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Conceptualization of tacit knowledge dimension

Conceptualization of tacit knowledge dimension

All the concepts of tacit knowledge based on the definitions given are tabulated. Nine concepts, personal, context bounded, informal, experientially acquired, practical, action oriented, goal attainment values, individual and collective, are extracted. Table 1 shows the elements/concepts of tacit knowledge based on the definitions of tacit knowledge given by respective writers. The concepts of personal, experientially acquired, goal attainment values and collective have been quoted more often than the other concepts by the respective writers. Looking deeper in the concept of contextual bounded, Aager (1991) argues that all knowledge is contextualised by its historical and culture nature. Therefore it is not uniquely associated with tacit knowledge. The concept of informal and practical/action-oriented can be incorporated in the concept of experientially acquired. Therefore, the only contradiction is whether tacit knowledge is personal/individual or is it collective.
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A Critical Review Of Knowledge Sharing In Various Industries And Organizations

A Critical Review Of Knowledge Sharing In Various Industries And Organizations

Pharmaceutical industry has several distinct characteristics compared to other industries. It has strict regulatory environment, lengthy cycles development, high capital cost and high risks in the research and development process (Lilleoere & Hansen, 2011). The average time taken for the discovery of new drugs would take about 8-10 years (Ganguli, 2003). Therefore, the main focus of this industry is to minimize the time to market because of other related issues for the marketing time. Cost and novelty would be one of the advantages if the industry would be able to reduce the time. To stay competitive, pharmaceutical companies have shifted towards optimizing current product portfolios and developing innovation practices (Tranter, 2000), focusing on life cycle management and solving technical problems related to time- to-market. According to Ingelgard et al. (2002), in the pharmaceutical industry, company culture, competency and readily available skills form a dynamic learning capability. Furthermore, the structure of organizations, incentives learning, opportunities for changes and leadership have subsequent influence in learning capability. In this pharmaceutical industry context, KS is believed to have developed new knowledge, by enhancing innovation of new products at faster pace (Lilleoere & Hansen, 2011). Nevertheless, KS in this industry is easy with competition among companies, which puts forth the notion that whoever found the knowledge first, makes the most profit out of it. It is highly dependent on the context and setting, beliefs of individual, different actions and various personal practices involved. The perspectives of understanding and acknowledgment of individual differences in KS is a key for R&D in organizations. Therefore, unleashing the KS enablers and hindrance of diversify professional groups and further learning to apply the R&D in pharmaceutical is important to develop innovative performance. According to DiMasi et al. (2016), the average cost for developing new biological compound of drugs is estimated to be at $1395. Post R&D approval, the cost escalates to $2870 (rate in the year 2013). Having stiff competition in this industry, pharmaceutical companies would try their best in retaining and withholding their tacit knowledge based on the research conducted. They would have to invest in acquiring the best new drug and medication. This in turn would make knowledge and information hard to come by among the companies. Hence,
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Managing construction workers and their tacit knowledge in a knowledge environment: A conceptual framework

Managing construction workers and their tacit knowledge in a knowledge environment: A conceptual framework

ABSTRACT: Within the construction industry, it is increasingly being acknowledged that knowledge management can bring about the much needed innovation and improved performance the industry requires. Nevertheless, sufficient attention is still to be received for the concept of the knowledge worker and their tacit knowledge within construction industry. Yet, proper understanding and management of this resource is of immense importance for the achievement of better organisational performance. Hence, this paper aims to devise a theoretical framework for managing construction knowledge worker and their tacit knowledge based on review and synthesis of literature. Paper stresses the importance of construction knowledge worker and tacit knowledge through review of literature and highlights prevailing gap due to lack of attention and recognition given to the tacit knowledge in the construction industry. Based on identified gap research aim, objectives and hypotheses are devised. As the specific research methodology, the social constructionism stance in terms of epistemological undertakings and idealistic approach under the ontological assumptions with value laden purposes are suggested. Further, it recommends the deployment of multiple exploratory case studies approach with triangulation techniques.
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Tacit Knowledge for the Development of Organizations

Tacit Knowledge for the Development of Organizations

Knowledge is mainly divided into two types: tacit and explicit. The purpose of this study is to examine the concept of tacit knowledge and the application of it for the development of organizations. It is evident that tacit knowledge has a strong connection with the research area of knowledge management. The present global economy is tacit knowledge based for the sustainable development. Since it is very complex in its nature, therefore acquire and extract of tacit knowledge is not a very easy task. It is unwritten, unspoken and hidden vast storehouse of knowledge of a person. It stresses on the success and well-being of humankind. It is obtained as a result of the direct interaction between individuals and their environments. The paper analyzes the importance of tacit knowledge for the sustaining of the long-term capabilities and performance in organizations. An attempt has been taken here to discuss sharing of tacit knowledge in organizations. This paper also tries to explore the properties of tacit knowledge in some detailed.
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Quantitative Model of Tacit Knowledge Estimation for Pharmaceutical Industry

Quantitative Model of Tacit Knowledge Estimation for Pharmaceutical Industry

Pharmaceutical firms frequently rely on partnerships with biotechnology firms as a primary source for scientific discoveries crucial for the development of new drugs. Because of their lack of focus on the basic scientific research, it is often difficult for managers of pharmaceutical firms to gain a tactical understanding of this type of research. Conversely, the exclusive focus on research by biotech firms enables their managers to have a deeper tacit understanding of specific types of basic scientific research. Difficulty in effective transfer of the knowledge regarding scientific discoveries made by biotech firms to pharmaceutical firms is due in large part to the contrast in scientific paradigms emphasized by each type of firm. The potential benefits associated with a successful alliance between biotech and pharmaceutical firms are substantial. Drugs produced by pharma-biotech alliances are 30 % more likely to succeed in winning Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval than those developed by a single company. In addition, nearly a third of new pharmaceutical products are now developed through alliances, compared to only 7 % a decade ago (Hess & Evangelista, 2003). In addition, the largest pharma-biotech deals have steadily increased in size in recent years, from SmithKline Beecham’s $125 million deal with Human Genome Sciences in 1993 to the $1.3 billion collaboration between Bayer and CuraGen in 2001 (Hess & Evangelista, 2003). Porter argued that industry improves and sustains its competitiveness via every well- organized activity and infrastructure in the value system. Every element in the knowledge cluster plays a particular role and creates specific value to it (Porter, 1996).
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Theory and Application of Tacit Knowledge Transfer

Theory and Application of Tacit Knowledge Transfer

Tacit knowledge, regarding its essence, is a kind of “understanding”, comprehension, and the pro- cess of grasping and re-organizing experiences. Moreover, such ability can be controlled at will. However, spiritual understanding enables people to display the function of dominance and deter- mination of knowledge. Therefore, this study first proposed the tacit knowledge transfer mode; there are two major strategies for the Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM): depict the es- sence instead of the appearance and understand spiritually. In other words, it allows learners to represent the knowledge learned and transfer it into body memory in order to apply it to similar situations through deduction and inference. This study aims to integrate Tacit Knowledge Trans- fer Method (TKTM) into sketch instruction. The first phase was “knowledge accumulation”: we used “Mu” way to accumulate drawing knowledge. The phase two was “knowledge transfer”: we used “Lin” way to transfer drawing knowledge. In the process, the students in Department of De- sign are divided into the experimental group and the controlled group for comparisons. Having seven design experts evaluate the teaching effectiveness on the two groups (Mixed and anonym- ous), aiming at students’ learning achievement. The experiment concludes two main results: firstly, based on the expert evaluation scores, Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM) proves the sig- nificant effect of Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM) on Perspective Accuracy, Line Stability, and Form Expressivity of freehand sketch; secondly, from the experiment process and survey re- sults, it was evident that Tacit Knowledge Transfer Method (TKTM) has direct correlation with participants’ assertiveness. If there is a conflict between norm knowledge the effectiveness of transfer will be reduced significantly.
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Key success drivers in offshore software development : New Zealand and Indian vendors' perspectives : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Information Technology at Massey University, Alban

Key success drivers in offshore software development : New Zealand and Indian vendors' perspectives : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Information Technology at Massey University, Albany campus, New Zealand

is cost, since with lower per capita labour costs in other countries, clients can benefit economically from moving as much development work offshore as possible (Gopal, Mukhopadhyay, & Krishnan, 2002). However, Kaiser and Hawk (2004) argue that offshore software development will increase for reasons beyond cost reduction as knowledge transfer cannot be assessed as a purely economic decision. Other benefits include access to skilled personnel across the globe, 24/7 availability of workers, innovation and shared best practices, cross-site modularisation of development work, improved time to market, acceptance of diversity, and compensation for gaps in the internal capabilities within organisations (Agerfalk & Fitzgerald, 2006; Brady, 2003). While customers look towards these benefits, vendors seek to make an acceptable rate of return on outsourcing contracts, acquire industry specific knowledge, build a strong reputation in their industry and stabilise their market position (Dibbern, Goles, Hirscheim, & Jayatilaka, 2004; Rottman & Lacity, 2004). Some negative issues associated with offshore outsourcing include costs related to infrastructural problems in developing countries, loss of control over intellectual property, threat of opportunistic behaviour by suppliers at the cost of clients, limited learning and innovation by clients, public relations mishaps and different legal systems of developing countries, amongst others (Mol, 2007; Rai, 2005). Thus Ritzer and Lair (2007, p. 325) have described offshore outsourcing as “a sociology, rather than an economics”. Mol (2007, pp. 167-71) adds that outsourcing designs described through an “economising perspective takes a static point of view”; and a “dynamic picture” is needed as practitioners spend more time managing offshore projects, relationships and knowledge transfer, which can be “best explained through a socialising perspective”.
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Job Rotation: An Effective Tool to Transfer the Tacit Knowledge within an Enterprise

Job Rotation: An Effective Tool to Transfer the Tacit Knowledge within an Enterprise

Knowledge transfer is a process that the knowledge is transferred from knowledge sources to knowledge re- ceptors [5]. Formal tacit knowledge transfer channels contain mentoring, group learning [6], establishing the enter- prise internal knowledge market [7], expert database, knowledge map [8], etc. Some scholars put forward that the enterprise can also transfer tacit knowledge through informal communication channels, such as irregular se- minars, coffee gap chatting and so on. In recent years, people gradually realize that job rotation is also an effec- tive tool to realize tacit knowledge transferring within enterprises. Implementing job rotation provides the rota- tors with a real learning situation; at the same time, the knowledge receiver will be moved to the knowledge center to accelerate the two-way tacit knowledge transfer [9]. Then, what is the process that tacit knowledge is transferred through job rotation? Establishing tacit knowledge management mechanism, including target sub- mechanism, dynamic sub-mechanism and feedback sub-mechanism, can realize tacit knowledge transfer process to support the realization of strategic goals. Then, how can we build the tacit knowledge management mechan- ism within an enterprise?
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THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED VIEW FRAMEWORK: CAPABILITY OF KNOWLEDGE INTEGRATION LEADS TO CAPABILITY OF INNOVATION OR IMITATION

THE KNOWLEDGE-BASED VIEW FRAMEWORK: CAPABILITY OF KNOWLEDGE INTEGRATION LEADS TO CAPABILITY OF INNOVATION OR IMITATION

Continuing Innovations and Multiple ‘Firsts’ Providing Amazon with First-mover’s Advantages As the first online book retailer and distributor, Amazon.com shook the foundation of historically inherited brick-and-mortar business model (Fortune, 1997; Machlis, 1998; Munk, 1999), becoming the first ever, an iconic brand and synonymous of globally recognized e-commerce (Economist, 2000), being the first described as a ‘beguilingly attractive’ e-business model (Fortune, 1997), symbolically driving the brick-and-mortar warehouses retired, and the capital- intensive inventory transferred to other parties (Business Week, 1999). Being the creator and the patented beneficiary of multiple ‘Firsts’, Amazon has been reputed as an industrial leader with glorious heritage of innovation (PC Week, 1999). Since 1995, Amazon has emerged as the first company initiating an online book retailing service model; the first company enabling consumers to experience online book search and order (Postrel, 1996); the first company launching ‘one-click’ model to streamline the customer information, including credit card numbers, an innovative model rapidly imitated by firms across industries; the first company executing the collaborative-filtering technology to assemble first-hand information, to analyze customers’ buying habits and purchase history, to capture and enhance customers’ preferences, to predict and recommend what customers want, resulting in 25% as its return rate of purchase, considerably lower than the 30% of the industry average, and consequently, enabling Amazon to become the first company in e-commerce to get lowest deals from publishers (suppliers). Amazon is also the first company offering customers an e-mail-based alert and order tracking system (Hof, et al., 1998); and the first company introducing two ways of stimulating customers’ purchasing desires and decisions. Through its acquisition of Junglee Corp in August 1998, Amazon became able to provide a comparison-shopping program, allowing customers to find and allocate products beyond the scope of Amazon’s products categories; through its reciprocal affiliation program, Amazon became able to provide a commission-based website referral program to attract participants from affiliated websites, and therefore, expand its customer-base (Warner, 1999).
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Tacit knowledge transfer in family business succession

Tacit knowledge transfer in family business succession

The resource-based view of family business identifies trust as a competitive advantage in family business (Davis & Harverston 1998). The effective use of trust in family firms is a resource that contributes to a firm’s success, including the successful generational transfer of the firm (Anderson, Jack & Dodd 2005; Cabrera- Suarez, De Saa-Perez & Garcia-Almeida 2001). The family relationship trust can be a resource to the firm as the family members’ trust in one another is paralleled in the firm (Hoffman, Hoelscher & Sorenson 2006). By modelling the trust-based family relationships the family members provide the foundation for moral behaviour and relationship based behaviour to nonfamily members (Bubolz 2001). This is not only how younger family members experience the family based trust in the business setting, but how the nonfamily members of the firm learn that the family values, norms and culture are the foundation of the business values, norms and culture. This trust is often tacit by nature and thus is difficult for competitors to replicate or otherwise acquire, and therefore a competitive resource in the family firm (Arregle et al. 2007; Pearson, Carr & Shaw 2008) suggest that the role of family social capital (and by inference trust) may be of significant importance in the succession process. The relationship between the founder and successor (and between the successor and other family and business members) and the degree of trust in these relationship(s) has been cited as a contributing factor in successful succession. Brockhaus (2004) describes the role of these relationships as allowing the successor to gain
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The Influence of Tacit knowledge on Competitive Advantage: Learning from ICT Service Providers in Nairobi

The Influence of Tacit knowledge on Competitive Advantage: Learning from ICT Service Providers in Nairobi

used to supplement other first generation techniques such as linear regression in studying the relationship between latent variables. The relatively more powerful analytical power of structural equation modeling techniques in handling latent constructs is well articulated by Hair, et al., (2010). Additionally, whilst finding robust measures of tacit knowledge will continue to be a challenge in strategic management research, and other related social sciences (Guyo, 2012; Insch, et al., 2008; Rashid, Hassan & Al-Okaily, 2015), the current study is a useful addition in filling this methodological gap.
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Knowledge Management System development by deploying ART Artificial Neural Networks Algorithm Chris M. Jayachandran 1, Dr. Shyamala Kannan2

Knowledge Management System development by deploying ART Artificial Neural Networks Algorithm Chris M. Jayachandran 1, Dr. Shyamala Kannan2

Knowledge can exist and be expressed in many forms, for example: facts, attitudes, opinions, issues, values, theories, reasons, processes, policies, priorities, rules, cases, approaches, models, tools. Methodologies, relationships, risks and probabilities. Ideally people need, not only relevant knowledge but also practical help in applying it and using it to achieve their objectives. Many more companies would benefit from a knowledge management framework that can handle knowledge in a variety of formats and enable people quickly to capture, access, present, understand and exploit pertinent know- how. Early approaches to knowledge management tended to view knowledge as a stock with the emphasis being placed upon knowledge capture and storage. What may be of greater importance in dynamic, fluid and uncertain contexts is the flow of information that allows knowledge to be kept up to date, and new knowledge that is relevant to emerging trends.[1] Knowledge Management is the process of gathering a firm‟s collective expertise wherever it resides – in databases, on paper, or in people‟s heads – and distributing it to where it can help produce the biggest payoff [2] As it dawns on many organizations which may be corporations or service providers – that Knowledge is the only competitive asset they have,
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Tacit Knowledge Sharing In Technology-Based Firms: Role Of Organization Citizenship Behavior And Perceived Value Of Knowledge

Tacit Knowledge Sharing In Technology-Based Firms: Role Of Organization Citizenship Behavior And Perceived Value Of Knowledge

OCB is a voluntary act and performed because it makes people feel satisfied and happy by helping others. Sharing of tacit knowledge may be considered as a noble act as it allows knowledge workers such software developers, network administrators, database experts to help their colleagues to do their jobs better. Many studies explored the role of OCB i.e. (‘enjoyment helping others') in knowledge sharing [62], [63], [64], [65], [66], [67]. H. Lin [66] found that enjoyment in helping others was positively correlated to both donating and collecting of knowledge while A. Kankanhalli, B. C. Y. Tan, and K.-K. Wei [67] also reported positive relationship between enjoyment helping others and knowledge submissions to an electronic knowledge repository. But in some cases, the relation was not clearly established such as in the study by [68] who reported a low significant relationship between enjoy helping others and the helpfulness of contributions to an electronic network of practice, on the other hand, the relationship between enjoyment helping others and the number of submissions was non-significant, further analysis revealed that altruism dimension was not a significant factor in knowledge sharing [69]. In another study the role of OCB was also studied in Taiwanese organizations and the relationship between OCB dimensions and knowledge sharing behavior was conducted and the findings of the study showed that all the components (i.e. altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, sportsmanship, conscientiousness) had a positive and significant impact on knowledge sharing behavior [63]. OCB does influence the intentions to share knowledge [70] and the study by A. Amin, M. F. B. Hassan, and M. B. M.
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Effect of Knowledge Conversion and Knowledge Application on Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya

Effect of Knowledge Conversion and Knowledge Application on Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya

This study examines the effect of knowledge conversion and knowledge application on performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya. The four modes of knowledge conversion process comprising of socialization, externalization, combination and internalization are utilized in this study. knowledge application was measured using indicators comprising of problem solving, elaboration, efficient processes, IT support, and infusion In addition, performance was measured using non-financial indicators comprising new products, speed of response to market crises, product improvement, customer retention, and new processes. The study adopted explanatory and cross-sectional survey design. The target population of this study comprised of all the 43 Commercial Banks in Kenya. The unit of observation was the functional area in each bank. Five areas were identified in each bank comprising human resource, finance, marketing, information communication technology, and operations in each bank. This study used primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected using a semi- structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered using the drop-and-pick later method. Secondary data was collected using document review and was used to validate information collected from the questionnaire. The response rate in this study was approximately seventy three percent which was considered sufficient for making inferences and drawing conclusions. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics included percentages, frequencies, means, and standard deviations while inferential statistics involved regression analysis. Results from quantitative data analysis were presented using figures and tables. Qualitative data was analysed on the basis of common themes and presented in narrative form. The findings of the study established that knowledge conversion and knowledge application positively influence performance. Management of Commercial Banks should encourage interaction between employees and customers. Moreover, bank’s processes should be used to enhance understanding and translation of knowledge (explicit) into application (tacit knowledge). Keywords: Knowledge Management, Knowledge Conversion, Knowledge Application and Organizational Performance
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Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Management

Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Management

The Internalization of newly created knowledge is the conversion of explicit knowledge into the organization's tacit knowledge. In summary, the SECI model describes a dynamic process in which explicit and tacit knowledge are exchanged and transformed. Ba offers an integrating conceptual metaphor for the SECI model of dynamic knowledge conversions. Within ba, real time knowledge creation is achieved through self transcendence.

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Uncovering Tacit Knowledge: A Pilot Study to Broaden the Concept of Knowledge in Knowledge Translation

Uncovering Tacit Knowledge: A Pilot Study to Broaden the Concept of Knowledge in Knowledge Translation

A handful of studies that focus on tacit knowledge have been carried out in the health domain. Herbig and colleagues [29] studied the response of nurses to hypothetical emergency situations. They found that while nurses who successfully addressed the situation used similar levels of explicit knowledge to those who were not successful, there was a marked difference in levels of tacit knowledge employed. They recommended instituting processes that promote the articulation of tacit knowledge at the individual and organizational level. Some researchers have emphasized the importance of tacit knowledge at the team level. Gabbay and le May [30] discovered the negotiated and co-constructed nat- ure of knowledge in their study of the collective deci- sion-making of nurses and general practitioners. Rather than drawing on research findings or explicit practice guidelines, study participants used collectively reinforced tacit guidelines based on experiences and interactions with one another in fluid communities of practice. Gab- bay and le May suggest that discussions were important for sharing, testing, and internalizing these collective “ mindlines ” . Friedman and colleagues [31], when exam- ining the performance of multidisciplinary surgical teams, also came to the conclusion that teams ’ perfor- mances were dependent upon the unarticulated knowl- edge and understanding that occurred over time among team members. A case study of a multidisciplinary neuro-rehabilitation team found that standardized out- come results were discussed and interpreted with the aid of “embedded” or tacit knowledge held by the team based on clinical expertise and previous patients with similar results [32]. These studies highlight the interplay of tacit knowledge with explicit knowledge for skillful team practice.
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The design research pyramid: a three layer framework

The design research pyramid: a three layer framework

In a review of design models, Love [42] and Finger and Dixon [20], among others, delineated two types of design model: descriptive and prescriptive. In a similar vein, others (e.g. [3, 9, 43]) talked about the function of design knowledge, which can also be characterised by descriptive and prescriptive design knowledge. The former describes what constitutes the design artefact and what typically occurs during a design process. For example, description of an artefact’s components can be regarded as artefact’s descriptive knowledge. However, the latter specifies how something should be or should be done [9]. In the design world, prescriptive knowledge prescribes how the artefact should look, behave and/or how design should be undertaken. For example, a designer may prescribe the function that roadside furniture should be easily visible by people with visual impairments. Therefore, prescriptive knowledge could guide designers’ decision making to proceed with the design.
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Knowledge ubiquity through the transfer of tacit knowledge in Australian universities

Knowledge ubiquity through the transfer of tacit knowledge in Australian universities

transfer at Australian universities. Studies of other organisations (Aurum, Daneshgar & Ward 2008; Foos, Schum & Rothenberg 2006; Riege 2007) and the ministerial view (Bishop 2006) on universities reveal that there exists a research gap in understanding the enablers and inhibitors of tacit knowledge transfer. The lack of a particular mechanism for knowledge transfer, both explicit and tacit, has prompted the author to identify ways of tacit knowledge transfer by analysing knowledge management enablers, inhibitors and processes that will aid in the creation, retention and distribution of tacit knowledge. This research will explore tacit knowledge transfer characteristics through surveys of academics in four Australian universities. It will explore and expand issues of knowledge management adoption towards improving organisational processes in different universities as previous papers have limited themselves to a marginal sample and thus provide neither a comparison nor a single model for its adoption. The research will also explore how knowledge management can be helpful in support of the sharing and creation of knowledge and how it can act as a catalyst for improved organisational processes. From both a research and applied perspective, there are negligible studies that focus on this topic especially ones that focus on tacit knowledge transfer within a university. Such a study would benefit research in tacit knowledge management and also help to eliminate confusion as to where universities should focus their knowledge management efforts for optimising performance and making tacit knowledge available for reuse.
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KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT - AS AN ORGANIZATIONAL TOOL

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT - AS AN ORGANIZATIONAL TOOL

Not all information is valuable. Therefore, it is up to individual companies to decide what information qualifies as intellectual and knowledge-based assets. In general, however intellectual and knowledge based assets fall into one of two categories: explicit or tacit. Included among the former are assets such as patents, trademarks, business plans, customer lists, marketing lists etc. Normally explicit knowledge consists of anything that can be documented, archived and codified, often with the help of IT. The concept of tacit knowledge or know-how in people’s mind is difficult to grasp. The challenge inherent with tacit knowledge is figuring out how to recognize, generate, share and manage this knowledge. While IT in the form of E-mail, groupware, instant messaging and related technologies can help facilitate the dissemination of tacit knowledge; identifying tacit knowledge in the first place is a major hurdle for most organizations.
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The Meaning of Tacit Knowledge

The Meaning of Tacit Knowledge

Knowledge (80); Individuals (50); Organisational domain (46); Skill (35); Non- Codification (28); Non-verbal (27); Experience (26); Context specific (24); Intuition (20); Learned (16); Know how (15); Not formal (13); Action (12); Expertise (11); Culture (10); Contingency based (9); Environment (9); Externalisation (9); Knowing (9); Not easily communicated (9); Practical (9); Sub-consciousness (9); Understanding (9); Cognitive (8), Internalisation (8); Mental models (8); Not directly taught (8); Not easily transmitted (8); Process (8); Abilities (7); Apprenticeship (7); Low environmental support (7); Management (7); Practice (7); Society (7); Two dimensional (7); Behaviour (6); Beliefs (6); Conscious (6); Direct contact (6); Face to face transfer (6); Goal attainment (6); Inferences (6); Learning by doing (6); Maxims (6); Non-awareness (6); Pattern recognition (6); Perceptions (6); Procedural in nature (6); Routine (6); Subjectivity (6); Tasks (6); Technology (6); Values (6); Common sense (5); Decision making (5); Embodied (5); Implicit (5); Implied (5); Information (5); Judgement (5); No idea (5); Not easily codifiable (5); Sharing (5); Taken for granted (5); Unconscious (5); Everyday situations (4); Interaction (4); Job knowledge (4); Know more than we can tell (4); Not easily formalised (4); Not formal instruction (4); Others (4); Physical control (4); Riding a bicycle (4); Rule (4); Schema (4); Time (4); Touch sensitivity (4); Wisdom (4); Abstraction (3); Access constraints (3); Awareness (3); Communal (3); Competitive advantage (3); Embedded (3); Emotions (3); Experientially established cognitive structures (3); Focal awareness (3); Groups (3); Holism (3); Ideals (3); Importance of language (3); Information retrieval (3); Insight (3); Learning by using (3); Meaning (3); Mind (3); Motor skills (3); Observation (3); Oneself (3); Particular uses/particular situations (3); Performance (3); Practical intelligence (3); Procedures (3); Resistance to revelation (3); Rules of thumb (3); Selective comparison (3); Semantics (3); Sense perception (3); Transmission (3).
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