The study used an adaptive method that allows for modi- fications to the design or statistical procedures during its conduct . The study was conducted from March 2016 to July 2017. The setting was chiropractic clinics located within approximately 120 miles of Fargo, ND, and located in ND. Participants included practicing licensed chiroprac- tors seeing English-speaking patients at least 18 years of age. The North Dakota State Board of Chiropractic Exam- iners (NDSBCE) provided the names of all licensed chiro- practors practicing in ND. Of those provided by the NDSBCE, 175 had office addresses within 120 miles of Fargo. Exclusion criteria included any chiropractic practices in a large health care system or that already met the defin- ition of successful health systemschange (defined later).
Abstract: Whole-systems approaches to organizational change dominate the contemporary change literature. They focus on widespread engagement of people within organizations, individual and collective ownership of both process and results, and encouragement of creativity and optimism regarding the future. One potential barrier to using whole-systems methods in health care is the frequent recommendation to bring many people together at the same time, sometimes for several days. In health care, it is very difficult to find blocks of time when a group can come together, even when the target unit is relatively small. Rapid-cycle brainstorming is an alternative process for using a whole-systemschange method, in this case appreciative inquiry, in a time-efficient, effective manner for change planning in health care. It was used in this case to facilitate strategic planning for a hospital-based dental service for geriatric patients and persons with disabilities. The goals of this method for applying a whole-systems approach to change planning are (1) to minimize the time required to effectively work through the whole-systems process, while at the same time (2) to maximize the engagement of participants, (3) to develop creative synergism between small groups addressing specific planning topics, and when called for (4) to be able to facilitate the involvement of large numbers of individuals across an organization.
While the topic of farmers’ access to farmland is not a new issue, contemporary conditions have made it an even greater challenge than in the past. In this reflective essay I suggest that the farmland access challenge in the U.S. means thinking outside the box of ingrained cultural values, past historical arrangements, and current conditions. Using my organization, Land For Good, I argue that persistent challenges to farmland access will be addressed best through dialogue and innovation around how farms and farmland can optimally be accessed, held, and passed on. Land For Good, a New England–based not-for-profit organization, posits a systemschange framework for farmland access, tenure, and transfer. This essay explores solutions in a broad context and addresses how farm seekers, landowners, service providers, communities, and policymakers all play key roles. Keywords
unique to each age. If socialisation is to continue, a multi-national level of socialisation appears to be the next step in the ratchet mechanism. Modernity may be the vehicle, as it introduces change. The nation-state of today, as the focus of the nation may be the obstacle? however, the problem may be two-sided. On the one side, there is the societies' lack of trust in a multi-national political arrangement to offer significant levels of security mandated by modernity and, on the other side, the lack of desire by the state to promote that - multi-national society. For a multi-national society to evolve, a new level of systemschange must take place. The chief actors which would promote that change are the '
In SeCSE we are currently developing service discovery tools that will support more sophisticated types of query. Systems integrators will be able to search external registries directly as above, but will also be able to use locally generated service classifications and patterns to help locate relevant services. Different types of queries, such as analogical matching and constraint removal, will enable different search strategies during requirements processes. SeCSE is extending service specifications beyond the UDDI registries to include semantic information about a service’s capabilities, qualities such as performance, reliability and usability, and behaviour to handle particular classes of abnormal external event. This will enable SeCSE tools to retrieve descriptions of services compliant with non-functional requirements and fine- grain behaviours that handle unexpected inputs. SeCSE partners such as Microsoft and Computer Associates are working to establish these semantic service registries as standard. All of this is underpinned by one important assumption – that providers will describe services using informal or semi-formal because most will not be able to deliver more formal documentation for a service.
More generally, complexity thinking encourages us to consider energy systemschange within its broader social, economic and environmental context. There is a clear need for modelling work which does not look at elements of the energy system in isolation, but attempts to apply a whole-systems approach. At the moment modelling tends to focus on sectors, e.g. transport, water, electric- ity, but these, of course, are all interconnected. Clearly, the devel- opment and adoption of new energy supply and energy use technologies is central to energy systemschange. However, as we have seen, new technologies have to ﬁt with, and occasionally disrupt, existing systems, which are made up not only of other technologies and infrastructures, but also of institutional rules and norms. As emphasised by Unruh , the increasing return to adoption and mutual co-evolution of technologies and institu- tions has led to the current lock-in of fossil fuel based energy sys- tems. This idea built on the work of Arthur  in applying complexity ideas to the competition between adoption of new technologies, which demonstrates path dependency and sensitivity to particular historical events. Further work applied similar ideas to the examination of long-term change in industrial and economic systems, emphasising that ﬁrms’ strategies also co-evolve with technologies and institutions . Other work, from a more socio- logical perspective, has examined energy use and argued that this is best understood in terms of evolving practices, such as maintain- ing comfortable living spaces, laundry and showering, which give rise to demands for energy . From another perspective, ecolog- ical economists have long argued that economic systems should be understood in terms of their inputs of energy and material and outputs of waste emissions [76,77]. The inﬂuential study of ‘Limits to Growth’ was built on system dynamics modelling of the evolution of the world economy under resource constraints [78,79]. The application of a broader range of complexity tools and approaches to economic issues, particularly around long-term systemschange, has recently been advocated [14–16].
As with all systemschange, the program has had unexpected results. Mary Schriner reports that, ―Turning disappointments into opportunities has become my central spiritual practice as a school gardener.‖ Because Stephens does not have a teaching credential, teachers need to accompany their students when she works with them. ―After first we thought, ‗That‘s too bad,‘‖ says Schriner. ―Then we said, ‗This is a great opportunity.‘ As teachers, we never get the chance to observe our students learning. We see them excel in different ways in this environment, and we get to model the experiential discovery learning process.‖
In the last decades, climate change is affecting several aspects of human and natural systems worldwide. Concerning water resources, the main impacts are related to the combined effect of temperature increase and changes in availability and distribution of precipitation, which affects both quantity and quality. The Mediterranean is potentially very sensitive to climate change. In Calabria (Southern Italy) the projected reduction suggests a particular care in matching water resource availability and needs. In this paper, the province of Crotone in Calabria was analyzed as a study case. This area is characterized by a sufficient availability of resources as a whole when compared with the needs of the users, but with an unbalanced distribution through its networks. This condition requires the identification of a resource allocation optimization solution. Using a least-cost optimization model, water resource optimization solutions were identified and compared starting from a review of the existing water supply systems, taking into account both current water availability and possible future availability due to climate change.
Business Process Management (BPM ) tools have been proposed by the likes of SAP, ORACLE and IBM to handle the problem of harmonizing different cooperating systems and integrating functionality. The object of these orchestration tools is to allow decision-makers and technical teams to collaborate to define and optimize business processes by using a single tool (sometime called a process orchestration tool) to coordinate activities across multiple processes. However these tools often do not have the ability to enable dynamic design changes to be reflected into production-ready systems. They cannot reconcile the deterministic approach required to establish a smooth-running production system with the ability to handle the emergence of unforeseen variables and the ubiquitous changes to design that are characteristic of 'real- world' operation. Few BPM solutions offer the possibility to act on the parameters and environment of the process while it is being carried out. Even fewer are able to intervene in executing processes, eliminating or skipping steps along the way or adding new steps to replace or supplement existing execution. What is needed are novel approaches that allow systems to reconfigure dynamically, so that designs can be versioned and rolled out into production to sit seamlessly alongside production systems without system designer action. It is this research question that is tackled in this paper through addressing the demands for traceability in a very demanding environment and delivering a fully functional system which is then evaluated in practice. In this paper we report on a practical study that investigates how we can design an object-based system to cope with evolving user requirements and facilitate dynamic system configuration. We outline an approach based on object-oriented design for providing support for design evolution by implementing what we term a ‘description-driven' system. That is one in which descriptions of designs are captured alongside the data they describe in a database and that can be instantiated responsively for systems that require round the clock operation. Our approach involves identifying and abstracting the elements (such as business objects, processes, lifecycles, and agents) crucial to the system under design and creating high-level descriptions of these elements which are stored, dynamically modified and managed separately from their instances, but are treated in the same way as are their instances. The effect of this is not only to enable system evolution with changing requirements but also to simplify the management of the system in operation.
Abstract: In recent years it has become clear that climate change is an inevitable process in many parts of the world and has a negative impact on agriculture and food systems particularly in Sub-Saharan African countries. Climate change involves variations in temperature and precipitation across the globe. The environmental changes associated with climate change have a significant impact on the food supply chains food environments and food systems in general. These changes affect food production, storage, processing, marketing, availability, promotion, affordability and quality along the food value chain. Consequently, climate change affects global food security and peoples’ income especially, in developing countries where the predominance of rain-fed agriculture in much of these countries results in food systems that are highly sensitive to rainfall and temperature variability. The narrative review aimed at evaluation of published literature to understand the impact of climate change on food systems across the globe. Literature search from 2000-2019 was carried out using key words and key phrases in Google search Engine. Elsevier agriculture journals, JSTOR journals, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, Nature and Climate Change journals. More than 120 relevant publications were retrieved of which 44 were scrutinized and used for this publication. The study found that increased rainfall and temperature affect food availability, utilization, crop yields, food markets, food prices, consumption patterns and food insurance. The review recommended that all stakeholders should adopt relevant policies about climate change mitigation and adaptation options along different food value chains. This will enable farmers to produce sufficient food required to feed the projected 9.8 billion people by 2050 thus contributing to sustainable development goal number two: -End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.
Using carrier phase measurements enables the diﬀeren- tial GPS to reach centimeter-level accuracy. A phase lock loop cannot measure the full-cycle part of the carrier phase. This unmeasured part is called integer ambiguity that requires to be resolved through other means. In this paper, we assume that the integer ambiguity is resolved (see, e.g., ). How- ever, the measured phase can experience a sudden change undetected by the phase lock loop. This sudden change is called the cycle slip and if it is undetected by the integrated INS/GPS, it results in an error in the estimated position. We will use the method introduced in this paper to detect such changes.
spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis), which primarily colonizes Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and white spruce (Picea glauca) trees, typically has a 2- year repro- ductive cycle under normal climate conditions (Schmid and Frye 1977); however, in the future, some proportion of the population may produce one generation per year in response to sustained temperature increases (Hansen et al. 2001). In the Rocky Mountains of western North America, mature spruce beetles emerge to seek out host trees when the daily maximum temperature reaches 16°C (Dyer 1969). Once the temperature threshold for emer- gence occurs, spruce beetles select host trees based on chemical cues emitted by the host and by other colo- nizing beetles. In dense forests, the close proximity of suitable host trees facilitates successful pheromone com- munication among colonizing beetles, which is critical to the success of their mass attack strategy. Upon selection of a host tree, beetles bore through the outer bark to access phloem tissue, where the females create egg gal- leries and inoculate the tree with perhaps several of many potential fungal obligates (Six and Bentz 2003; James et al. 2011). Host trees defend against invading beetles by flushing bore cavities with volatile- rich resin, resulting in the formation of pitch tubes; however, if a host tree is moisture stressed, it may produce less resin to repel invading beetles (Kolb et al. 2016). Climate change (specifically warmer temperatures and enhanced moisture deficits) elevates tree stress, which can be exac- erbated in sites where competition for available water and nutrients is high, such as in dense forests. For a handful of aggressive bark beetle species, the pheromone- mediated mass attacks that occur during outbreaks are generally sufficient to overwhelm the defensive strate- gies of otherwise healthy, vigorous trees (Schmid and Frye 1977).
Abstract: Effective action on climate change health impacts and vulnerability will require systems approaches and integrated policy and planning responses from a range of government agencies. Similar responses are needed to address other complex problems, such as the obesity epi- demic. Local government, with its focus on the governance of place, will have a key role in responding to these convergent agendas. Industry can also be part of the solution – indeed it must be, because it has a lead role in relevant sectors. Understanding the co-benefits for health of climate mitigation actions will strengthen the case for early action. There is a need for improved deci- sion support tools to inform urban governance. These tools should be based on a systems approach and should incorporate a spatial perspective.
Availability of knowledge is an important aspect that has already been touched upon and that has to be addressed from a policy level. Willingness to learn depends on the flexibility of a belief system. Functional and structural aspect of individual and communal belief systems are indeed intertwined with many aspects of adaptive capacity. For the purposes of this study, risk perception, social capital and indigenous knowledge will be considered in more detail. Natural adaptive responses have developed in the form of indigenous resource management (Berkes 1999:159), but as environmental changes become more pronounced, humankind’s relationship with their environs evolve (O’Brien & Wolf 2010:233–234,237). Accumulated indigenous knowledge is fast becoming obsolete, or at the very least vastly insufficient, in this fast changing landscape. Paired with an ever increasing population growth, additional problems such as loss of biodiversity only confirm the bleakness of the situation (Ensor & Berger 2009:3).
Fitzgerald, G.J., Tausz, M., O'Leary, G., Mollah, M.R., Tausz ‐ Posch, S., Seneweera, S., Mock, I., Löw, M., Partington, D.L., McNeil, D. and Norton, R.M., 2016. Elevated atmospheric [CO2] can dramatically increase wheat yields in semi ‐ arid environments and buffer against heat waves. Global change biology.
Food systems exist in the biosphere, along with all other manifestations, of human activity. Some of the significant changes in the biosphere that are expected to result from global warming will occur in the more distant future, as a consequence of changes in average weather conditions. However, the most likely scenarios of climate change indicate that increases in weather variability and the incidence of extreme weather events will be particularly significant now and in the immediate future. The projected increases in mean temperatures and precipitation will not manifest through constant gradual changes, but will instead be experienced as increased frequency, duration and intensity of hot spells and precipitation events. Whereas the annual occurrence of hot days, and maximum temperatures are expected to increase in all parts of the globe, the mean global increase in precipitation is not expected to be uniformly distributed around the world. In general, it is projected that wet regions will become wetter and dry regions drier (FAO, 2008).
A policy analysis has been defined by Munger (2000) as “the process of assessing, and deciding among, alternatives based on their usefulness in satisfying one or more goals or values” (p. 6). In the context of this thesis, the policy analysis is useful to assess what policies are pertinent to climate change adaptation and what would be the most appropriate action for future climate change adaptation of the tourism system. There is a growing recognition that the contexts in which decisions of adaptation are made require consideration (Urwin & Jordan, 2008). The act of formulating and implementing policies in a dynamic environment makes public policy a process (Hall & Jenkins, 1995). As Lindblom and Woodhouse (1993) argue, the process of making policies represents “a complexly interactive process without beginning or end” (p. 11). A policy analysis, therefore, should not only be confined to documented policies, but should also look at the policy-making environment and policy mechanisms and involve diverse stakeholders. This complexity is incorporated in Majchrzak’s (1984) definition of a policy analysis, which states that it “is the study of the policymaking process” (p. 13). An understanding of the policy-making process, which incorporates the policy-making environment and the power and interest dynamics, the policy mechanisms, the policies, and the policy gaps, will provide sufficient information to indicate the conduciveness of the policy environment to climate change adaptation. This is a current gap in the literature, which this thesis aims to bridge. The next section is divided into five sections each representing an element of a climate change policy analysis: (1) the policy-making environment; (2) policy-making mechanisms; (3) a policy inventory; (4) conduciveness of a policy environment; and (5) policy gaps.
The paper is organised in the following way. Section 2 revisits the socialist S&T system by pointing to its general model features as well as to its national and sectoral variations. The main features of socialist production/innovation networks and the indispensable role of informal networks in ‘getting things done’ are outlined. In the third part micro-, sectoral-, national- and regional determinants of the emergent systems of innovation in the post-socialist period are examined. Two propositions are developed. First, that the systems of innovation in CEECs are emerging through the interaction of micro-, sector-, national- and regionally- specific factors. Second, for the time being, micro- and sector-specific determinants are the strongest influences shaping the emerging systems of innovation. In Section 4 the potential network organisers in CEE are discussed. Among the emerging network organisers foreign firms are, at present, the most active, especially in central Europe. Section 5 summarises the main conclusions.
The scenarios posed during the studio prompted many students to assess the risks associated with inundation at multiple scales. The threat of inundation required an assessment of physical risk in the immediate vicinity, whilst affected systems (physical, economic, social and political) could be traced to determine the relational vulnerabilities of the city in its ever-widening context. As the studio progressed, students began to explore the nature of those systems, their interdependencies and the relationship between the concepts of vulnerability and resilience, particularly in regard to the form and structure of the city. Following the studio, as part of the evaluation process, students explored the nature of resilience in more detail. Our aim was to define the characteristics of a resilient response and the qualities of a resilient city, testing the studio outcomes (the student work) against these findings to develop the beginnings of a framework for designing for, and with, change.