students to understand the content of the text, as well as gauge what they have comprehended from the reading. Speaking and reading a new language are
Connectionism seeks to explain SLA in terms of mental representations and information processing while reject- ing the innate endowment hypothesis. Elman et al.  agree that there are universal behaviors, but that does not mean that they are directly contained in our genes. Any learning is understood as a matter of neural networks. The networks learn in a Parallel Distributed Processing  where connections are strengthened or weakened. Language learning is understood as the processing of experience and the repetition of experiences causing the strengthening of the connections. Ellis  explains that “our neural apparatus is highly plastic in its initial state” (p. 82), but “the initial state of SLA is no longer a plastic system; it is one that is already tuned and committed to the L1” (p. 83). He adds that “in the L2 situation, forms of low salience may be blocked by prior L1 experience, and all the extra input in the world may not result in ad- vancement” (p. 84).