Tacit-Explicit Knowledge Interactions

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The Influence of Knowledge Visualization on Externalizing Tacit Knowledge

The Influence of Knowledge Visualization on Externalizing Tacit Knowledge

[31] introduced four modes of knowledge creation called SECI model consisting of socialization, externalization, combination and internalization that involved interaction and transaction of tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge. Socialization is the process of transferring experience or tacit knowledge through social interactions such as informal meeting, conversation, and living together. Socialization is a process of sharing experiences and thereby creating tacit knowledge such as shared mental models and technical skills [31]. Externalization means the process of articulating tacit knowledge into written form or explicit knowledge so that it can be shared by others and become the basis of new knowledge. Combination refers to the process of converting explicit knowledge that is inconsistent into a more complex and systematic sets of explicit knowledge. During internalization process, the experiences from previous stages will be converted into valuable knowledge for individual and organization. The spiral indicates the spread of knowledge among individuals or community. The knowledge will be enriching by others and the new knowledge generation will begin dynamically. [40] mentioned, a self-generating loop of knowledge dynamics needs continuous flows of knowledge among the individuals.
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The use of tacit and explicit knowledge in public health: a qualitative study

The use of tacit and explicit knowledge in public health: a qualitative study

to larger analogies, and the final stage involves creating a formalized model. Another methodology that has been used is the critical decision interview method, which asks participants to describe a critical situation that hap- pened recently and then probes for situational and beha- vioural information that reveals tacit knowledge implicit in the participant ’ s decisions [44,45]. A more proactive model can be found in the theoretical complex clinical scenario, which asks a health practitioner to make deci- sions about a challenging theoretical clinical situation and elicits tacit knowledge from responses [46]. Some highly specified approaches include using a knowledge acquisition technique called the Ripple Down Rules (RDR) [47] or a linguistically-based approach called the Grammar-targeted Interview Method (GIM) [48] to draw out tacit knowledge. One framework that com- bines a number of concepts used in the techniques above is Ambrosini and Bowman’s methodology [11], which uses semi-structured interviews (allowing narra- tives and metaphors to develop), causal mapping, and observation techniques. We adopted this approach and supported interactions among participants through focus groups (see Methods section). This study reports on the ways in which tacit knowledge is used in a public health setting to contribute to program planning.
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How to utilize tacit knowledge in health organizations: An Iranian perspective

How to utilize tacit knowledge in health organizations: An Iranian perspective

Furthermore, practitioners in public healthcare services work in a complex environment, where formal research lit- erature cannot be accessed. In these environments, tacit knowledge can help in the understanding of explicit knowledge (12) and can complement technical skills for health care delivery (13). Research results have also con- firmed that health practitioners lay more emphasis on tacit knowledge while tackling health problems (14, 15). Studies have also reported the crucial role of tacit knowledge in team-based practice (12, 16, 17) and collective decision- making (16). The importance of strengthening teamwork interactions and discussions for collective decision- making is inevitable for organizations in developing countries, where organizational members may be reluctant to collab- orate or share information with others to maintain their dominant position or to be acknowledged by their superi- ors. This spirit is damaging to group cohesiveness (18). Thus, providing a framework for sharing tacit knowledge and improving the knowledge creation cycle is highly im- portant for tacit and explicit knowledge conversion pro- cesses and for promoting collective decision- making. To our knowledge, few studies have been conducted on the methods of utilizing tacit knowledge in health organiza- tions in these countries. Therefore, this study explored the solutions to share and utilize tacit knowledge in health or- ganizations.
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APPLYING COLLABORATION SCRIPT IN KNOWLEDGE BASED SESSIONS

APPLYING COLLABORATION SCRIPT IN KNOWLEDGE BASED SESSIONS

CSCL, Computer Support for Collaborative Learning, is relatively a new discipline within teaching and learning field. Applying CSCL techniques and technologies in Knowledge Base Systems, KBS, would be a reasonable option since teaching and learning is essentially a process of knowledge transfer between instructors and students or collaboratively between students themselves. In this research we are focusing on the usage of Collaboration Script, CS, as a way to support knowledge transfer sessions in a structured and formal way. It facilitates sharing tacit knowledge via guided interpersonal interactions and turning them to explicit knowledge by capturing and retrieving these interactions.
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Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Management

Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Management

'Knowledge creation is a spiraling process of interactions between explicit and tacit knowledge.' The interactions between these kinds of knowledge lead to the creation of new knowledge. The SECI model serves only as an outline for 'knowledge creation and the idea of elf- transcendence is quite abstrct.

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Research on Explicit and Tacit Knowledge Interaction in Software Process Improvement Project

Research on Explicit and Tacit Knowledge Interaction in Software Process Improvement Project

fication of knowledge as either explicit or tacit is one of two prominent classifications in the knowledge manage- ment literature (Table 1 provides a brief overview of dif- ferent classifications of knowledge creation efforts [10]). Explicit knowledge is codified and documented, and its transfer can take place in impersonal ways—for in- stance, through written instructions and diagrams. Tacit knowledge is knowledge that is difficult to articulate, especially in terms of cause-effect relationships. It is context-specific, and is transferred mainly through social interactions [2]. Language is an excellent example of tacit knowledge: native speakers of a language are often unable to articulate the grammatical and syntactic rules governing it. Tacit knowledge contributes to the “sticki- ness” of information required for problem-solving, mak- ing it difficult for others to gather, transfer, and utilize. The difficult-to-codify nature of tacit knowledge con- tributes to difficult-to-imitate capabilities that may pro- vide competitive advantage to the organization. Success of process improvement projects depends on the capture of both explicit and tacit types of knowledge [10,11]. 2.3. Knowledge Enabling Software Process
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Importance of tacit knowledge towards company performance and its relevance to construction

Importance of tacit knowledge towards company performance and its relevance to construction

Based on this understanding of organisations and dynamic environment, Grant (1996) proposed a knowledge-based theory of strategy. As Grant (1996) asserts, the source of competitive advantage in dynamic environments is not knowledge that is proprietary to the organisation, because the value of such knowledge erodes quickly due to obsolescence and imitation. Rather, sustained competitive advantage is determined by non-proprietary knowledge in the form of tacit individual knowledge. Tacit knowledge can form the basis of competitive advantage because it is both unique and relatively immobile. The distinction between tacit and explicit knowledge has proven to be particularly important in this dominant view, which identifies tacit knowledge as the most significant strategic resource of firms. Yet, because that knowledge is possessed by individuals and not the organisation, a critical element of sustained competitive advantage is the ability to integrate the specialised and tacit knowledge of individuals. In addition, Grant (1996) makes the point, also emphasised by other scholars (Kogut and Zander 1996; Kogut 2000), that tacit knowledge can also be integrated externally through relational networks that span organisational boundaries, especially in high-velocity environments, where the speed and scope of knowledge integration are paramount for sustaining competitive advantage. Overall, Grant’s approach extends the dynamic capabilities view of strategy (Teece et al 1997) and can be considered an outgrowth of resource based thinking. As such, this highlights the importance of tacit knowledge towards organisational performance when integrated and managed properly. The following section further outlines the significance of tacit knowledge by highlighting the reasons for its strategic nature.
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Planning approval monitoring groupware (PAMG) for oil and gas infrastructure in Malaysia

Planning approval monitoring groupware (PAMG) for oil and gas infrastructure in Malaysia

This research employed My SQL to develop the PAMG system due to the usage of open source managing tools and applied in web. Data stored in the database are retrieved and displayed in reports via the web interface. Knowledge from previous problems of planning approval processes can be used as reference of new jobs. For example, the PAMG system displays the problems due to designs and also other factors, or the ways that experienced managers in solving the problems. It provides the platform that allows the managers to retrieve information as well as ways in dealing problems if they face the similar problems in the future. The retrieval of previous jobs of an alike nature can be achieved by using Case Based Reasoning (CBR).
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CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT MODEL FROM STRATEGIC APPROACH: A KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVE

CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT MODEL FROM STRATEGIC APPROACH: A KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVE

O’ Dell and his colleagues (1988) state that KM is a strategy to improve organizational performance of getting right knowledge from the right people at right time, facilitate people to share information and put information into action. Von Krogh (1998) points out that KM helps the organization to compete through identifying and exercising the shared knowledge in an organization. KM deals with diverse but interdependent processes of knowledge creation, storage, transfer, and application (Alavi and Leidner, 2001). In addition to this, Sapsed et al., (2002) stress the importance of team. They argue that group of individuals generate, share, and transmit knowledge and it is possible only in team working. Yang (2007) definition of KM suggests that it is a process of identifying and collecting information, enabling employees to retrieve organizational knowledge, exploiting and applying knowledge, storing and disseminating it throughout the organization. KM has a positive influence on CRM to enhance the service quality of the customers (Tseng, 2016).
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Managing the construction worker in a knowledge environment

Managing the construction worker in a knowledge environment

As already discussed, a knowledge worker has traditionally been seen as a highly skilled, highly paid specialist. An increase number of individuals do work which is knowledge based and the concept of knowledge worker needs to embrace these individuals who can be found at the all levels within organisations (Harman and Brelade, 2000). A major aspect of managing tacit knowledge in a knowledge-based economy is giving to knowledge worker the power that arises from the ability to solve the critical contingencies facing the organisation. It means that knowledge worker will increasingly be able to determine that they are managed in ways acceptable to them. As suggested by Tyson (1995), for managers this will involve a paradigm shift to see themselves as facilitators rather than controllers. This highlights the necessity of managing knowledge worker with flexible, employee centred approaches based on consensual models (Harman and Brelade, 2000). Yet, Construction as an industry which has a reputation for its dominant culture of command and controls consistently emphasises and correlates with the hard model of human resource management. Also the culture of subcontracting and self employment marginalises the importance of people management and thereby reflects and reinforces the dominant industry receipt of hard human resource management. Soft human resource management policies based on empowerment and commitment are much more prevalent within organisations orientated towards creativity (Green et al, 2004). This is true when it comes to the professional service firms within the construction industry, who compete successfully internationally by investing heavily in knowledge based services. As such it is an urgent matter for the construction industry to move towards the softer approach based teamwork from hard model of human resource management to enhance the collective efforts.
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How Ties to Professional Support Networks Impact Social Outcomes among Homeless Youth

How Ties to Professional Support Networks Impact Social Outcomes among Homeless Youth

Despite the promise of knowledge-based view of the firm (the current kernel theory of the field of knowledge management) for achieving sustainable competitive advantage for a firm through management of the organizational knowledge, there is no evidence that the traditional knowledge management has been able to provide theoretical and practical guidelines towards that strategic goal. The purpose of this study is to accomplish this strategic goal of knowledge management by presenting a new kernel theory for the field of knowledge management. Based on Pierre Bourdieu’s practice theory, “practice-based view” of the firm proposes an alternative view to the concepts of knowledge, and knowledge management. Achieving sustainable competitive advantage is the ultimate purpose of the field of strategic management, in which resource-based view and industrial organization theories compose its two major paradigms. These theories of strategic management use (internal and external) structural properties of the context of practice of the firm as their source of strategy development. Practice-based view, however, identifies knowledge as the main source for strategy development for the firms. Accordingly, practice-based view identifies the (internal and external) structural properties of the context of the firm as particular aspects of knowledge it uses in its strategy development. Additional aspects of knowledge considered in practice-based view include the social, cultural, and political aspects of knowledge identified and explained in practice-based view of the firm. Therefore, this study would also introduce practice- based view as an alternative kernel theory for the field of strategic management.
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PROPOSED MODELS OF ADAPTIVE KNOWLEDGE AGGREGATOR

PROPOSED MODELS OF ADAPTIVE KNOWLEDGE AGGREGATOR

Knowledge is considered as an important and valuable source for organizations. The right knowledge contributes to better decision making and thus, improves competitiveness and organizational performance. Thus, it is essential for organizations to manage their knowledge properly through knowledge management processes as to sustain in the competitive industry. Tacit knowledge, which is stored in employees’ minds and is hard to manage, has been considered as a crucial factor affecting the performance of organisations. Therefore, knowledge management enables the tacit knowledge of employees be converted to explicit knowledge to enable the retrieval of knowledge by other organizational members so that they can use that knowledge to be more innovative. Retrieving the right knowledge is important to enable the employees to perform better in their work; however, it poses a major challenge especially when retrieving knowledge from a large and variety of sources. The traditional knowledge retrieval methods share the explicit knowledge without a proper evaluation of the quality of knowledge (for example, without a proper editing). Thus, the aim of this paper is to develop efficient knowledge management methods that are able to; (1) to retrieve the right explicit knowledge from tacit knowledge based on responsible measurement variables; and (2) to aggregate and formulate the retrieved knowledge effectively for sharing valuable and focused knowledge. These methods will enable the organizational members to share the right explicit knowledge to the right employees at the right time.
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Business networks within a regional industrial cluster

Business networks within a regional industrial cluster

The author hypothesised that in regard to a formal networking group in a regional industrial cluster, Nonaka and Takeuchi’s model (1995) does not adequately cover the constraints on actively sharing knowledge across organisational boundaries which resulted in the research issue, how did they manage to make tacit knowledge explicit. Tacit knowledge conversion into explicit knowledge and back to tacit in terms of Nonaka and Takeuchi’s (1995) knowledge exchange model occurs through telephone calls and formal or informal meetings ― see section 4.2.4. Trust, relationships, continued interaction, and the bounds of confidentiality appear to minimise the suspected socialisation across boundary’s limitation of the model put forward in section 2. That is, the strength of any given relationship cemented by trust determines whether otherwise confidential issues will be discussed across boundary’s, and the large amount of potential mutual benefit from knowledge exchange in non-confidential business support areas allows socialisation and discussion across boundaries where relationships may not be as strong. The willingness to externalise tacit knowledge into explicit whilst listening and reflecting upon the externalised knowledge of others through the processes of combination and internalisation suggests knowledge exchange by rational discourse (see Delahaye 2003; Rylatt 2003; Von Krogh et al 2000). The socialisation process relies upon observation as well as listening (see Delahaye 2003), so the participation by members in informal conversation through problem solving, site visits and meetings facilitates the interaction necessary for socialisation.
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Managing Constraints and Removing Obstacles to Knowledge Management

Managing Constraints and Removing Obstacles to Knowledge Management

KM structure in place to facilitate the capture and transfer of knowledge. Horizontal processes add up knowledge transfer and sharing with minimal bureaucracy wherein knowledge can be managed systematically. A good knowledge management backbone aid in faster decision making. To cite a noteworthy example, McKinsey was among one of the first few companies which had a dedicated KM framework, headed by a Director of Knowledge Management Brook Manville. This was meant for putting in extra effort to develop and disseminate learning internally, and to promote learning from other external sources, from clients, colleagues, and from anything which have some “embedded value” in it (Peters, 1992). Organizations are thus containers of knowledge the content being the “learned information” about people, process, practice, and about everything beyond the projects — which are often considered the most important aspect of business practice. Projects are everything — but to deal with projects and oversee that it projects are managed successfully require expertise building, and above all, knowledge. A sound knowledge management framework helps to acquire new skills and realize the value of such skills acquired when the knowledge is managed professionally. This perspective highlights the need for professional knowledge managers, as the initiative taken by McKinsey proves to be this form of KM structure. Similar knowledge management structure based on institutional knowledge development framework has been successfully implemented by almost all the global multinational giants like Google, Accenture, Sony, Dell, E&Y and others. So, what effective KM strategies knowledge should knowledge managers adopt? Hansen et. al. (1999) categorizes knowledge management strategies into two distinct schemes — (i) Codification strategy, and (ii) Personalization strategy. But as one may ask, why there is a need for codification of knowledge gained by individual employees at the first place? The reason is that, codification of tacit knowledge would help people to pass their accumulated knowledge to others (Smith, 2001) to convey “what they know beyond their knowing,” i.e., the know-how. This pertains to Polanyi’s concept — “we can know more than we can tell”, and thus, “be able to tell what we really know more than we could have told”.
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Comparing crowdworkers’ and conventional knowledge workers’ self-regulated learning strategies in the workplace

Comparing crowdworkers’ and conventional knowledge workers’ self-regulated learning strategies in the workplace

Although there is an extensive body of literature on SRL, most research has focused on learning in formal, educational settings rather than informal, on-the-job, workplace learning contexts (Boekaerts et al, 2005; Siztmann and Ely, 2011). Therefore, much of what is currently known about how people self-regulate their learning is based on studies of pupils and students in schools and universities rather than professionals in the workplace. Organisational psychologists have studied self-regulation in workplaces, however this literature has largely focused on the self- regulation of work performance and work behaviour more broadly, rather than the learning behaviours specifically (Kanfer, Chen and Pritchard, 2008; Locke and Latham, 2013; Lord, Diefendorff, Schmidt and Hall, 2010). In the field of teacher training, a small body of literature examined self-regulated learning strategies among school teachers and university lecturers (Bolhuis and Voeten, 2004; van Eekelen, Boshuizen and Vermunt, 2005; Tillema & Kremer- Hayon, 2002). These studies, however, are too specific to the teaching profession and to work in formal educational settings, therefore the extent to which the findings produced in these studies can help explain SRL strategies in non-educational knowledge work settings is unclear. Sitzmann & Ely (2011) called for researchers studying self-regulation to ‘adjust their focus to accommodate how learning occurs in the modern workplace’ (p. 438).
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SPECTRUM INVESTIGATION FOR SHARING ANALYSIS BETWEEN BWA SYSTEM AND FSS RECEIVER

SPECTRUM INVESTIGATION FOR SHARING ANALYSIS BETWEEN BWA SYSTEM AND FSS RECEIVER

The research area in Knowledge management is an immense domain, especially with the information systems fields. Many researchers try to suggest various classification models that categorize knowledge management into various fields [13], [14], [15], [16]. For instance, [13] surveyed 109 executives, obtaining 50 usable responses, on their perceptions of KMS activity within their firms and its potential benefits. According to this research, three perspectives for knowledge management had been identified which are information-based, technology-based, and cultural-based. As a result, the research demonstrated the following conclusion which is 1) knowledge management systems are multi-faceted; and 2) developing metrics to evaluate the benefits of KMS is of utmost importance. In addition, [14] suggested a conceptual foundation that included the knowledge management systems domains of knowledge creation, knowledge storage/retrieval, knowledge transfer, and knowledge application. Interestingly, from their long research laboring in the field of knowledge management, [14] trigger the following questions regarding knowledge retrieval processes which are (1) Can the knowledge that is stored in knowledge repository be accessed by workers who do not know the originator of the knowledge? And (2) what are the most effective retrieval methods?
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Evidence Based Investigation for Determining the Characteristics of Knowledge Management on Organizational Innovation within Taiwanese Teaching Hospitals

Evidence Based Investigation for Determining the Characteristics of Knowledge Management on Organizational Innovation within Taiwanese Teaching Hospitals

There are a variety of different KM models in the litera- ture. Gloet and Terziovski (2004) described KM proc- esses as knowledge creation, knowledge transport, knowledge storage, knowledge distribution, and knowl- edge sharing [7]. Cui, Griffith, and Cavusgil (2005) in- dicated that KM consists of three interrelated processes: Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Conversion, and Knowledge Application [8]. Sandars & Heller (2006) explained KM is the generation of knowledge, storage of knowledge, distribution of knowledge, and application of knowledge [9]. In short, KM could be regarded as an umbrella term for a variety of interlocking processes.
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Discussion on study of knowledge creation, innovation ability and organizational performance for high-tech industries in Taiwan

Discussion on study of knowledge creation, innovation ability and organizational performance for high-tech industries in Taiwan

Internalization refers to explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge conversion process. Including of course the dominant knowledge may be included in the activities and practices among so individuals can repeat the experience of others to acquire knowledge. Such as management courses, education and training. So when the entire organization can share the new dominant knowledge, the rest of the staff to bring new knowledge to be expanded, while the extension and application, can become employees own implicit knowledge, and this new knowledge has become the organization's most valuable asset.
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Knowledge Management: A new perspective in changing Education

Knowledge Management: A new perspective in changing Education

The paper seeks to identify the concept of Knowledge management. The need of knowledge management and the challenges faced by the educational institutions in coming up with the Knowledge management techniques. It also focuses on knowing the various strategies or practices involved in KM . The effort to share the most recent understandings about Knowledge management in education is the changing roles and challenges for higher education.

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AUDIO DATA AS AN ENCODING FOR COLOR QUICK RESPONSE CODE (CQR) 3D BARCODES

AUDIO DATA AS AN ENCODING FOR COLOR QUICK RESPONSE CODE (CQR) 3D BARCODES

The organizations of various fields such as industry and education looking for manage their knowledge resources in order to provide efficient products performance. The knowledge measurement is one from the most important success factors of knowledge management implementations. The dynamic changes of businesses environments and knowledge levels maximize the difficulty of measure the efficiency levels of tacit and explicit knowledge. The academic staff in universities face challenges in retrieve the efficient explicit knowledge i.e. articles that compatible with their tacit levels in order to develop their tacit value to support their teaching and researching activities. The main aim of this research is to develop practical methods to match between the explicit and tacit knowledge levels inside universities environments in order to retrieve the suitable explicit knowledge that satisfy the employees needs of knowledge based on their tacit levels. This research data collected supporting qualitative data collecting method using interview with four experts of knowledge management. The knowledge measurement practical specifications and mathematic equations developed based on the collected data to provide the matching between the tacit levels of academic staff and retrieved explicit knowledge levels inside universities environments.
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