Our paper mentions that a small but emerging body of prior works on the use of Artificial Synesthesia to enhance VR, in particular to color particular objects in a visual scene to enhance the subject’s attention to those objects. However, this prior works in Artificial Synesthesia in VR has been limited mostly to coloring objects, and more over has not exploited the underlying structure of the senses involved. A further innovative topic described by this paper is to also exploit the rich underlying structure of the senses. The various senses such as color, character visual processing, sound pitch and spatial tactile sensations each are known to have an underlying complex structure, generally modeled in prior works by a spatial representation (a continuous 2D map) which we term a sense-map (e.g., color maps for visual perception, tone and chord maps for sounds, etc.). We described how we may further enhance immersive VR by the first known use of what we call Structured Artificial Synesthesia, where the coupling between senses also couples the structure of the various senses by a mapping between the corresponding sense-maps. To do this, we described the technique of choosing mappings between sense-maps of distinct senses (for example transfer of a pleasant harmonic chords to pleasantly perceived groupings of another sense such as of colors).
Abbreviations: No, number of patients as referenced in the text; F, female; M, male; Path, pathology; NR, not reported; Ker-Con, keraotconus; ON, optic neuritis; NL, neurilemma; Ch Tu, chiasmal tumor; TA, temporal arteritis; PSA, post-surgical amauresis; Vas, vascular occlusive disease; MC, melanocytoma; ION, ischemic optic neuropathy; art, arteritic; PT TOB, post-traumatic total ocular blindness; Im, Immediate; wk, week; d, day; mo, month; yr, year; Sens deaf, degree of sensory deafferentation by patient report; BF, blindfolded; P, partial; C, complete; NC, near complete; VA, visual acuity of the abnormal eye; NR, not reported; LP, light perception; NLP, no light perception; MP, movement perception; LUH, left upper half; LLH, left lower half; R, right; L, left; Ind, inducer; S, sound; No, Noise; Vo, voice; Lat, laterality of inducer-concurrent (see text); Ipsi, ipsilateral; B, bilateral; D, drowsy; St, still; Rel, relaxed; Dk, dark; Lt, light; + , persistent after the stated time.
Abstract: Synesthesia is a psychological phenomenon where sensory signals become mixed. Input to one sensory modality produces an experience in a second, unstimulated modality. In “grapheme-color synesthesia", viewed letters and numbers evoke mental imagery of colors. The study of this condition has implications for increasing our understanding of brain architecture and function, language, memory and semantics, and the nature of consciousness. In this work, we propose a novel application deep learning to model perception in grapheme-color synesthesia. Achromatic letter images, taken from database of handwritten characters, are used to induce synesthesia. Results show the model learns to accurately create a colored version of the inducing stimulus, according to a statistical distribution from experiments on a sample population of grapheme-color synesthetes. The spontaneous, creative mental imagery characteristic of the synesthetic perceptual experience is reproduced by the model. A model of synesthesia that generates testable predictions on brain activity and behavior is needed to complement large scale data collection efforts in neuroscience, especially when articulating simple descriptions of cause (stimulus) and effect (behavior). The research and modeling approach reported here begins to address this need.
However, synesthesia is never a new concept for most of us. We can easily find examples in our daily life language, like “cool picture”, “warm colors”, “frozen silence” etc. We associate two different senses at the same time to express our feelings in certain circumstance. And most importantly, these sense-combined words can be universally understood. It is so effective that art, especially literary, figuratively used to express a linkage between senses. This rises a question if synesthesia could be used as a metaphorical tool in graphic design.
I have suggested that the use of reference material, taking breaks and handling mistakes are all done in relation to an artist’s intention. This intention does not emerge from nothing. Rather, it is developed early on, in the ideation stages of art-making, and this is done through questioning. In this study, most of the artists engaged with the ti esti of the self-portrait—that is, the question of what it is for something to be a self-portrait. Several of the artists also asked what it meant to be themselves, and to be a person. Different artists answered these questions differently, and their answers guided their art-making. That is, the artists depicted themselves in their self-portraits according to how they conceptualized themselves as people. Brian, for instance, described his self-portrait as the story of his whole life “collapsed into this one thing,” while Jeannie focused on how “my existence is on the border. . . the interface between inside and outside,” and for Emily her self was about “connections and relationships.”
For this first painting, I adapted the red and green symbolism to dominate the ground, the base, from which my wife emerged. I stylized a sunset background to align with the archetypal image of the African Savannah sunset. I considered the state of vulnerability one is in at this stage in development, somewhat like the herds at risk from the lion’s attack. Much love is needed to give the person a feeling of safety and security. I have found this to also be true when creating “healing art” for hospitals. Doctors refer to the African Savannah as the archetypal image of peace, calmness, and serenity. From here the individual can feel safe in venturing out from the protection of his or her safe place. This is also true with individuals of any age. When we feel love, and are balanced and safe, we tend to be happier and more willing to be open and put ourselves outside of our normal comfort zone.
the capacity to accommodate a varied mass of narratives and meta- narratives, a reflection of the immense variety within the city life that he attempts to portray. Khakhar makes a genuine effort to break free of circumscribed moulds of elitist art. While looking at a painting, one’s senses are assaulted by a profusion of images and these images do not necessarily always conform to conventional notions of aestheticism. The “ultimate goal of the artist”, according to him, is to portray “human beings in their local environment, climate, provincial society (Hyman 78).” However, it is problematic to take any artist’s aims at face value and it would be worth examining the extent to which Khakhar actually manages to challenge traditional and conventional notions of art. If popular and pop art can be linked to simple, unsophisticated subjects, his paintings do not always fall within this paradigm. As will be discussed within the paintings themselves, the mundane, everyday themes in his art are often interspersed with fantastical elements and a transcendental, mystical quality which may not be intended to be accessible to the ordinary, average viewer. To quote Khakhar in Hyman’s book:
Jennifer Combe shares artwork that illustrates her ongoing critical reflection and analysis of Whiteness in the arts and art education. From a critique of paint manufacturers to an experimentation with adhesive bandages, Combe’s artwork aims to capture and question the complexities of race, especially the concept of “Caucasion” skin color and its connection to power in the art world. Daniela A. Fifi and Hannah D. Heller present research that attends to the impact of Whiteness on interpretive practices in art museums in the US and abroad (Caribbean). The co-authors feature Afro-Carribean art in a case study that analyzes the global impact of White supremacist culture on the arts. Tania Cañas, Odette Kelada and Mariaa Randall join forces with South African artist Sethembile Msezane in a discussion entitled “Art & Action: Displacing Whiteness in the Arts.” The transcript presents musings and strategies shared by arts professionals and practitioners of color that focus on decentering and destabilizing Whiteness within the field.
To live and work with art in my life is something that I have often taken to be a given. One of my earliest childhood memories is the desire to make a painting at kindergarten. I can still see the solid and dependable easel, feel the texture of my cotton smock, sense the brush that seemed so large in my small hand and smell the paint that swelled in the pots lined up before me. I also remember the anxiety that was churning in my stomach whilst I waited for the teacher to bring me a fresh piece of white paper. It seemed at the time to be a very long wait. The teacher was distracted by the many other children who filled the room with noise, colour and movement. I stood patiently by the easel until she finally saw me and remembered her promise to get some paper. The mixture of relief and joy were palpable as the crisp white paper hung before me and I was alone with the materials. I have no memory of any particular subject matter that propelled my desire to paint, but I do remember the desire to make some marks with the paint and brushes that were at hand. This is the only memory that I have from my year spent in four-year-old kindergarten.
Public policing in general has changed dramatically since Shearing and Stenning argued in 1985 that the focus on opportunities, rather than potential offenders, would need mass surveillance (Shearing and Stenning 1985). This has happened and the widespread use of CCTV is an example of the shift, with the use of mass surveillance and the focus on opportunities being central to both public and private policing. Indeed, this apparent shift of focus by the public police could be seen to be an attempt to be more competitive with private security (Mastrofski 1998). Furthermore, in theory, when public and private operate together then motivations become mixed. With art security, the public police’s work with private policing agencies in London is a case in point. The question arises: if order is maintained, do the motivations behind this maintenance matter? If the answer is yes, the discussion is further complicated if the public police sell their services for profit (Johnston 1992). What happens if a conflict of interests (Button 2002) arises between working for the public ‘good’ and the individual interests of their customers? Are they then working to maintain order for moral reasons or profit? This question is central to the legitimacy of the public police. The public police’s use of the Art Loss Register to identify stolen art objects, and, crucially, allow them to charge everyone for this service is controversial. Insurer 4 raised the question that if the public police are using the Art Loss Register to undertake services on their behalf then why should insurance companies pay the Art Loss Register for these services?
It's written that: "Hebborn was a rogue who had no limits to his skulduggery." Eric Hebborn was a British forger who defrauded the art world in the 1960s with purportedly over a thousand Old Master drawings. Hebborn copied the style of artists such as; Corot, Castiglione, Van Dyck, Poussin, Savelli Sperandio, Francesco del Cossa, Mantegna, Ghisi, Rubens,Tiepolo, Piranesi and Jan Breughel, with huge success, duping great art auction houses, including Christie's and made a good living out of duplicating works of art for owners who didn't want the real thing hanging on the wall. Apparently even the Foreign office were clients of his. Hebborn died under mysterious circumstances in 1996?
"All these pigments were known and widely used before and during Cézanne's life span. In addition, the absence of titanium, cadmium, barium, and manganese lines is also good news! Pigments containing those elements were not available until the 1920s and 1930s. Therefore, from an x-ray spectroscopist's point of view, this painting is an original nineteenth century painting in agreement with the compositions of pigments available during Cézanne's time. "We cannot exclude the possibility, however, that it was painted by some kind of twentieth- century unscrupulous genius who not only is a skilled painter and art historian, but also a material scientist. Unfortunately it is much easier to de-authenticate a painting by finding anachronisms that it is to authenticate it." (See spectroscopic analysis.)
The authors acknowledge the help and support of our Cornell Uni- versity colleagues. Professor Donald D. Eddy, of the Department of Eng- lish, has for many years taught The History of the Book, a course that was the inspiration for Art, Isotopes, and Analysis. Eddy also partici- pated in the organization of Art, Isotopes, and Analysis and presented lectures on printing, binding, paper, and the history of books. Professor Peter I. Kuniholm, of the Department of the History of Art and Archeaol- ogy and director of the Aegean Dendrochronology Project, provided lec- tures and data on dendrochronology. Professor David D. Clark and Howard C. Aderhold, of the Department of Nuclear Science and Engi- neering, and Professor Albert Silverman, from the Department of Physics and Nuclear Science, gave support in the areas of physics and neutron- induced autoradiography. Peter Revesz provided proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of pigments. Debora Mayer, a private art con- servator in Bedford, New Hampshire, and formerly at the Winterthur Museum, gave lectures on beta-radiography of works of art on paper and on paper fibers. We are indebted to the students at Cornell who attended our course and those who served as our undergraduate teaching assis- tants. These teaching assistants attended the course, carried out research projects, and participated as graders, advisors, and assistants.
Art, Emotion and Value. 5th Mediterranean Congress of Aesthetics, 2011 246 Sciascia nos habla del desaparecido, durante la Primera Guerra Mundial, Giulio Canella, y de cómo en el año 1926 aparece un individuo aquejado de amnesia que termina, después de muchas peripecias, reconociéndose a sí mismo como el dado por muerto Giulio. Identificado como su marido por la atribulada viuda Giulia que tenía dos hijos con el esposo que fue a la guerra, el reaparecido pasa a vivir con ella y tienen un tercer hijo. Aparece entonces una carta, en principio anónima pero en realidad escrita por la verdadera esposa del falso Giulio, diciendo que éste es Mario Bruneri. La ahora feliz Giulia se niega a aceptar los hechos y en esta pugna entre identidad y memoria los tribunales italianos dictaminan en 1931 que Giulio es Mario, o sea un embustero. La familia acabará emigrando a Brasil y el falso Giulio escribirá sus memorias con el sugerente título de En busca de mí mismo.
Ramsden’s UWE dissertation (2011) Walking and civic dialogue: a critical and performative investigation of the relationship of walkers to their immediate neighbourhood and environment unfolds a collaborative, participatory practice-based methodology which asks to what degree walking as performativity and an intentional act effects a shift in perception in fellow walkers. Ramsden examines the 'ethical encounter' by Geraldine Finn to see if the participants can change every day thoughts to a more conceptual approach. The everyday is significant, when examined, and so the habits can be changed. The research entwines multiple strands of investigation, anchored in urbanistic practices from the Situationists and the dynamics of play, together with case studies involving volunteers. The model is organic and questions the authorial role of the artist. McLaren (University of London, 2008) looks at, as in Ramsden’s work, how the working relationships change and develop throughout a project. McLaren’s dissertation Bordering Art: Geography, Collaboration and Creative Practices present the idea that collaboration engenders a dialogical stance and inevitably, is inter-disciplinary. Most pertinent to my own research, these two texts look at audience collaboration, blurring boundaries and thus the formation of a new methodology in order to shape a notion of socio-political civility.
unity and sovereignty to be marketed and sold. My experience is testament to how this filters through to art schools: currently I am being encouraged to promote myself, to put myself ‘out there’, and attempts are being made to teach me how to hustle. I am also being urged to provide interpretations and meanings for my work, since this is deemed a requirement of a ‘successful work’ and of ‘making it’ as an artist. A wider consequence is that artists’ putative radicalism – which may or may not be evidenced in their artworks – is harnessed not only to glamourise and normalise precarity but to neutralise and commodifiy alternative and resistant subject positions. In so doing, the artist- as-entrepreneur glorifies, celebrates and normalises the increasingly widespread neoliberal conditions of post-Fordist labour: temporary contract-based work, with fluctuating pay, no job security, sick-pay or pension, and no clear boundaries between one’s alienating job and life outside it, producing constant anxiety, fear and loss of control (Lorey, 2009). Such insecurity is a key aspect of neoliberalism’s onslaught of workers’ rights and ties of solidarity and the figure of the artist is its new model. With the outside brought inside, the alternative has become the norm, and their radical critiques are nullified, with grave impacts on the world we are able to both build and imagine. As Suely Rolnik writes:
With respect to the internetwork con- nectivity, the current study revealed in- creased global and specific intrinsic functional network connectivity in synes- thetic subjects. Here, “global” refers to the overall increased amount of significant connections between the seven investi- gated ICNs in the group of synesthetic subjects compared with the nonsynes- thetes. In contrast, “specific” refers to those connections for which a significant group difference was revealed, emphasiz- ing the relevance of these specific connec- tions in processing synesthetic experiences. With respect to the increased global intrinsic network connectivity in grapheme– color synesthesia, it is remarkable that all (five) sig- nificant connections between the ICNs found in the control group were also present in the synesthetic subjects. This observa- tion is in line with the notion that synesthetes are healthy subjects without any neurological or psychiatric disease (Hubbard, 2007), but are endowed with additional competences. The finding that the additional experiences of synesthetic subjects are associated with an increased functional network connectivity is also in line with a study by Jafri and colleagues (2008), who revealed an in- creased functional network connectivity of the default mode net- work in schizophrenic patients and speculated that this increased functional network connectivity was linked to their hallucinatory experiences. In contrast, reduced functional connectivity has been shown in patients with psychiatric deficits resulting in lim- ited experiences [as in dementia (Greicius et al., 2004)]. How- ever, with respect to this notion, the findings in the ICA literature are inconclusive as the opposite pattern, i.e., decreased functional connectivity in schizophrenia (Vercammen et al., 2010) and in- creased functional connectivity in dementia (Gour et al., 2011), has also been reported. Grapheme– color synesthetes showed not only a threefold increase of global intrinsic network connectivity compared with controls, but also specific (quantitative) differ- ences in the intrinsic network connectivity: the two visual ICNs were significantly more strongly connected to the right- lateralized frontoparietal ICN in synesthetes compared with non- synesthetes. This is in accordance with the known role of frontoparietal networks in color-form binding for normal per- ception (Donner et al., 2002) and previous studies reporting at- tenuation of synesthetic binding following transcranial magnetic stimulation of the right parietal cortex (Esterman et al., 2006; Muggleton et al., 2007).
To the matter of fact, these Artifacts invite the direct observation, through simple outlined forms, vivid earthy colour- combinations and presence of energetic rhythmic and repetitive ornamental pattern that creates a mesmerizing world of make-believe visuals. Looking forward to experiment following the assumption that, the „visuals‟ has the power to enhance immediate attraction, and then to implant the desired concept, idea or story in the mind of their viewers especially a child. To evaluate the impact of folk and tribal art on early childhood learning, we organized the a series of Art- workshops that made us participate to sense the harmony close to the forest and the rhythms of nature. Hence, we named these extended, workshops as "RETURN TO NATURE".