However, in the case studies, there is a clear history of tacitknowledgetransfer that pre-dates the successor’s entry into the business and is embedded in the family context. This finding challenges Garcia-Alverez, Lopez-Sintas and Gonzalvo ‘s (2002) assumption that business knowledgetransfer begins with entry into the business and provides an alternative explanation of the difference in tacitknowledgetransfer between family and non-family successor experiences. In fact, in family firms generally, the phases do not seem as distinct in the cases in this study. Although the ‘familiness’ of the firm – the values and norms referred to earlier seemed to pre-date the successor’s formal entry into the firm, the transfer of firm specific business knowledge begins prior to the successor being formally identified as such, again challenging the distinct phases described by Garcia-Alverez, Lopez- Sintas and Gonzalvo (2002). It is unclear whether there is a point where the successor begins the business-specific knowledgetransfer before the successor has been openly identified as the successor. It is reasonable to assume, given what we know about entrepreneurial personalities (adaptive, anticipatory), that the founder’s engagement in the business-specific knowledgetransfer process commences when the successor views or assumes that their child will be the successor rather than when that is openly acknowledged, although our data does not lead to that as a conclusion. This finding extends this model in showing that the stages are not as distinct as the model suggests and extends our understanding of the family and business
Tacitknowledge, regarding its essence, is a kind of “understanding”, comprehension, and the pro- cess of grasping and re-organizing experiences. Moreover, such ability can be controlled at will. However, spiritual understanding enables people to display the function of dominance and deter- mination of knowledge. Therefore, this study first proposed the tacitknowledgetransfer mode; there are two major strategies for the TacitKnowledgeTransfer Method (TKTM): depict the es- sence instead of the appearance and understand spiritually. In other words, it allows learners to represent the knowledge learned and transfer it into body memory in order to apply it to similar situations through deduction and inference. This study aims to integrate TacitKnowledge Trans- fer Method (TKTM) into sketch instruction. The first phase was “knowledge accumulation”: we used “Mu” way to accumulate drawing knowledge. The phase two was “knowledgetransfer”: we used “Lin” way to transfer drawing knowledge. In the process, the students in Department of De- sign are divided into the experimental group and the controlled group for comparisons. Having seven design experts evaluate the teaching effectiveness on the two groups (Mixed and anonym- ous), aiming at students’ learning achievement. The experiment concludes two main results: firstly, based on the expert evaluation scores, TacitKnowledgeTransfer Method (TKTM) proves the sig- nificant effect of TacitKnowledgeTransfer Method (TKTM) on Perspective Accuracy, Line Stability, and Form Expressivity of freehand sketch; secondly, from the experiment process and survey re- sults, it was evident that TacitKnowledgeTransfer Method (TKTM) has direct correlation with participants’ assertiveness. If there is a conflict between norm knowledge the effectiveness of transfer will be reduced significantly.
This study confirmed the theoretical construct that succession can be framed in socialisation terms (derived from societal socialisation theory), but adds that family and business socialisation while distinct, are not necessarily sequential or triggered by the identification of the family member as the successor. The study also supported the application of Nonaka and Takeuchi’s (1995) knowledge spiral in the context of family business succession. The role of trust in family business succession is supported by the study’s findings, but the findings expand on the existing literature by differentiating between relationship trust and business competence trust and defining the two types of trust as essential. This study supports prior knowledge that female successors are often viewed as having less leadership ability than male successors, however in this study females experienced more business socialisation than reported in prior studies.
In order to prevent the knowledgetransfer behavior or results deviate from the expected goal, enterprises need to take the appropriate method to intervene the key links in the knowledgetransfer management system, making the system run in the right direction. In tacitknowledge management mechanism system, three key nodes need to be evaluated. Firstly, enterprise need to evaluate whether the tacitknowledgetransfer needs are satisfied, namely whether the tacitknowledge increment and innovation make up the tacitknowledge gap. If the target is not reached, then enterprise needs to check job rotation process, and adjust target position or rotators. If the knowledge gap is made up, the next step is to assess whether the key business process performance is optimized or not, that is, whether the rotator has leant the tacitknowledge and apply it into the practical work. If this didn’t happen, the reason may be the key position has been positioned in error, and enterprise needs to redefine key positions and analysis of the tacitknowledge gaps. If to this goal is reached, the third assessment phase is to analysis whether the enterprise strategic direction is supported. If the performance changes of the core business process doesn’t align with the strategic direction, the reason may be due to mistakes are made in the core busi- ness process definition, and need to decompose the strategic target again; If the strategic development goals are supported, the tacitknowledgetransfer process get successful.
Knowledge stock of a person is static in nature and remains under-utilised unless transferred to others effectively (Lai et al. 2016). Knowledgetransfer is typically a spiral flow of knowledge through people, groups or firms (Nonaka 1994). Knowledgetransfer among employees within an organisation enhances a healthy knowledge management culture (Lam 2005). Employees that continuously acquire new knowledge enable external knowledge acquisition that helps to effectively transferknowledge within an organisation (Lopez-Saez et al. 2010). Although knowledgetransfer is a heavily researched topic, it is a challenge for many organisations to execute it in practice (Frank et al. 2015; Minbaeva et al. 2014). Moreover, there is a general consensus that tacitknowledge is more difficult to transfer as compared to explicit knowledge because of the challenge in codifying tacitknowledge (Inkpen and Pien 2006). Research has suggested various factors that are responsible for the success of tacitknowledgetransfer, viz. peoples’ knowledge levels, interactions, and motivation for knowledgetransfer, absorptive capacity and the existing knowledge stock (Gupta and Govindarajan 2000). Knowledge stock can be represented by skills ingrained within an organisation’s human resources. In our research, we refer to ‘knowledge stock’ of people in terms of their current digital skills. Digital skills are critical for all careers in today’s ICT-empowered business ecosystem (Shrestha et al. 2017). Likewise, the importance of correctly identifying peoples’ current skills to enable knowledgetransfer has been highlighted by various studies (Leonard-Barton 1995; Prince et al. 2015). However, there are scant studies that investigate the measurement of peoples’ skills as knowledge stock and its link to knowledgetransfer. Consequently, this research attempts to answer the research question: How can peoples’ skills be measured as tacitknowledge stock, and then subsequently enable knowledgetransfer? This research question is divided into two sub questions for granularity, which are:
and stages of a company’s operations. The key degree of tacitknowledgetransfer is Face-to-face interaction, close relationships formed to have informal interaction and physical demonstration of skills. Most of the Asian companies focus on face-to-face collaborative knowledge sharing, use telephone, voice-mail and real-time video conferencing to transfertacitknowledge. As tacitknowledge is hard to communicate and express in words. So in order to disseminate it in an organization – common ground of communication between particular units, mutual trust, and analogical way of thinking is needed. “The contact zone” therefore is needed, where units can have a direct contact with one another. One of the few ways to make knowledge more accessible is to enable more conversations to take place in online environments such as forums, weblogs and wikis. In this way sharing is easier and more accessible than by more formalised processes and by making these conversations "linky" people can navigate them, point to the good stuff and build up a collective memory of what was useful.
from past projects (Prusak, 1997). This shows that little efforts to transferknowledge have been made in organisations thus the knowledge gained in the past is not utilised. This shows that little efforts have been made in organisations thus the knowledge gained in the past is not utilised. Key findings of a paper by Owen, Burstein and Mitchell (2004) have indicated that there exists a link between knowledge practices and existing work processes but the lack of knowledge reuse may contribute to failure. Sun and Scott (2005) also like Jasimuddin (2007) have reported that most information in organisations has been viewed as disorganised information and knowledge management practices aim to provide a systematic approach. Collectively, they identified the need to conduct further research for identifying individual characteristics that will help in the study of knowledgetransfer barriers. There is a lack of empirical studies in knowledge management (Leech & Sutton, 2002) as the majority of studies reported in the literature do not adopt a mixed method approach. Also, various researchers (Baumard 1999; Blair 2002; Laupase 2003) have identified barriers to tacitknowledgetransfer but with no focus on university academics. Rigorous identification of tacitknowledgetransfer in universities is warranted, especially if it leads to improvements in organisational performance.
Tacitknowledge was defined in knowledge management literature as knowledge that is highly personal and difficult to articulate completely, compared to explicit knowledge which is well articulated and written down . Examples of tacitknowledge include technical skills, know-how, know-whom, ideas, rule of thumbs, intuition, and lessons-learned. Traditionally scholars viewed knowledge as a dichotomy of tacit versus explicit knowledge, and hence, they did not see much role for information technologies in facilitating tacitknowledge sharing [17-20]. However, many researchers currently intend to view knowledge as a continuum of tacit-to-explicit knowledge [20-22]. Therefore, they believe that information technologies can easily contribute to facilitate sharing of knowledge with a low to medium degree of tacitness, also called implicit knowledge or articulable tacitknowledge [23-28]. Despite this, there is a major debate ongoing among researchers about whether information technology can have a role in tacitknowledge sharing among individuals .
By taking a different stance Stahle (1999) suggests organisations into three-dimensional system i.e. mechanistic, organic and dynamic nature, depending on the different challenges presented for management of knowledge. Mechanistic part deals more with explicit knowledge whilst organic nature helps the organisation to work flexibly with a people- centred orientation and involves the management of tacitknowledge. The dynamic nature facilitates continuous improvement and innovation. Wetherill et al’s classification reflects the organisational hierarchy and when one moves from domain knowledge to project knowledge the concentration on knowledge too moves from explicit to tacit nature, which further highlights the knowledge worker concept in construction. Stahle’s suggestion indicates both the management and the production of the knowledge. In a similar sense Moodley et al (2001) contend that the tacitknowledge is developed through the individual or project teams, while the explicit knowledge is created through process, procedures and other routines that can be codified. Whatever the classification, tacitknowledge of the workers has been highlighted in much research carried out in the construction industry. A research carried out within structural design firms (Al-Ghassani, 2003) showed that about 80% of knowledge used during concept design stage is tacit compared to about 20% of explicit knowledge. As such, managing tacitknowledge more effectively offers construction organisations a possible mechanism for improving their performance in times of greater competition. Having discussed the importance of construction knowledge worker and their tacitknowledge, succeeding section explores more into tacitknowledge and its management.
There are very few articles pertaining to tacitknowledge in the field of business finance at all. There has been work done to quantify intangible assets, but there has been no attempt at trying to quantify or measure tacitknowledge; which is a subset of intangible assets and goodwill. Richard Hall identified tacitknowledge as “know-how” and listed it as one of nine types of intangible resources. This “know-how” or competency was consistently ranked as the third most important type of intangible asset by managers across all fields of business interest (Hall, 1993). Most papers written to date seem to acknowledge the great importance of tacitknowledge (Wagner & Sternberg, 1985, 1987; Wagner, 1987; Sternberg, 1997, 2002; Hsieh et al., 2007), but no one has attempted to measure tacitknowledge. The purpose of this research is to present a quantifiable model of tacitknowledge. With a quantifiable model, managers will be able to utilize more properly all of their resources, and academic researchers will be able to make more accurate models of utility theory. If tacitknowledge can be quantified, than further research can show how it might be optimized. Optimizing the utilization of assets is a key tenet of economic research, whether they are tangible assets like plant, property and equipment, or a subset of intangible assets such as tacitknowledge.
Abstract: Tacitknowledge (TK) is non-codified and personal (sticky) knowledge that is difficult to transfer. TK cannot be said to be significant if there is a lack of tangible contributions. Universities can only realize such returns when there is growth in terms of (financial base, products, processes, customer base, employees’ loyalty) financial and non-financial indicators. The main objective of the research was to evaluate the effect of TK on organizational performance in selected universities in Kenya. The study adopted a mixed research approach as informed by pragmatism research paradigm. Data was collected from a study population of 65 respondents from four study sites which were Kibabii University, University of Nairobi, KCA University, and the University of Eastern Africa, Baraton. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to academic deans; directors of research, innovation, and ICT; and heads of library services as well as planning and administration. Qualitative data was analyzed through conversation analysis, content analysis, and R which is a computer-assisted data analysis software. Chi-square tests, as well as multinomial logistic regression, were used for the quantitative data analysis. The findings of this study indicate that universities value TK as a key asset for organizational performance. The study identified TK as an asset that has helped institutions to grow in terms of work processes, decision making, and the creation of new products and/or services.
Despite that some scores became lower or remained the same value, almost all scores increased. Besides the higher scores, the actors gave also an explanation why they gave a certain score, the actors were interviewed and the Working place was analysed. From the explanations, interviews and the analysis, it appears that the actors were positive about the process. The problem was urgent enough for everyone to participate and they wanted to find a solution together. The problem was also small, local, and specific, which made it easier to find all actors with important tacitknowledge to solve the problem. The relationship between the actors improved and they were willing to share their tacitknowledge, which made it easier to find solutions. In addition, the growing narrative increases the understanding toward each other and it makes the actors more conscious of their behaviour and they could learn from their experiences. Finally, the facilitator and the residential council also gave higher scores after the Working place.
Both methods proposed in the initial research plan required logistic support and approval from internal and external agencies, such as the Human Ethics Committee (HEC) at the University, the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology (FRST) and Antarctic New Zealand. Unfortunately, a new science bidding system for polar research was introduced before the University’s approval of this research plan. Under the new bidding system, it was not possible to gain access to personnel until the next bidding round in the following year. After further discussion with the supervision team, the research methods were amended and resubmitted to the HEC for approval in 2007. While waiting for HEC’s approval for the amended research plan, the researcher took the opportunity to complete the Graduate Certificate in Antarctic Studies (GCAS) at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2007-2008. This experience enabled the researcher to develop valuable technical knowledge, field experience and professional networks related to Antarctica and the science community. In particular, it was useful for the recruitment of the respondents for this study. By then, the amended plan was ready to take effect. The following section describes this research design in detail.
Person-centred care and the diverse array of care contexts within which HCAs work necessitate a commitment to being conscientious, self-aware and willing to raise issues of concern about vulnerable and sick patients and their families and carers. The transferable skillset needed to undertake this role extends beyond the functional training that HCAs receive. Tacitknowledge cannot be readily articulated, but its implementation in practice lies at the heart of every human interaction we have. As such, acknowledging its worth and cultivating the need to be responsive on an individual level as a wider part of collaborative practice in multidisciplinary team settings means the concept of tacitknowledge cannot and should not be ignored in the training and education of HCAs.
The part of most important demands of knowledge workers of the organization is to provide conditions for them to be able to develop their personal capabilities (Hislop, 2012). From the perspective of knowledge workers who are responsible for the main role in the process of knowledge creation, jobs must be challenging and satisfying, and provide opportunities for employees to use their existing knowledge and skills and be able to develop their knowledge and skills continuously (Robertson & O'Malley Hammersley, 2000; Vogt & Murrell, 1990). For example, a research by Horowitz et al (2003) showed in a survey of knowledge workers in Singapore that providing challenging job is the most important factor that managers can do to maintain their knowledge workers (Hislop, 2015). However, in the case that how psychological empowerment of employees can facilitate tacitknowledge sharing, there is no sufficient and comprehensive empirical research. This issue will be examined in this study.
The identification of what constitutes a problem to be solved and resolved is problematisiation. This means that different actors might and indeed would perceive different ‘issues of concern’ within the same problem situation. Thus ANT acknowledges plurality of view. The focus of ANT is to the identification of issues of concern that all actors will enroll to address. The Obligatory passage point is the point of access into this collective action and is according to the ANT theories irreversible. Knowledge Management is advancing rapidly not necessarily from technological determinism, but from environmental velocity and knowledge intensity of products and services. The rate limiting step in both individual and organisational performance could be the generation conception and deployment of actionable knowledge. The three worlds of Karl Popper furnish an insight into the manner in which individual perceptions are captured, experienced and rationalized. This provides a route from sense experience to tacitknowledge and thence to explicit knowledge. Explicit knowledge that is capable of being critically assessed will result in a body of knowledge that is actionable
027/13 Fig. 3: Knowledge Cycle in research (first level) based on the four modes of knowledge conversion in the SECI model (Nonaka & Takeuchi 1995: 62). A second level of reading, which could be a sub-level of the above, relates the SECI model (at least partially) to each individual stage within research in order to understand how the two dimensions of knowledge are managed within each stage. For example, at the methods stage of research, methods are applied (internalisation), methods are processed and knowledge is created (socialisation), and the resulting findings are elicited and evaluated through writing or discussion with other researchers (externalisation). Some of these stages/processes may even exist concurrently. This level is added in Fig. 4.
Therefore, this paper presents the application of product innovation design on tacitknowledge, it mainly solves the function and structure innovation of product. First selecting the adjectives of emotional evaluation related with Product function semantics by consultants and designers, and using the improved Kano model and AHP(analytic hierarchy process) with questionnaires to make the users’ tacitKnowledge transform into the users’ demand for the product function and make functional design of the product, and finally the establish product function - structure chart to get the final program . At the same time, this study can be used as a reference of the peers of knowledge management, product design.
The ‘societal’ dimension of the tacitknowledge problem originates from its socially embedded nature and the potential barriers to cross-societal knowledgetransfer when MNCs seek to tap into locally embedded knowledge. Michael Polanyi’s original conception of tacitknowledge, with its heavy emphasis on the individual realm and its cognitive base, gives only limited attention to the wider social and institutional context that shapes such cognitive frameworks. One cannot fully understand the nature of the tacitknowledge problem without considering the social context from which it arises. Social cognitive theorists (e.g. Vygotsky 1978; Reber 1993) argue that individuals acquire their cognitive abilities and inner experiences by internalization the meanings and patterns of thoughts current in their culture and society. Much of an individual’s tacitknowledge can be associated with their social and collective identity. Durkheim’s (1964) notion of ‘collective consciousness’ suggests that social entities cognize and learn only to the extent that the individuals, who make up the social entity are socially defined beings. Nonaka and Takeuchi’s (1995) theory of organizational knowledge creation is rooted in the idea that shared cognition and collective learning, grounded in the ‘Ba’ (shared mental and social space), constitute the foundation of organizational knowledge creation. The notion of ‘community of practice’ (CoP) stresses the importance of the social locus and shared practices within which learning and knowledge creation take place (Brown and Duguid 1991; Wenger 1998). Transferring knowledge to new comers, according to the CoP perspective, involves transferring not only the body of codified knowledge but also the tacitly shared ground rules and cognitive schemes for interpreting and decoding the meaning of the knowledge (Duguid 2005). Tacitness, in this sense, is not simply a feature of the knowledge itself associated with non-codifiability and cognitive ambiguity, it is also a relational feature inherent in the process of knowing in that ‘common sense thinking’ and shared assumptions that enable joint action are taken-for-granted by the social actors and remain unspoken (Schutz 1953). Although firms may face the ‘social’ aspect of the tacitknowledge problem within their own country or region, it is often accentuated and becomes a ‘societal’ one when MNCs engage in knowledgetransfer across national boundaries where social contexts and rules are shaped by larger national institutional forces (Gertler 2003; Whitley 2000). Thus, MNCs may face a local learning problem especially when the societal institutions governing knowledge production diverge significantly between the home and host country contexts.
The presented model explains the mechanism of how TacitKnowledge Sharing mediated by Personal Branding influences Project Performance. The aim of this study, which was successfully achieved, was to prove that tacitknowledge sharing is a tool that builds a personal brand of knowledge workers in a project environment. However, a surprising result of the presented study is the lack of direct influence of tacitknowledge on project performance - a fact which denies our theoretical assumptions. Perhaps the specifics of project management, which before going to work requires precisely defined goals, tools, risk register and methods, does not allow much space for tacitknowledge sharing and that is why the assumptions are wrong. What’s more, it’s claimed that tacitknowledge is generally difficult to measure . On the other hand, perhaps it is the tacitknowledge itself that justifies such subtle impact on project performance as presented in our study. It is worth noting that the presented model (Figure 2) explains the construct of TacitKnowledge Sharing in 23%, whereas Project Performance in 33%, which has been presented in Appendix 2, Squared Multiple Correlations. The situation gives basis to thinking that there are other factors, not included in the presented model, which affect TacitKnowledge Sharing, which have a significant intermediary significance for the TacitKnowledge Sharing and Project Performance relationship, and which could be further analysed in order to explain the relation . In view of the above, the presented model should be extended. Special attention should be paid to the intermediary role of personal branding in the relationship of tacitknowledge sharing and project performance. The conclusion related to the importance of soft skills