Traditionally, sonic and density logs are vital components during the generation of syntheticseismogram. However, sonic logs as observed in many studies, often have poor quality or even absent in some cases. This work is a case study for the transformation of resistivity logs to pseudo sonic logs for the generation of pseudo syntheticseismogram considering the effect of gas. This research studies the relationship between resistivity and sonic logs in order to utilize the former for the generation of pseudo synthetics when sonic log is absent or poor. Standard synthetic seismograms were first created conventionally using sonic and density logs as inputs. The sonic log values were then plotted against the corresponding resistivity values for each well to derive their relationship using both linear and polynomial functions. Generally, the crossplot shows a fair correlation but some scattered plots were observed. Further probe into these observed anomalies revealed the areas to be gas saturated. A better correlation was achieved within affected zones by doing independent crossplots for previously gas delineated units. The standard synthetic generated were used as control for the pseudo synthetics and better correlation is observed when compared with the previous pseudo synthetics that does not acknowledge gas-effect.
seismogram comparison between data and synthetics, where the lower picture set is formed from PREMAN and the upper is iasp earth model. The figure 2a shows seismogram comparison between data and synthetics at time window of P wave. It can be seen, that a P waveform from iasp arrives behind the real P waveform little, but the synthetic P repetitive waveform that arrives on 7 minute, has bigger amplitude than the observed repetitive P. Meanwhile the synthetic P waveform from PREMAN shows early arrival time than the real P, while the synthetic from PREMAN in 7 minute arrives much early. There is no notation for this wave phase, is not given by TTIMES program, but this phase is clearly not the PPP wave, because due small epicentral distance, the arrival time this phase arrives is not far from PnPn wave arrival. This is also not the depth phase, because the PcP wave arrival time starts to come in 8'46". Thereby, GEMINI method used to calculate the syntheticseismogram can give the complete seismogram for all wave phases.
of drilling and logging data; Secondly, use syntheticseismogram to calibrate seismic geologic stratum and each oil layer interface; Thirdly, compile the main structural layer of detail structure diagram, as well as the research of palaeostructure interface, to determine the tectonic background formed by subtle traps; Fourthly, study Single well sedimentary facies to determine the sand bodyunit type, study change of sedimentary facies to determine the spatial distribution of sedimentary units so as to predict spatial distribution of sand body; Fifth, Seismic attribute analysis and coherence analysis; Sixth, seismic inversion of reservoir groups; Finally, tracking of single sand bodies and the determination of single sand body plane form.
Using standardized acoustic time to generate the wave impedance curve make syntheticseismogram, extracting each well of wavelet, using wavelet though sparse pulse wave impedance inversion, the Fig.8 is a well profile with method to extract after inversion,getting a low vertical resolution, it is very difficult to meet the accuracy requirement with the method on the study area purpose layer of fine reservoir characterization , but the results can be used as a subsequent stochastic inversion constrained background.
The Fig. 4 presents the seismogram comparison between the measured and the synthetic seismograms at CTAO observatory station. It can be seen that the PREMAN earth model provides syntheticseismogram that arrives a little earlier than the measured seismogram, perceived on the P and S waves, and the Love and Rayleigh surface waves to the ScS wave. This shows that the anomaly especially in the upper mantle layers to the north-west of OJP has really the negative values, as stated by Richardson et al. . However, the negative correction must be also imposed in mantle layers until CMB, not only in 300 km the uppers earth mantle layers.
Figure 5.1: Velocity and Density well logs for Well 1. Logs include recorded Eagle For values in between averaged constant values representative of the Austin Chalk and Eagle Ford. The “Original Interpretation” (left) marks the layer boundaries determined by log patterns including logs not shown such as gamma ray, resistivity, etc. The middle marks the boundaries determined by the best fit model — lowest RMS error — for the 30Hz syntheticseismogram and the right logs mark the boundaries for the best fit 60Hz model. The layers labeled in orange are those layers identified by the best fit model but do not represent any of the facies layers.
The relationship between variation and noise is also important in the design of both synthetic and living/hybrid systems. Noise arising from variation can serve a constructive role . One example of this is stochastic resonance, which is based on a combination of a patterned signal generated from inside the system functionally coupled with environmental noise. Stochastic resonance can be defined as the alteration or enhancement of a signal through the addition of a stochastic, or noisy, component . In more technical terms, Mitaim and Kosko  define stochastic resonance as noise that enhances an external forcing signal in a nonlinear dynamical system. This is particularly important in neuromechanical systems that involve vibrational or oscillatory components. This could improve the designs of a series of products ranging from motorcycles to heart pacemakers.
CUSTOMIZATION ACROSS THE PLAN LIFECYCLE: Synthetic equity provides literally hundreds of design options across the plan life cycle to best facilitate meeting the business’s requirements. The plan lifecycle includes (a) plan grants, (b) service period/vesting, (c) value determination, and (d) payout. Integrated planning across the program lifecycle can result in superior plans given business owners’ objectives. The flexibility of synthetic equity is especially powerful in S corporations. Without synthetic equity, certain traditional plan designs could result in a second class of stock and termination of the company’s S election.
Abstract-- Mass transfer is necessary for separation and adsorption processes. Even though mass transfer resistance controls the kinetic adsorption rate, little is known about the adsorption of a solute on a porous material from surface water. This study investigates the adsorption competition of five different synthetic micropollutants and the influence of the substances’ characteristics, such as molecular weight and density of mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and chlordane (CHLs), on three different types of granular activated carbon using a column dynamic reactor. The application of modified mass transfer models allows us to determine the mass transfer resistance during the adsorption of more solutes on porous materials. Adsorption of synthetics Hg, Cd, As, DDT and CHLs onto SIG, SAG, and BAG that were started at difference percentage of outflow, although the sample was taken similarly, the outcomes were showed a significance competition between adsorbates onto adsorbents. Adsorption onto SIG showed the percentage outflow for Hg, Cd, As, DDT and CHLs (mixed solutions) were 20%, 19%, 19%, 16% and 8% respectively. Moreover, the adsorption onto SAG showed the percentage outflow were 16%, 13%, 19%, 23% and 24% respectively. The adsorption of Hg, Cd, As, DDT and CHLs (mixed solutions) onto BAG showed the percentage outflow were 16%, 8%, 5%, 18% and 8% respectively. The mass transfer resistance depends on the film mass transfer and porous diffusion before and after breakthrough. The results of this study advance our understanding of novel approaches for investigating the mass transfer resistance of the adsorption of solutes on porous materials from water.
The present method in this study can be introduced as technique for the determination of ratio or percentage of pigments in combinatory pigment mixtures in synthetic leather or other textiles. As flat scanners are relatively low price instruments, the developed method can be suitable for both industrial and home users.
Development of new synthetic methodologies is an important subject in organic chemistry for synthesis and conversion of bioactive natural compounds under mild reaction conditions with suitable reagents. Several classical synthetic methodologies involve expensive reagents and catalysts, which are not easily available. To replace all such reagents and catalysts, different improved processes have now been discovered to carry out the reactions efficiently and conveniently with readily available inexpensive materials. Research in this direction is also of immense importance with newer reagents getting into the field, especially while dealing with sensitive functionalities within the molecule. As all the reagents cannot satisfy all the criteria, the newer reagents have high scope for getting recognition in the list of the existing ones in satisfying specific needs. Modern methodologies are also concerned with the yield and selectivity of the products.
and no brominated pacidamycin could be detected; it was clear that the natural pacidamycin producer could not be utilized for the generation of brominated metabolites. We investigated the tolerance of another streptomycete, S. coelicolor M1154 41 , to bromide salts (from 0 to 200 mM in 50 mM increments) and determined 100 mM KBr to be well tolerated. Next, we engineered the heterologous production of pacidamycin into this strain by conjugatively transforming the strain with S. coeruleorubidus cosmid 2H-5 42 , which carries pac1-pac22 as a 32.2 kb insert. This new synthetic strain (named RG-4242) was shown to produce pacidamycin, and its growth and production of pacidamycin not be compromised by bromide salts. Next, we installed prnA, encoding tryptophan 7-halogenase, into the genome (see Supplementary Methods and Supplemen- tary Figs 13–15), resulting in engineered strain RG-1104. Cultures of RG-1104 grown in the presence of sodium bromide (50/100 mM) were demonstrated to produce Br-pacidamycin D 3 by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS; Supplementary Figs 19–21).
to be similar. Although the first synthetic cathinones were synthesized in the 1920s, and recreational abuse can be traced back many decades, rapid increase in use began in the mid-2000s, likely fueled by the legality of these substances. Mephedrone and MDPV have been the dominant synthetic cathinones of abuse in recent years, and are implicated in an increasing number of emergency department visits due to adverse effects. Case series and poison center data indicate that toxicity includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Multiple deaths attributed to synthetic cathinone use have been reported. There is a paucity of data concerning the pharmacodynamics and pharma- cokinetics of synthetic cathinones in humans, with current understanding based primarily on in vitro and animal studies. Long-term effects of synthetic cathinone use, including the potential for addiction/dependence, are largely unknown. Although mephedrone and MVPV are now illegal in many countries, the current landscape of synthetic cathinone abuse will likely continue to shift as new substances are developed and marketed, and as legal pressures change.
The concept of knowledge bases, attributed mainly to B. Asheim and M. Gertler (Asheim & Gertler, 2005; Asheim & Coenen, 2005; etc.), is based on the assumption that the innovation process can take very different forms in different places. The key point of differentiating between knowledge bases is not to explain the competence level (of human capital, for example) or the intensity of R&D (e.g. high- or low-tech). Rather, the idea is to describe the nature of specific (or key) knowledge sources and inputs on which innovation activity is based. (Asheim & Gertler, 2005) This concept is useful to analyse, compare and explan knowledge exchange process across industries in a regional context (Plum & Hassink, 2011; Aslesen & Freel, 2012). According to the prevailing (dominant) knowledge base, it is possible to establish a general typology of economic sectors, clusters as well as regional innovation systems. The following knowledge base types are distinguished: analytical (with a prevalence of natural sciences), synthetic (engineering), and symbolic (creativity, arts). These knowledge bases represent ideal types. In practice, an industry or a region reveals a mix
Peering more closely at synthetic forests it is possible to discern a reason for the generally good performance of any RF. That is, a single RF is acting as a synthetic machine across all the features, where each original feature is effectively a stand-alone synthetic feature. The manner in which RF synthesizes its features also plays a vital role in its success. RF forms its predictor by taking a locally weighted convex combination of the outcomes. Importantly, this differs from the COBRA method, which locally weights the outcomes using zero-one weights. The superior performance of synthetic forests to COBRA found in our experiments, even when using the same synthetic features as individual, separate constituents in the collective portfolio, suggests that the use of convex, locally determined weights may play a key role in its success, and where these weights are chosen by the refined cells in the data space that are given by the terminal nodes in each tree in each forest.
Although the algorithm does not appear to rely on any helpful covariate information and the experimental results, presented in Section 5, suggest that it performs on par with that of the original synthetic control algorithm, we want to emphasize that we are not suggesting that practitioners should abandon the use of any additional covariate information or the application of domain knowledge. Rather, we believe that our key algorithmic feature – the de-noising step – may render covariates and domain expertise as luxuries as opposed to necessities for many practical applications. If the practitioner has access to supplementary predictor variables, we propose that step one of our algorithm be used as a pre-processing routine for de-noising the data before incorporating additional information. Moreover, other than the obvious benefit of narrowing the donor pool, domain expertise can also come in handy in various settings, such as determining the appropriate method for imputing the missing entries in the data. For instance, if it is known a priori that there is a trend or periodicity in the time series evolution for the units, it may behoove the practitioner to impute the missing entries using “nearest-neighbors” or linear interpolation.