In the recent years the local self government has been playing a vital role. These local bodies not only provide services to the communities but also act as an instrument of democratic self government. Besides the local self government has become an essential part of the national government structure. This level of local government is now recognized by the people as it is close to them and involve them in the decision making process. Local self-government in India has, since 1992, been formalized under the panchayat raj system, a three-tier system with elected bodies at the village, taluk and district levels. The modern system is based in part on traditional panchayat governance, in part on the vision of Mahatma Gandhi and in part by the work of various committees to harmonize the highly centralized Indian governmental administration with a degree of local autonomy. The result was intended to create greater participation in local government by people and more effective implementation of rural development programmes. Although, as of 2015, implementation in all of India is not complete the intention is for there to be a gram panchayat for each village or group of villages, a tahsil level council, and a zilla panchayat at the district level.
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administration as well as strengthening municipalities. The viceroy of India, Lord Ripon has avowed a momentous resolution on 18th May 1882 for reforming rural local self- government by augmenting local autonomy to municipalities. This resolution was also having intention to enhance the majority of elected representatives or non-officials in local bodies. Although, the resolution was having good organization and control; but despite of it was not prolific because the essence of democracy was lacking. As a result panchayats were dissolved and suppressed drastically and there was no institution through which a link between government and villages can be established. To overcome this problem, government appointed Royal Commission of decentralization in 1907. In 1909 the commission has given its report and a new era of local self-government was begun. The commission was also envisioned that local self-government should start from village level instead of district level. With a span of time, the government has analyzed that due to deceiving character and inadequate powers of these local bodies; they have not attained the intended success. In direction to remove these anomalies the commission emphasized on formulation of a genuine electorate comprises of members of village panchayat and representation of minorities through nominations. It has been recommended by the report of Indian Constitutional Reforms in 1918 that, the government should give direct attention towards development of panchayat system in villages. Finally, India got freedom on 15th August 1947 and at time India was having only three municipal corporations at Madras, Calcutta and Bombay with plenty of municipalities, town area committees, cantonment boards for cities and district boards for rural areas . In 1947
decisions. The administrative review of acts of municipalities by the central authorities in the area of their own competencies shall be limited to ensuring compatibility with the Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo and the law. (Constitution Articles 123 and 124). Law Nr. 03/l-040 on local self government provide the legal status of municipalities, their competencies and general principles of municipal finances, organization and functioning of the municipal bodies, the intra-municipal arrangements and the inter- municipal cooperation including the cross border cooperation and the relationship between municipalities and central government. (Law Nr. 03/l-040 Article 2). After the independence in 2008 the basic legal basis for the construction and operation of local self government is Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo. Also, Basic laws for local government are: Law No.03/l-040 on local self government, Law No.03/l-049 on local government finance, Law No.03/l-041 on administrative municipal boundaries,Law No.03/l-072 on local elections in the Republic of Kosovo, Law No. 03/L-090 on public-private-partnerships and concessions in infrastructure and the procedures for their award, Law No.04/L-111 on amending and supplementing the Law No.03/l-087 on publicly owned enterprises, Law No.04/L-144 on allocation for use and exchange of immovable property of the municipality, Law No.04/L-110 on construction, Law No.04/L-147 on Waters of Kosovo, Law No. 03/L-087 on publicly owned enterprises. The current legal framework has given a complete autonomy to the Local Government bodies. Decentralization of power, local government reform, gaining a high degree of autonomy in the governance of municipalities, it has impacted to the integration of the Serb community and the creation of a stable and unified policy in country. Thus the system has achieved three main objectives:1) establishment of the state with a stable multi-ethnic society; 2) integration of communities (in particular the Serb community) in self-governing institutions ofthe country and 3) provision of quality services to citizens.Citizens have equal rights to choose their own representatives, to govern and to serve them and dismiss them if do not govern well with their assets. So, the power of local government derives only from the will of the citizens, excluding any possibility of interference from above, with the exception of the competent courts when Local Government bodies violate the law. However, the central institutions without legal support have built the administrative structures between central and local government, wanting to provide assistance to Local Government, in providing of more quality services to citizens.(Organization and functioning of local self-government in Kosova, 2013, p. 6).
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One of the major conditions to ensure the effective functioning of the political system in the democratic country requires the establishment of the democratic institutions of the public self�governing power on the local level. It will allow building the self� sufficient system of the local self�governance. During the last 20 years, both Poland and Ukraine are consistently realizing the policy of transformation from the post� communist structures of the local self�governance towards the system operating in European Union. And if currently Poland has ‘districts’, which are functioning as a middle level in the sytem of the local self�governance with the typical features of the previous old system, Ukraine has an issue across all sectors of the local self�governance.
In the Good Governance one of the main characteristic is participation which can mostly be achieved with the tool of Local Self Governance. The Local Self Government Institutions in itself fulfills all the characteristics of Good Governance. Idea of Good Governance is not static but very dynamic in its natural world. It keeps changing according to sociopolitical and economic changes in a political structure. All the typical features of Good Governance may be attained, if the society is prepared for it. And there is no refuting the fact that signs of Good Governance are extremelyappropriate in the system of Local Self Government Institutions. Making sure participation of all section of people in local level decision mechanism, accountability, transparency etc. may be achieved through better implementation of Local Self Government Institutions with all provisions as mentioned in 73rd Constitutional Amendment. A bottom up approach of progress may improve all-round conditions of a vast number of rural masses of a country, and that can only be possible through authorizing grassroots people. Implementation
Education is regarded at the national level as an important catalyst for development of the country. Education is equally important for women empowerment. One of the primary ways in which access to women empowerment can be guaranteed is through education. In a broadly liberal framework it was understood that education would lead to various forms of empowerment, such as within the family, in the field of employment, in securing rights and also in increasing women‟s representation and allowing women‟s voices to be heard in politics. The Balwant Rai Mehta Committee on Panchayati Raj System emphasised that rural women should not become mere beneficiaries of development but should be made equal partners in its affairs as contributors. To make women‟s contribution effective their awareness about women reservation in local self-governance is important. Keeping in the above facts in view the present study was planned by the investigator.
Case Three: Village HS is in Wuhan, Hubei Province, and most of the villagers cultivate vegetables and rice for their living. After being planned as an economic development zone in 2008, Village HS was dismantled and relocated to Community HC, a ‘ village-turned-community ’ consisting of seven dismantled villages. All the villagers were reclassified as urban residents and the local government bought social insurance for females who were over 50 years old and males over 60 years old. While the original Village Committee and Village Party Branch continued to run, an urban grassroots governance system was also established. Diversified organizations, including Residents ’ Committee, Homeowners ’ Association, Property Management Company and some social organizations, were introduced in Community HC. Relocating to a high-rise building means a thorough change in the mode of produc- tion and lifestyle. Similar to the new town development, the industrial upgrading model of village-turned-community also faces the challenge of transformation from agricul- tural to non-agricultural production, and the difficulty is even more challenging. Because factories and enterprises in development zones usually have specific require- ments of employees, the educational background and technical abilities of landless farmers barely meet minimal requirements. Therefore, the village-turned-community located in a development zone faces greater challenges in terms of re-employment and social security.
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Establishment of PAs has emerged as a key conservation strategy in the backdrop of rapid deforestation and biodiversity losses worldwide (DeFries et al. 2007; Ormsby and Kaplin 2005). Over the last few decades, the number and coverage of PAs has increased significantly in most parts of the world (Kaimowitz and Sheil 2007; McNeely and Scherr 2003), and currently there are more than 100,000 PAs globally, covering around 12% of the land surface (Scherr et al. 2004; Chape et al. 2003). Such development has also taken place in many developing countries in the tropics where biodiversity is rich and local communities are heavily relying on forest for sustaining their livelihoods (Koziell and Saunders 2001; Ghimire 1994). However, in many instances establishment of PAs has failed to achieve the desired conservation goals due to pure ecological focus and poor recognition of local and indigenous people’s traditional forest rights and practices (Ormsby and Kaplin 2005; Craig 2002; Nepal and Weber 1995). Such exclusion has also led to conflicts and mistrust between PA managers and local forest user communities hence management and conservation goals of PAs were significantly obstructed (Borrini-Feyerbend 2002).
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The new Citizens’ Power Committees have set up a competing logic for participation. While the Citizen Participation Law was based on citizens’ rights, the CPCs engage people as clients through welfarist participation in programmes such as Zero Hunger. The discourse of the CPCs (based on the models of Khaddifi and Chavez) is that of power to the grassroots, and of direct influence and benefit to the citizen rather than intermediary organisations (especially NGOs). The government thus issued a wide ‘invitation’ for civic participation which bypasses existing ‘local governance spaces’ and attempts to re-organise state-civil society relations. The CPCs distribute state welfare resources (Hambre Cero, Usura Cero, Yo Sí Puedo, Casas para el Pueblo), and government departments now require a letter of approval from a CPC in order to consider any requests for resources. Government has thus been able to justify excluding CSOs from distributing donor resources for poverty reduction, through the discourse of grassroots democracy, thereby giving the government control of resources and credit for solving grassroots social problems. This discourse has also been used to justify its campaign against ‘NGOs’ which are labelled as reproducers of capitalist values, and attempts to neutralise the feminist and critical Sandinista NGOs which are questioning both the
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Abstract. The aim of the article is to summarize theoretical principles and practical experience regarding the relationship between the investment attractiveness of innovative projects and economic growth. The methods of correlation and regression analysis, extrapolation and modeling are used. The subject of the study was the features and patterns of the formation, use and regulation of the policy for assessing the investment attractiveness of company’s innovative projects in modern economic conditions. In the course of the study, an algorithm was developed to assess the size and level of investment attractiveness of the algorithm is based on the allocation of components of the enterprise’s potential. It is indicated that models for evaluating efficiency and cost should take into account not only future cash flows, but also non-financial indicators. Are proposed the construction of a multivariate model based on regression analysis. The essence of this model is to combine the traditional method of correlation analysis with least squares. This approach has the main advantage - relatively high accuracy and low costs in the construction and forecasting. The proposed model of a system for ensuring the investment attractiveness of innovative projects of companies consists of two main subsystems - information-analytical and implementation-control. These blocks provide results that allow you to increase investment attractiveness, as well as timely determine the external and internal risks of the enterprise.
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The results of this research work are well supported by the contributions of the authors Marcou et al (1997); Bagnasco and Legales (1997); Kaufmann and Kraay (2007); Farinos Dasi, J. (2009) and also by what is dictated in the reports of national and international institutions (ICPC Report, 2011, program of the reform of the administration and action plans 2017-2021, the World Bank , the International Monetary Fund, the Commission on Global Governance) which stipulates the existence of behavioral criteria in the evaluation of good governance.
On the background of applying the principles of effectiveness and efficiency, subsidiarity, local autonomy and decentralization, the national governments resize the intergovernmental relations with local level. In the context of public service development, the application of the other principles, such as accountability, participation, devolution etc. leads to changes of the borders of the public sector towards the local levels, private and non-profit sectors, groups of local communities or customers. We assist at adopting the instruments used by the private sector in order to deliver the activity more efficiently, entrusting some services of public interest to organisational structures, situated on other levels than the national one, such as the regional, local levels.
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governance occurring (Cai 2015). The institutional overlaps create an interstitial space where innovation is more likely to occur. Furthermore, by offering government a more collaborative role within the network, a triple helix system would serve to enhance multi-level reflexivity between policy makers and policy implementers and hence strengthen a government’s ability to introduce, adapt or remove shielding, nurturing and empowering policies. Perhaps more importantly, a triple helix system can be implemented at any level of the economy and society, thus opening the door for a more decentralised networked and evolutionary form of governance that would make protected spaces effective mechanisms for transition to circular economy. Although the triple helix approach appears to offer a framework for enhancing the level of self- governance within protected spaces, Ranga & Etzkowitz (2013) highlight that there remains a lack of understanding of what triggers the formation of a triple helix system. Also unsettled is the question of how a triple helix system may be prompted to form within a protected space and evolve into a ‘consensus space’, which, as will be discussed later, is crucial for the specification of pathways towards a circular economy.
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files. Comparisons can, for example, be made between gov- ernance profiles for the same hazard across different con- texts, e.g. for earthquake hazards in different national sys- tems; or between hazards in the same context, e.g. for land- slides, earthquakes and floods within the same region or na- tion. Each of these could be productively used in exchanges and discussions between governance communities at inter- national, national or regional levels. Comparisons could also be made between the profiles produced by different users or stakeholders for the same hazard and place, e.g. by the vari- ous parties with interests in local flood governance. Here we see the qualitative nature of the risk profiling tool as partic- ularly useful, enabling users to each produce their own ver- sion and then compare and discuss their similar or contrast- ing perspectives, maybe then moving to collaboratively gen- erate a common profile. This could be particularly valuable when there are clear divisions of opinion that need to be bet- ter understood, or pressures for change that are destabilising existing governance arrangements.
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Council of Europe as an international organization since its establishment in May 5, 1949, is defined as an institution that cares for the preservation of fundamental human rights, development and protection of democratic principles of government and local self-government level. For this purpose, since 1957, was established the representative body at European level in the form of Permanent Conference of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe, which since 1994 works as a Congress of Local and Regional Authorities (CLRAE - The Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe), as a consultative body which replaced the previous Conference. With the establishment of Congress as a special body of the Council of Europe, the fundamental issues that Congress will be dealing were local issues or the commitment to adopt a document with transnational character on local self-government.
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As such, empirical research into spatial (location) basis of emissions is necessary to understand who is the actual looser of carbon. The need to have a first-hand spatial perspective– of the carbon space in the atmosphere and urbanization on ground could become fundamental to the debate on fair AA and for informed transformation to sustainability. The ethical gap looks into what could be fresh insights from our understanding of ethics and equity to this practical challenge of global change. It has been thoroughly recognized that allocation mechanisms and criteria will become vital interrogations for social scientists and decision-makers, considering the fact that North-South dichotomy has taken centre stage in environmental governance, particularly climate (Gupta, 1997; van Harro et al., 2005). It has been regularly suggested (Biermann et al., 2012, Prum 2007, Adger et al., 2005) that fairness, equity and justice need to be at the heart of global environmental change and strong regime. They regard new principles devised to ethically address state interests as a pre-requisite to any outcomes in future negotiations on climate change. They seek deeper ethical understanding of the situation which steers ahead of the conventional norms to access and allocation of carbon.
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Our use of a causal loop diagram enabled us to identify the complex interplay of factors that affect HP and explain why the case study health system no longer sup- ported HP. We found a complex picture with numerous interactions and feedback mechanisms represented in the causal loop diagram. The approach used helped us understand the patterns in system behaviour. Doing this makes it possible to identify potential opportunities to disrupt or slow down vicious feedback mechanisms and/ or amplify those that are virtuous cycles. The majority of feedback loops in the causal loop diagram were vicious cycles that would need to be disrupted or changed for HP to thrive in the case study heath system. Changing even one feedback loop could change the emergent order of the system because system behaviour is a product of how the parts fit together and not how they act separately. Thus, feedback mechanisms can be seen as leverage points to strengthen systems  and this section highlights potential implications and links to other literature.
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First Mogadishu. I was involved in 2007 in drafting a discussion paper on possible future local government in Mogadishu. The paper took the form of a host of questions that I considered needed addressing by those who were going to put together a Mogadishu City Charter (MCC) together with pointers drawn from other local government systems in Anglophone Africa of the pros and cons of different possible solutions. A workshop took place in that paper in Kampala 9 with some 15 Somalis involved either in the past or in the present with the provision of local services and government issues in Mogadishu. I revised the paper in the light of the discussions that took place there. This year I was invited to a workshop in Nairobi to discuss a draft MCC. It bore little relationship to any issues that had been raised and discussed in the workshop of 2007 10 . I had been doing some further reading about the current state of affairs in Somalia and that together with concerns about the LPA led me to write a critical note on the MCC to the UNDP Office on Somalia based in Nairobi. I reproduce it here more or less as drafted.
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‗sophisticated humeanism‘. The term ‗endorsement‘ is the generic term used in the literature to refer to the process or relation that constitutes identification. Identification, in turn, is the term used in the literature to refer to the relation an agent has to desires that are internal to her and are therefore the grounds for autonomous action. When an agent endorses an intrinsic desire he thereby identifies with it; the desire thus represents or speaks for the agent and action grounded in the desire may be self-governed. Exactly what endorsement consists of is under debate. Some say that the existence of a certain relation between various mental states of the agent constitutes endorsement. Others think endorsement is a process through which an agent makes a desire his own. Frankfurt 6 , Bratman 7 , Lehrer 8 and Arpaly & Schroeder 9 all offer theories of endorsement that are humean in spirit. I will work here with Bratman‘s view, but my conclusions generalize to the other views as well.
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The proposed model in this paper is a local governance model of a constituency which will enhance few important functionalities to the existing system of e-governance, namely hierarchical surveillance for addressing the public query, improvement of participation of public, local media and social activist in the governance of the constituency, improved public rating system based on the governance, enhanced report generation of government department that is involved in governance of the constituency, improved rating module which will rate the performance of various agency involved in local governance based on various criteria.