Tacit and Explicit Knowledge (Udeaja et al. 2008)

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Tacit Knowledge versus Explicit Knowledge. Approaches to Knowledge Management Practice

Tacit Knowledge versus Explicit Knowledge. Approaches to Knowledge Management Practice

In addition to developing well-defined and documented process descriptions for routine, repetitive production tasks, some organizations have also created explicit knowledge management approaches to supporting more creative tasks like developing new products. In the Chrysler unit of DaimlerChrysler Corporation, for example, several “platform teams” of 300-600 development engineers have responsibility for creating the next generation platforms 4 on which Chrysler’s future automobiles will be based. Each platform team is free to actively explore and evaluate alternative design solutions for the many different technical aspects of their vehicle platform. However, each platform team is also required to place the design solution it has selected for each aspect of their vehicle platform in a “Book of Knowledge” on Chrysler’s intranet. This catalog of developed design solutions is then made available to all platform teams to consult in their development processes, so that good design solutions developed by one platform team can also be located and used by other platform teams.
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CiteSeerX — Knowledge -Explicit, implicit and tacit: Philosophical aspects

CiteSeerX — Knowledge -Explicit, implicit and tacit: Philosophical aspects

knowledge. Now consider some theorem that is derivable from those axioms. The person who knows the axioms may well, with some suitable enquiry and prompting, be able to see that the theorem follows from the axioms and to state it verbally. For example, someone who explicitly knows some elementary arithmetical facts may be able to work out, and to state, that 68+57=125. On Dummett’s (1991) account, this latter piece of knowledge, even though the sum is computed when needed rather than being stored in memory, counts as no less explicit than the stored elementary facts from which it is derived. Indeed, it counts as explicit knowledge even before the knower works it out; for the personal-level notion of explicit knowledge is defined in terms of the possibility of eliciting a verbal statement by enquiry or prompting. Thus, once some propositions are classified as explicitly known, the category of explicit knowledge also includes at least some of the as-yet-undrawn consequences of those propositions.
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Collaborative Technologies for Knowledge Management: Making the Tacit Explicit?

Collaborative Technologies for Knowledge Management: Making the Tacit Explicit?

Furthermore, the literature also suggests that organisations partaking in knowledge management endeav- ours continue to concentrate the majority of their efforts in the sharing of explicit rather than tacit knowl- edge. Indeed, the effectiveness of such pursuits seems problematic. For instance, Stewart (1997, p. 74) convincingly emphasises the need to share tacit knowledge and states that “tacit knowledge needs to be- come explicit; what’s unspoken must be said aloud. Otherwise it cannot be examined, improved or shared.” Edwards (1997, p. 31) has similar views and reports that tapping into the knowledge that resides in the heads of employees is vital, especially since, a great proportion of what an organisation should know about its competition is available from its staff, and related service providers. Yet whilst this may be the case, van Ewyk (1998, p. 6) highlights that an individual’s knowledge does not belong to his or her employer and at best an organisation rents this knowledge from an employee. Borghoff and Pareschi (1998, p. 6) indicate that organisational tacit knowledge has often been damaged by the introduction of a plenitude of management fads. In many instances, such as those associated with business process re- engineering initiatives, the retrenchment of staff has been the result. They argue that many of these work- ers represent valuable repositories of corporate tacit knowledge. Clearly, from a knowledge management perspective, the risks associated with such initiatives are high and seem to be counterproductive. Effort must therefore be focussed on implementing strategies that aim to capture this valuable know-how during the course of an employee’s tenure, for it is likely it will be lost forever when an employee leaves an or- ganisation.
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A measurable approach for risk justification of explicit and tacit knowledge assessment

A measurable approach for risk justification of explicit and tacit knowledge assessment

Abstract Knowledge has become a central organizing principle in society to the extent that knowledge management has become a mainstream activity in organizations. Nevertheless, knowledge- related risks remain relatively neglected in the risk management domain. Whilst knowledge reduces uncertainty and the associated risks, the increased knowledge intensity in organizations also represents a risk factor that has to be assessed. The paper describes and validates an organizational risk assessment approach that considers knowledge-related and knowledge management risks in an integrated manner. The approach makes it possible to calculate risk ratings in terms of vulnerability and likelihood for 50 threats to all activities and phases of the knowledge life cycle. These risk ratings are plotted against 24 potential risks in the human, organizational, and technical domains. To impress on management the significance of these knowledge-related risks, the risk ratings are transformed to approximated financial figures. The approach is applied to 10 Slovenian organizations, two of which are discussed in detail in the paper, to demonstrate that it can be successfully used in a wide variety of organizations. It is concluded that the approach offers a way to assess both knowledge-related and knowledge- management-related risks, that the costs that individual risks potentially hold can be approximated, and that for a diversity of organizations mitigation strategies can be suggested for the identified risks.
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The use of tacit and explicit knowledge in public health: a qualitative study

The use of tacit and explicit knowledge in public health: a qualitative study

Future research might systematically investigate this methodological question. We have claimed that the focus groups provided the opportunity for joint sense- making of tacit knowledge in the same way that pre- vious researchers have shown that social interactions provide a forum for co-creating shared stories. This claim could have been better substantiated if we had assessed effects of the focus group on participants, or determined if tacit knowledge became easier to access over time and joint sense-making more readily obser- vable. An interesting question for further study is whether the important data collection element was the focus group, the map-creation or both, and whether joint-sense making is useful for future program plan- ning. Finally, we remind readers about the knowledge claims that can be made from this narrative inquiry, for which the goal is not to generalize findings nor capture all of tacit knowledge. This type of study seeks to raise insights and show a phenomenon in action. In our case, we may know that practitioners use more than literature, but the interest was in understanding how that happens, how it is described and what insights can be learned about this that might contri- bute to training or team development.
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RISK MANAGEMENT AND TACIT KNOWLEDGE IN IT PROJECTS: MAKING THE IMPLICIT EXPLICIT

RISK MANAGEMENT AND TACIT KNOWLEDGE IN IT PROJECTS: MAKING THE IMPLICIT EXPLICIT

The second problem I encountered with coding was my own reluctance to add new categories to an already extensive list. However, I found when reviewing my coding that many of the factors that seemed wrongly coded were the ones that I had tried to fit into an existing risk category whose description did not really capture my understanding of the project manager’s comments. Once I overcame my reluctance to add new categories, the coding went smoothly. For example, a number of project managers identified the issue of team morale as a key risk factor, and a key problem that occurred during the course of their projects. Initially I considered coding this factor into Schmidt et al.’s risk category “Personnel: Poor team relationships”. The description given by Schmidt et al. is “Strains existing in the team due to such things as burnout or conflicting egos and attitudes.” Initially, it seemed to me that this could conceivably encompass strains due to low morale and motivation, especially when these have been caused by problems in the progress of the project or by excessive overtime required to meet deadlines. However, my respondents quite clearly saw the issue of morale and motivation as one quite separate from issues relating to conflicting egos and attitudes, and they also assigned a very high level of importance to the need to maintain morale as a risk mitigation strategy, and so I decided that a separate risk item was needed to capture these differences. My respondents also made distinctions between risks that related to their own firms and their own vendor project teams, risks that related to their clients and their client project teams, and risks that related to any third parties involved in the projects, and I needed to reflect these distinctions in the coding. In total, I created 45 new factors to more closely reflect the responses of the project managers that I interviewed. Sixteen of these factors were in the Relationship Management and Project Management themes, while a further fifteen specifically related to distinctions between vendor, third party and client risks.
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THREE TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL KNOWLEDGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TACIT-EXPLICIT AND KNOWLEDGE CREATION DEBATES

THREE TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL KNOWLEDGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TACIT-EXPLICIT AND KNOWLEDGE CREATION DEBATES

The explanation for the difference in perspective may actually be found one layer deeper within their views on the nature of tacit knowledge. While Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) emphasize the cognitive and technical aspects of tacit knowledge, Cook and Brown (1999) focus on its social dimension. The cognitive dimension refers to the ‘mental models’ that provide individuals with a working model of the world based on a personal set of schemata, paradigms, beliefs and values (Johnson-Laird, 1983; Senge, 1991). The more concrete, technical dimension refers to the ‘know-hows’ applicable to specific situations such as in the bicycle riding example. Polanyi (1997) and Revans (1982) offer a similar distinction in that they also differentiate between intellectual or theoretical knowledge (knowing what) and practical knowledge (knowing how) where the latter adds the “capacity for action to the abstract understanding of the situation” (Spender, 1994: 392). Brown, however, in collaboration with Duguid (1998, 1996), and Spender (1996) also propose a third dimension of tacit knowledge which they refer to as ‘social knowledge’. This dimension is socially constructed and reveals itself in action or ‘practice’. It is described as having partial and distributive characteristics in that it tends to exist in pieces throughout the organization in that organization members and groups do not know the same thing nor does anyone know it all (Brown & Duguid, 1998; Barley, 1996). It is similar to the definition of ‘embedded knowledge’ whereby some knowledge is highly embedded in social interactions and team relationships within organizations (Lam, 1997; Badaracco, 1991). Social knowledge is organized around a set of rules and a myriad of relationships that enable the organization to function in a coordinated way however these same routines are subject to failure and thereby require improvisation (Brown & Duguid, 1998).
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The value of knowledge sharing: impact of tacit and explicit knowledge sharing on team performance of scientists

The value of knowledge sharing: impact of tacit and explicit knowledge sharing on team performance of scientists

Externalization, on the other hand is a process of making tacit knowledge explicit. For example, organizations will try to capture what the employees know through creating platforms where they can interact and share knowledge, usually internal forums for communities of practice where they can exchange knowledge. Through synthesizing the body of knowledge, to some extent, but not fully will the process of externalization be successful. Early knowledge management practice and research have been mostly focused on managing explicit knowledge in forms of documents, forms, procedures and etc. creating huge repositories of knowledge and relying on IT to facilitate knowledge sharing processes, and enhance the collective memory of an organization However the assumption that when technology for knowledge sharing is implemented that employees will share knowledge is showed to be false, and often failed to make tacit knowledge explicit due to the cognitive nature of tacit knowledge (Pawlowski and Robey, 2004). Sharing of knowledge does not only depend on the technology factor but on many others. Furthermore, technology itself often fails to capture the most important component of knowledge, the tacit one. Our efforts are aimed at examining both sharing of tacit and explicit knowledge. We posit that sharing of information and codified knowledge facilitated by information technology, especially on the projects which are to some extent virtual, as well as tacit knowledge, ingrained in daily routines and embedded in people through the process of socialization are relevant for team performance. Based on this proposition we build our research model.
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Air Force Operational Contracting Knowledge Assessment: analyzing explicit and tacit contracting knowledge

Air Force Operational Contracting Knowledge Assessment: analyzing explicit and tacit contracting knowledge

The Defense Acquisition Workforce Improvement Act (DAWIA) establishes education and training standards for acquisition personnel. These standards culminate into ascending levels of certification for acquisition professionals based on education, training, and experience. While the intent of DAWIA certification is to ensure acquisition professionals possess the requisite knowledge and experience to perform their duties, currently no method exists to effectively measure an individual’s contracting knowledge. The Air Force Operational Contracting Knowledge Assessment (OCKA-AF) attempts to accurately assess an individual’s tacit (experiential) and explicit (factual) operational contracting knowledge across the six phases of the contracting process. The assessment tool also identifies knowledge gaps between tacit and explicit knowledge. The OCKA-AF was deployed in the form of a web-based survey to two Air Force operational contracting squadrons and Air Force contracting students attending the Naval Postgraduate School. The survey results were analyzed, upon which recommendations were made to reduce existing tacit and explicit contracting knowledge gaps. Due to its knowledge assessment capability, the OCKA-AF may be beneficial to supervisors and senior contracting leadership in determining whether current training efforts are producing the desired results in knowledge capture or provide insight into areas requiring further training emphasis.
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Research on Explicit and Tacit Knowledge Interaction in Software Process Improvement Project

Research on Explicit and Tacit Knowledge Interaction in Software Process Improvement Project

6. Conclusions The two conclusions can provide guidance to decision- making in software organizations. Communication among members, frequent crossover collaboration during the practical work and integrating related documents have great contribution to the success of SPI. And the follow- ing suggestions are proposed: 1) Encouraging personnel to communicate. Motivate personnel to communicate by all means, and staff in different levels should commit to crossover collaboration. Some physical or mental com- pensation should be offered to drive experienced per- sonnel to share their knowledge and their knowledge achievements should be respected, because exchange and assistance would take time and energy. 2) Integrating documents in real time. Integrate the information on the project in real time and generate new logical knowledge which can be reused and taken for reference. This will be useful in guiding and enhancing efficiency.
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When objects are talking: How tacit knowing becomes explicit knowledge

When objects are talking: How tacit knowing becomes explicit knowledge

KM view on externalizing tacit knowing. The exter- nalizing tacit knowing is very problematic and not just a simple mimicking of the master, as in Nonaka’s 1991 baking example: “The Osaka International Hotel had a reputation for making the best bread in Osaka. …Tonaka trained with the hotel’s head baker to study his kneading technique. She observed that the baker had a distinctive way of stretching the dough. After a year of trial and error, working closely with the project’s engineers, Tanaka came up with product specifications – including the addition of special ribs in- side the machine – that successfully reproduced the baker’s stretching technique and the quality of the bread she had learned to make at the hotel. The result: Matsushita’s unique
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Expertise dissimilarity and creativity : the contingent roles of tacit and explicit knowledge sharing

Expertise dissimilarity and creativity : the contingent roles of tacit and explicit knowledge sharing

By adopting a cross-level interactionist approach to studying employee creativity (e.g., Hirst, Van Knippenberg, & Zhou, 2009), we have demonstrated that group-level knowledge sharing activities and individual group members’ expertise dissimilarity jointly predict individual creativity. These findings extend the creativity research in two important ways. First, some researchers have maintained that creative ideas and new knowledge are formed in the minds of individuals (Boland et al., 1994; Oldham & Cummings, 1996; Taggar, 2002), and that being unique from other members drives individuals to break away from taken-for- granted norms to generate novel ideas (Janssen & Huang, 2008). In this paper, we unveiled a more complex yet insightful picture of how individuals can leverage their uniqueness or dissimilarity in work groups to become creative by examining the effect of individuals’ expertise dissimilarity, a construct that has not been systematically investigated in the creativity literature. Unlike the existing individual-level predictors of creativity addressed in the earlier literature (e.g., Gong et al., 2012; Gong et al., 2013), the expertise dissimilarity construct examined here reflects an individual’s expertise relative to that of other team members. Our findings suggest that an individual with unique expertise may not be able to understand and use the expertise of others unless the team members collectively engage in tacit knowledge sharing to allow her to tap into the knowledge backgrounds of dissimilar others. Our study offers a more nuanced understanding of why and when diversity in work teams drives creativity.
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tacit and explicit knowledge circulating inside companies. Differential factors can be easily

tacit and explicit knowledge circulating inside companies. Differential factors can be easily

In the studied company, many important details in processes are known only by the operational workers, it means the person that works in daily operations. These details are not registered anywhere and, most of the time, are retained in people´s mind. This also happens with knowledge related to market and clients. Representatives and workers from sales department accumulate information and specific knowledge that are important and that not always are registered or expressed communicated to others. How to get useful knowledge to a company that helps it to define an adequate strategy and to be different from its competitors? How to make workers understand clients needs when they rarely have contact with the market?
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Baby Boomers Retiring: Strategies for Small Businesses Retaining Explicit and Tacit Knowledge

Baby Boomers Retiring: Strategies for Small Businesses Retaining Explicit and Tacit Knowledge

and individuals with key concepts of internal interactions among leaders and employees of multi-generations, to improve the betterment of communities to work collaboratively to achieve a common goal. Human interaction is an essential element to continuing global sustainment of a predecessor’s action inherited (Goodwin, 2013). The focus organizations might examine within this study is the interaction leaders had with their Baby Boomer employees to build the bridge to alleviate knowledge loss between an organization’s retiring workforce and those remaining. Additional contributions leaders should consider are the methods that are effective in retaining Baby Boomers’ knowledge, including succession planning, documenting, mentoring, knowledge sharing, and training. Similarly, the essential strategies identified as rewards, communication, and motivation posited through this study should receive leadership’s consideration for promoting a knowledge share and transfer work environment.
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Teenaged internet tutors’ level of interactivity - by sharing tacit and explicit knowledge with older learners

Teenaged internet tutors’ level of interactivity - by sharing tacit and explicit knowledge with older learners

The goal of the present study was to find out what kind of problems occur in the naturalistic tutoring of older people by teenagers and to develop methodological suggestions to address these issues. We saw that teenagers as tutors use interactive techniques relatively rarely and tutoring tends to be authoritarian or prescriptive rather than collaborative, which affects negatively the effectiveness of the training (De Guerrero & Villamil, 2000). If the tutor has declarative knowledge about the subject, then this drives him/her to explain and describe rather than to scaffold and ask questions. We also observed that young tutors stand a risk to overuse demonstration.
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An ITIL-based Solution to Record and Retrieve Tacit and Explicit Knowledge based on Giga Knowledge Management Framework in the SME Companies

An ITIL-based Solution to Record and Retrieve Tacit and Explicit Knowledge based on Giga Knowledge Management Framework in the SME Companies

such records. These activities occur in the first stage of KM framework which is Knowledge creation and capture, then in order to have well- structured categorize they will put in CMDB with unified primary and if it is needs secondary key as well. These technical issues are managing by Configuration management process. This process also tries to manage all developments, changes and releases in the company. This activity happen knowledge organization and categorization stage that tries to handle created best practices knowledge bases or metadata indexes for documents and also improve its knowledge-support processes. When these knowledge are needed this is possible to retrieve them via primary keys or predefined indexes in the CMDB. So during third phase of KM model which is knowledge distribution and access this is possible to access human and structural capital. This phase is done by technical staffs to train of convey this knowledge between applicants. During this phase there is possible to gather more experiences to record them in the CMDB as well. In order to localize and domesticate knowledge in the company computer based solutions can be applied too.
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TACIT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

TACIT KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW

Tacit knowledge has tremendous value when made available to the right people at the right time. A precondition to activate tacit knowledge is to make sure that the leader is able to identify the relevant tacit knowledge in the organization. The identification of tacit knowledge is often heavily hindered, but is made possible through the scope of personal contacts, Brainstorming sessions, social contacts, reservoirs of experiences and many more. This paper moves towards an under- standing of the effective methods of tacit knowledge. We begin with the definition of knowledge and then discuss explicit, tacit knowledge. The leadership enriched culture and tacit knowledge is discussed as an integrated framework. Finally, we engage this model to begin the exploration of the role of leadership with respect to the utilization of tacit knowledge methods that result in high firm performance.
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Tacit Knowledge for the Development of Organizations

Tacit Knowledge for the Development of Organizations

Assistant Professor, Faculty of Business Studies, Premier University, Chittagong, Bangladesh E-mail: haradhan1971@gmail.com ABSTRACT Knowledge is mainly divided into two types: tacit and explicit. The purpose of this study is to examine the concept of tacit knowledge and the application of it for the development of organizations. It is evident that tacit knowledge has a strong connection with the research area of knowledge management. The present global economy is tacit knowledge based for the sustainable development. Since it is very complex in its nature, therefore acquire and extract of tacit knowledge is not a very easy task. It is unwritten, unspoken and hidden vast storehouse of knowledge of a person. It stresses on the success and well-being of humankind. It is obtained as a result of the direct interaction between individuals and their environments. The paper analyzes the importance of tacit knowledge for the sustaining of the long-term capabilities and performance in organizations. An attempt has been taken here to discuss sharing of tacit knowledge in organizations. This paper also tries to explore the properties of tacit knowledge in some detailed.
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Conceptualization of tacit knowledge dimension

Conceptualization of tacit knowledge dimension

The phrase “tacit knowledge” has been widely used in the knowledge management and organization studies areas. There are many definitions and approaches that have been used in explaining and examining tacit knowledge. This paper intends to further elaborate the nature and attributes of tacit knowledge by comparing the works done by distinguish authors on tacit knowledge. The study found that basically there are two issues concerning tacit knowledge. First, whether tacit knowledge is individually-owned or is it collectively-owned and secondly can tacit knowledge becomes explicit. Many authors seem to agree on the definition of tacit knowledge, but in conflicting views of the scope of tacit knowledge. However, three basic attributes of tacit knowledge has some agreement between the authors. The three attributes are tacit knowledge is experientially acquired, difficult to articulate and plays an important role in the attainment of goal of an individual. Tacit knowledge is potentially the most valuable asset in an organization, if it can be elicited and used efficiently and effectively in an organization. The findings for this study are the nature and attributes of tacit knowledge, categorization of tacit knowledge, and a conceptualization framework of tacit knowledge.
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Tacit to Tacit Knowledge Sharing using ICT In  Higher Education

Tacit to Tacit Knowledge Sharing using ICT In Higher Education

In today‟s knowledge economy ability to manage knowledge is crucial. Knowledge has been identified as one of the most important resource that contributes to the competitive advantage of an organization. . The Knowledge is a critical organizational resource that provides a sustainable competitive advantage in a competitive and dynamic economy(Davenport & Prusak,1998). Knowledge is recognition (Know-what), capacity to act (know-how), understanding (know-why) that resides within the mind . Knowledge refers to the capacity for action i.e. “know about” and an understanding of facts , methods , principles, techniques i.e. “know how”. Knowledge includes perception, skills, training, common sense, and experience and helps to draw meaningful conclusion. Polanyi (1966) first divided the human knowledge into two dimensions : explicit and tacit dimensions. Explicit knowledge is codified knowledge that can be specified or communicated verbally or in symbolic forms such as written documents, blueprints or computer programmes. Tacit knowledge is a knowledge that a person can store inside his mind and is developed from direct experience and accomplishment . Higher education institutions are knowledge intensive organizations. These institutions require to obtain, store, share, utilize and generate knowledge so as to train and educate the students effectively (Ozmen, 2010). The whole process of education involves acquisition and transfer of knowledge from one source to another. In higher education to acquire knowledge from different sources and disseminate it to the students is regular practise. By considering the importance of tacit knowledge in higher education, author tried to investigate how tacit knowledge is applicable in every facet of higher education and use of ICT tools and technologies for tacit knowledge transfer in higher education.
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