Systems Science

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Gaming science innovations to integrate health systems science into medical education and practice

Gaming science innovations to integrate health systems science into medical education and practice

Abstract: Health systems science (HSS) is an emerging discipline addressing multiple, com- plex, interdependent variables that affect providers’ abilities to deliver patient care and influence population health. New perspectives and innovations are required as physician leaders and medical educators strive to accelerate changes in medical education and practice to meet the needs of evolving populations and systems. The purpose of this paper is to introduce gaming science as a lens to magnify HSS integration opportunities in the scope of medical education and practice. Evidence supports gaming science innovations as effective teaching and learning tools to promote learner engagement in scientific and systems thinking for decision making in complex scenarios. Valuable insights and lessons gained through the history of war games have resulted in strategic thinking to minimize risk and save lives. In health care, where decisions can affect patient and population outcomes, gaming science innovations have the potential to provide safe learning environments to practice crucial decision-making skills. Research of gam- ing science limitations, gaps, and strategies to maximize innovations to further advance HSS in medical education and practice is required. Gaming science holds promise to equip health care teams with HSS knowledge and skills required for transformative practice. The ultimate goals are to empower providers to work in complex systems to improve patient and population health outcomes and experiences, and to reduce costs and improve care team well-being.
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Enhancing implementation science by applying best principles of systems science

Enhancing implementation science by applying best principles of systems science

While complex systems science alone cannot possibly solve the major challenges in public health, it has been argued that systems-based approaches may contribute to changing the language and methods for conceptualising and acting within complex systems [26]. Moreover, it may eventually improve the modelling used in dissemin- ation and implementation research. Toward that end, we thought to share best principles of systems science that we have successfully applied in our own studies toward enhancing implementation science. Best principles, as distinct from the more customary term best practices, are used to underscore the need to extract the core is- sues from the context in which they are embedded in order to better ensure that they are transferable across settings [27]. For a full treatment of the principles, meaning fundamental truths, of systems science, see the recent text by Mobus and Kalton [28].
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Systems science and systems thinking for public health: a systematic review of the field

Systems science and systems thinking for public health: a systematic review of the field

Finally, it is worth re fl ecting on the need to ask the right questions of systems science. This review has high- lighted some of the rhetoric around systems-based approaches to public health. Systems-based approaches and complex systems science should not be framed as an unsung solution to all the major challenges in public health. Indeed, making a system-dynamics model does not give policymakers agency in spaces where they cur- rently have none. Public health problems are already deemed complex, and systems-based approaches can contribute to changing the language, methods and methodologies for conceptualising and acting within this complexity. In order for systems-based approaches to live up to their ‘ rhetoric ’ , the public health and pre- vention fi eld must ask the right questions of the discip- line, and not expect systems-based methodologies to provide the ‘ silver bullet ’ answers to some of our biggest challenges, such as preventative action on the social determinants of health. Increased literacy as to the forms of evidence that different systems-based method- ologies and methods can produce will aid the public health and prevention fi eld to ask the right questions of systems science.
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The utility of analogy in systems sciences

The utility of analogy in systems sciences

We will now move on to consider the context of the systems approach and look at how systems thinkers view science, since it is on the grounds that analogy is unscientific that systems th[r]

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Transdisciplinary systems science: toward a science of connection, integration, and synthesis.

Transdisciplinary systems science: toward a science of connection, integration, and synthesis.

Religion can be seen as a much less expensive way to avoid certain social traps. If a moral code of action and belief in an ultimate payment for transgressions can be deeply instilled in a person, the probability of that person’s falling into the “sins” (traps) covered by the code will be greatly reduced, and with very little enforcement cost. Religion, and systems of ethics in general, can be seen as a form of social capital (as discussed earlier). Social capital is the glue that holds communities to- gether and allows them to function. Religious glue is particularly strong. Strong glue is good for some applications, but not for all. The prob- lems with religion as a means to avoid social traps are: (1) the moral code must be relatively static to allow beliefs learned early in life to remain relevant later, and (2) it requires a relatively homogeneous community of like-minded believers in order to be truly effective. Thus this system works well in culturally homogeneous societies in a world that is changing relatively slowly. In modern, heterogeneous, rapidly changing societies, religion (or at least the current suite of religions) cannot adequately handle all the newly evolving situations, nor the conflict between different cultures and belief systems. A new synthesis and integration of science and religion is necessary.
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Magnetization Process and Coercivity of Fe (Al, Ga) (P, C, B, Si) Soft Magnetic Glassy Alloys

Magnetization Process and Coercivity of Fe (Al, Ga) (P, C, B, Si) Soft Magnetic Glassy Alloys

Department of Machine Intelligence and Systems Science, Faculty of Systems Science of Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Honjo 015-0055, Japan 2 Institute for Materials Research, [r]

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The performativity of BYOD

The performativity of BYOD

BYOD in the teaching and learning, the question “Is it worth the overhead?” arose. The issues are such as ensuring 100% of the class bring their own device as well as attendance is a problem. According to another lecturer, he sees potential challenges on the security front, but it’s not difficult to deal with as the systems group has been very professional and competent in dealing with security issues. When asked about considering complete BYOD setup, he said that without the provision of desktops by the IT department, many issues ranging from maintenance, software licenses, anti-virus and so forth can arise. Pushing students to bring their own laptop without having the computers in the lab will give the institution a bad image – “They may look like a stingy or cheap institution ….” There is a slight disconnection between human and non-human actors in this area and it appears to be useful to adopt sociomateriality approach to tackle this issue.
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Investigating Science Teachers' Understanding and Teaching of Complex Systems

Investigating Science Teachers' Understanding and Teaching of Complex Systems

61 There were three broad steps in this selection process. First, enquiries were made with the science heads of department in the six schools regarding their science teachers. Specifically, they were asked “among your science teachers, who should I approach if I am interested to find out more about how science is taught and learned in the classrooms,” “why do you recommend this teacher,” “would you say this teacher is able to tell me about the challenges in teaching science?” Typically, the departmental heads would recommend two or three teachers to me. Second, after the teachers were identified, a meet-up session was scheduled with each identified science teacher to explain the aim of the research and the purpose of the observations. During the session, the recommended teachers were also asked some questions such as their years of teaching experience, what makes them enter the teaching profession, and what their greatest satisfaction is in teaching science. Through their responses to these basic questions, the ability of the teachers in articulating their views was determined. It was acknowledged that this informal assessment was based purely on my subjective judgment, but it sufficed as a rough gauge of their ability to articulate. Third, the process was repeated with a different teacher until the required teachers across the three science subjects were recruited. In all, twelve teachers were approached between November 2012 and January 2013, and six agreed to participate in the study. Information about the six teachers, together with the topics they taught, is given next. Pseudonyms are used.
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A Design Science Research Methodology for Expert Systems Development

A Design Science Research Methodology for Expert Systems Development

methodologies are consisted with a starting phase of knowledge acquisition or problem identification (for example, see Andersen et al., 2013), then designing the ES artefact by, for example, designing different components (e.g. knowledge base, inference engine, and user interface) and finally with a phase of evaluation within the practical problem context (Wu et al., 2012). For the ES design, in many cases, these methodologies are supportive of the knowledge that needs to be acquired in meeting the particular demands of the ES design. Beyond the capacity of the traditional IS methodologies, design science has gained momentum in IS research for designing contemporary solutions since Nunamaker, Chen and Purdin (1990) first introduced this paradigm as an effective design methodology. Hevner et al. (2004) described how the DSR is particularly relevant for modern-day IS research, because it helps IS researchers confront two of the major long-term issues within IS design: (1) the absence of rigour in designing innovative artefacts and (2) the nature of IS research outputs, many of which produce irrelevant knowledge that is not practically applicable to real-world problem solutions (Orlikowski & Iacono, 2001; Benbasat & Zmud, 1999). DSR is now generally accepted as a valid design methodology for many specialised IS designs (e.g. DSS development) as it contributes to knowledge and design theories beyond practical problem solving (Arnott & Pervan, 2014; Gregor & Hevner, 2013; Hevner & Chatterjee, 2010). It implies that progression of DSR in the IS development field, in general, is significant; consequently, since ES is a subset of IS, a DSR methodology may also bring benefits for novel ES design.
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NANOSTATE PHENOMENON IN MATERIALS SCIENCE OF METAL-POLYMERIC SYSTEMS

NANOSTATE PHENOMENON IN MATERIALS SCIENCE OF METAL-POLYMERIC SYSTEMS

However, the transformation of phenomenological phenomenon nanostate in engineering technology functional nanocomposites based on macromolecular (polymeric, oligomeric, mixed) matrice[r]

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Window to Science – Information Systems of European Research Organisations

Window to Science – Information Systems of European Research Organisations

The Working Group believes that there are clear potential benefits in establishing enabling mechanisms to combine the information contained in those systems. A unique feature of such a system would be to provide a single point of entry to information about projects (and related researchers and organisations) which have successfully undergone a competitive selection through peer review. Such a system would give the research information systems of participating organisations an international audience and help make maximal use of information currently available on the Web but scattered in a range of systems and formats.
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Exploring the characteristics of education systems which are successful in science

Exploring the characteristics of education systems which are successful in science

prospective teachers to specialise in a chosen subject. Teacher preparation includes a practical component that lasts from six to 12 weeks, depending on the school. A teacher who is fully qualified at the primary or secondary level may teach outside his or her area of specialisation at the discretion of the head of the school. At the end of their studies, teachers are qualified at the ISCED 5A level and obtain a university diploma, a diploma supplement and the academic degree of Magistr (master). Only 2.2 per cent of the Czech Republic’s primary TIMSS pupils were taught by teachers who studied post secondary science, and just over five percent by teachers with a science education in their teacher education degree. This is a smaller
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Investigative Report for Economists; “Prediction of Stock Market” and Functional “Invisible Hand” and “Law of Supply and Demand”

Investigative Report for Economists; “Prediction of Stock Market” and Functional “Invisible Hand” and “Law of Supply and Demand”

However, why cannot many physicists and other scientists solve the problem? The reason is the basic rule of physics. Note that most physical phenomena must entirely be measurable and reversible; otherwise, it cannot be treated as a physical element. Nev- ertheless, the stock market is endlessly and extremely varying in time, almost exhibiting a “random walk”. We can measure it that the problem must be solved by other science, such as the time series function in real time [3]. Therefore, if we can trust it, we can solve the problems, “prediction of stock price”, and “invisible hand” from Adam Smith, and “the law of supply and demand” in economics. It would be good news to everyone and will be a sensational scientific result for economists, similar to Galileo’s theory a few centuries ago.
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The effect of soil tillage and herbicide treatments on the incidence of Fusarium fungi genus in the grain of rye
 

The effect of soil tillage and herbicide treatments on the incidence of Fusarium fungi genus in the grain of rye  

The reduced tillage in cereals contributes to intensive weed growth and thus encourages better conditions for the development of Fusarium fungi. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different tillage systems and herbicide applications, on the grain infestation by Fusarium spp., in two rye cultivars. The cultivar factor signifi- cantly affected the infestation of the grain by F. avenaceum and F. culmorum. Cv. Dańkowskie Złote was more sus- ceptible to the infection by Fusarium spp. than cv. Picasso. The reduced tillage encouraged higher grain infestation than the conventional one, irrespectively of the cultivar. Chlorsulfuron, applied in autumn, contributed to a greater grain infestation by F. avenaceum and F. culmorum. In cv. Picasso, the grain infection by Fusarium spp. was equally well prevented by the autumn or spring application of iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron. All Fusarium species re- sponded differently to variable environment conditions mediated by cultivar, tillage system and herbicide. Fusarium avenaceum infected most intensively cv. Dańkowskie Złote, grown in the reduced tillage system and protected by chlorsulfuron applied in autumn.
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Informing Science: The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline

Informing Science: The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline

OEIS 10 presents concepts and methods for business process redesign. While this is an excellent course for students interested in business, the requirements in a School of Computer Science are different. For many years, we have offered a course in Microcomputer Troubleshooting and Maintenance welcomed by indus- try, students, and other CSIS departments. This course provides all CSIS students the opportunity to learn firsthand the inner workings of a computer. Although the Troubleshooting and Maintenance course is not specifically offered in the national curriculum, we took advantage of the fact that adoptees are encourages to customize the curriculum to make it fit their school and/or department’s particular requirements. There- fore, we slotted this course into the OEIS 10 position. This is truly a reality-based course and prepares our students to be experienced troubleshooters and help- desk agents with “… strong interpersonal skills [offer- ing end-users] immediate help…” (O’Connor, Bronner, and Delaney, 1996, p. 208).
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Research and the School of Informatics and Computing

Research and the School of Informatics and Computing

• Generalizes to Computer Systems or Distributed Systems and can include Sensor nets • Cyberinfrastructure is worldwide electronic fabric supporting science research such as simulate ear[r]

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The Relationship Between (4ps) & Market Basket Analysis. A Case Study Of Grocery Retail Shops In Gweru Zimbabwe.

The Relationship Between (4ps) & Market Basket Analysis. A Case Study Of Grocery Retail Shops In Gweru Zimbabwe.

Market basket analysis is a technique that discovers relationships between pairs of products purchased together. The technique can be used to uncover interesting cross-sells and related products. The idea behind market basket analysis is simple. Simply examine your orders for products that have been purchased together. For example using market basket analysis you might uncover the fact that customers tend to buy hot dogs and buns together. Using this information you might organize the store so that hot dogs and buns are next to each other. Market Basket Analysis (MBA) is also an exploratory technique which identifies the strength of association between pairs of products purchased from an individual retailer. Such analysis is usually applied to data on shopping behavior, such as that collected at the point of sale. If applied to grocery shopping for example, the results of a MBA could inform a supermarket‟s pricing strategy. If the supermarket knows that bread and fruit juice tend to be purchased together, it can avoid offering price discounts on both at the same time. Almost all available literature have attempted to address the what, and how part of Market Basket Analysis. Aguinis et al [3] researched on how MBA can be used in management research and concluded that the adoption of MBA can help bridge the much lamented micro-macro and science-practice divides. They also argued that the use of MBA can lead to insights in substantive management domains such as human resources, organizational behavior, entrepreneurship and strategic management. Hoanca and Mock [2] research was on how MBA can be used to estimate potential reveue increases for a small university bookstore and concluded that depending on the customers‟ price sensitivity and on the saturation level of the affinities uncovered revenue can increase by as much as $10 000 for the bookstore. Another research was done by FactPoint Group in on how retailers are using MBA to win margin and market share. Results obtained reveal that retailers are using MBA to develop more profitable advertising and promotions target that can attract into the stores and increase the size and value of the basket of purchases among other things.
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When complexity science meets implementation science: a theoretical and empirical analysis of systems change

When complexity science meets implementation science: a theoretical and empirical analysis of systems change

Andrew Van de Ven’s work built on this systems approach through the 1990s, culminating in his book The Innovation Journey [15], which proved timely and useful for those interested in translational research pro- cesses. An organizational theorist, he too distinguished between linear conceptualizations and more unpredict- able, iterative approaches, but made a further distinction between the two world views. When speaking about innovation, he argued that attention must be paid to fluidity, messiness, and even chaotic tendencies. Van de Ven noted, through a series of case studies, that innovation often manifests not progressively in a step- by-step manner, but recursively, and always diverging from aspired-to pathways. He encapsulated this duality by showing the implicit mechanistic assumptions made in the literature, in stark contrast with what hke actually saw when he researched and observed innovative prac- tices (Table 1).
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Remarks on Undergraduate Research

Remarks on Undergraduate Research

• Generalizes to Computer Systems or Distributed Systems and can include Sensor nets • Cyberinfrastructure is worldwide electronic fabric supporting science research such as simulate ear[r]

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The Shape of Informatics: A UK Perspective

The Shape of Informatics: A UK Perspective

The development and evolution of informatics as a research area promises some sort of future for the discipline, even if we cannot accurately predict the details of that future. These changes will necessarily impact on university level education. Increasing pan European collaborations in research need to be complemented by educational collaborations. This trend can only be accelerated by the demands of administrative changes brought about by activities such as the Bologna agreement. In the area of computer science educational research the potential gains of collaborative working and learning are being demonstrated by activities such as the Disciplinary Commons [2, 10]. These activities are acknowledged to have impact beyond the scope of the original project domain in terms of information sharing and understandings of practice
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