Abstract: In the past few years, game shows such as TakeMeOut Indonesia were quite popular in Indonesian television. These game shows were quite interesting to study because they were not only involving many participants, but also requiring the settings in which politeness and implicature needed to be used to keep the communication flows smoothly. This paper is a pragmatic study that aims at investigating conversational implicature that the presenters of TakeMeOut Indonesia operate within their utterances along with the possible implications that lie behind the implicature . The episode XXII of the show was chosen purposively as the sample. Qualitative method was employed in processing the transcription of the 204 recorded implicature data. The intended features were identified, classified, calculated and then separately analyzed based on conversational implicature theory proposed by Grice (1975). The result shows that the presenters tended to use generalized conversational implicature (59, 8%) rather than the particularized (40,2%). Based on the functions, inferences or motive it contains, generalized conversational implicature can be classified into ten categories implying: (1) the presence of the oppositi on, (2) the invalidity of the expressions or events at the time of speaking, (3) “not all”, (4) events that have not yet occured, (5) the actual position, (6) persons or things having similararity, (7) “not completely”, (8) further actions, (9) the others of the similar kind , and (10) the opposite of the real situations. The needed inferences fall into two classifications: (1) the show‟s settings inferences and (2) general knowledge inferences. Based on the objectives, particularized implicatures are used to ensure: (1) the effectiveness of a polite criticism, (2) maximum efficiency of communication, (3) minimum degree of a n imperative‟s imposition, and (4) alleviation of other‟s self offensiveness. This study concludes that various types of implicature were used in informal game show conversation to make interaction flows smoothly.
The pilot study provided insights into the use of space—most users of the library adopted particular locations in the building, and were repeatedly seen at the same location on different days. The books piled on a reader’s desk (often two or more in total) suggested their task, and those who worked remotely from the shelves for their topic more often had larger numbers of books— quite possibly to save repeated journeys across the library . Interviews revealed that those working away from their topic location did so for privacy or silence—e.g. one graduate student said ‘I really need somewhere quiet I can concentrate in’, while a faculty member said ‘it’s good to be away from where people expect to find me—I don’t get interrupted’.
Crime index is important to note, considering it is the main variable in this study. The negative (-0.0001) coefficient indicates that for every 1-point increase in crime, Major League Baseball game attendance decreases by 0.01%. The high standard deviation of the crime index indicates that this is significant both statistically and economically. Over the course of ten years, the crime rate in a city with a Major League Baseball team tends to fluctuate, on average, 220.13 points. If this trend is entirely positive over the course of ten years, it could mean that Major League Baseball teams are losing .01 of their game attendance each year, which averages out to about 7,700 fans lost each year, if there is an increase of 220.13 points in one year. To make things more realistic, we can divide the standard deviation of crime by 10, which equates to a change of 22.013 points per year in the crime index. This would mean a loss of 770 fans per year, and a total of 7,700 fans over the course of 10 years. When multiplied by the average ticket price of $22.39, teams are losing $17,240 in ticket prices alone per year. Considering the
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about and cared about shouldn’t go unnoticed.) I can’t recall when exactly Stanley told me that a highlight of his high school years was playing lead alto in an otherwise all- black jazz band; or when I heard the story of his performing at Berkeley in the premiere of an opera by Roger Sessions during which the English horn player had some mishap and Stanley, seated next to him playing clarinet, transposed and played the English horn solo on the spot; or when he confessed to me late in his teaching career, after the fi rst iteration of his opera course, his nearly unbearable, silent anxiety or fear (somehow traceable to his mother’s perfect pitch) that in humming or singing an excerpt from an aria in class he might be reproducing the melody in the wrong key. 4
“worse and worse.” The dovonex cream has not been effective. Ms. S rates her physical and emotional symptoms at 6 out of 10. Gelfand sees small red patches of psoriasis emerging on Ms. S’s legs. Ms. S’s experience typifies that of many psoriasis patients. “What you really have is a disease that’s largely uncontrolled over the life span of a patient,” says Gelfand. “We don’t have great long-term effective therapies. Some patients start to give up.” The treatments he offers “run from A to U – acitretin to ustekinumab. Every drug in our guidelines is a first-line therapy because we don’t have definitive data on which approach is better.”
Organizations should be developing sustainable, repeatable, and flexible cost take-out strategies that will enable them to bend the cost curve on operations and maintenance (O&M) costs to better support the mission, fund innovation, and promote agility, creativity, and best practices.
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EXPLORING THE COLLEGE ATTENDANCE PATTERNS OF RURAL YOUTH
Another aspect of academic preparation concerns the rigor of the coursework that prepares students for what is required at the college level. Rural students may have fewer opportunities to take college preparatory courses (e.g., Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate), which are less likely to be offered in rural schools that are often small and unable to accommodate specialized courses. Unfortunately, these data cannot definitively answer whether the students had access to college prep courses at their schools, but we can examine whether rural students were less likely to enroll in such a course. Though we cannot differentiate whether their enrollment was due to the availability of courses or their desire to enroll in the courses that were available, the differences are quite striking (Figure 5). Students in rural areas were much less likely to have taken at least one AP or IB course. Consistent with previous results, remote and distant rural students were the least likely to have taken a college prep course; non-rural students were nearly twice as likely as the most rural students to have taken an AP or IB course. Similarly, rural students were less likely than non-rural students to have taken the SAT or ACT, although the gaps were rather small, ranging from one to 2.5 percentage points (not shown).
1 President Obama has spoken out against corporate expa- triations. Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew has written letters to Senate Finance Committee Chair Ron Wyden, D-Ore., House Ways and Means Committee Chair Dave Camp, R-Mich., and ranking members of the congressional taxwriting committees urging immediate legislative action to stop corporate expatria- tions and calling for a ‘‘new sense of economic patriotism.’’ Wyden has also written a Wall Street Journal op-ed stating that any legislation will have a May 8, 2014, effective date (‘‘We Must Stop Driving Businesses Out of the Country,’’ The Wall Street
This is through a second charge on the property, which means it cannot be sold in the future unless the government’s entitlement is paid. Buyers must agree to this charge before the purchase can be completed. The legal document setting out the charge includes other obligations such as the requirement for owners to insure their property. A buyer’s solicitors/conveyancer will advise them on the legal implications of this document before it is signed.
Despite the wealth of data available, we take a rather parsimonious approach and select a limited number of control variables for student and school background that have proven to have sizeable explanatory power for student achievement. Table 3 contains variable definitions and descriptive statistics, by the type of exit examination, for these variables. Student background, measured in terms of the number of books at home, differs only slightly by exit examination type – the proportion of students within each range is very similar in CEE and non-CEE states. There are far more students with an immigrant background in the non- CEE group than in the CEE group. This is largely attributable to the relatively low rates of immigration to eastern Germany, where most states have central exit examinations (a legacy of the former GDR education system). Another major difference between students in CEE and non-CEE states is that in the latter, a larger proportion of students have repeated class at least once.
Tony, who had never had contact with the police, found that he was frequently “stopped and searched when missing school” when with friends. In the five months since leaving off-site provision, Junior had got “into trouble with police for robbery.” He now had a “year’s probation” and wanted to stay on “the straight and narrow.” Dominic was kicked out of school at 14 and was robbing with a gang from Catford: “I was 15 when I was arrested and just thought it’s ‘just not worth it’ – I learnt from that. Now I only go places now where I need to go.” Cameron had recently been in trouble with the police and had a pending court case for breaking and entering. He felt it was taken out of context, and in the process of arrest, he was also “accused of assaulting a police officer.” This made him angrier: “the world is out to get me bruv”.
The exception is the extreme case in which the value of the assets the central bank holds becomes less than the amount of excess reserves it previously created and now wants and needs to extinguish in order to tighten monetary policy. In other words, it is conceivable that the central bank could find itself without enough assets to sufficiently drain the excess reserves that it had previously created and thereby risk losing monetary control. But there would be an easy way out: the government could recapitalize the central bank by issuing bonds to it, restoring its capital (on the right-hand side of its balance sheet) and giving it the assets (on the left-hand side) that it could then use to sell to extinguish the excess reserves. Alternatively, the government could issue bonds directly to the public, which would drain reserves and increase government deposits at the central bank, and then convert the deposits into central bank capital (a book-keeping exercise).
I’m an Engineer is a STEM engagement event developed by the team who run the award-winning I’m a Scientist, Get meout of here! event. I’m a Scientist has been running since 2008, and in that time many engineers have taken part in that event, but many more have been put off by the name and focus on science. In March 2011 Gallomanor were awarded a £30,000 Ingenious Award from the Royal Academy of Engineering to create I’m an Engineer, Get meout of here! and run 5 zones in March 2012. With additional sponsorship from the Science & Technology Facilities Council 6 zones were run during the March 2012 event.
Additional Federal Benefi t Costs Under Alternative Adjustment Procedures
Either of the alternative adjustment methods would involve sizable costs to the Federal Government for the additional benefi ts. This study estimates the magnitude of additional benefi ts, using a MATH 7 micro-simulation model based on the FSP Quality Control (QC) sample of recipient households in 2006 (USDA, FNS, 2004). The QC data are weighted to represent the national caseload, and the dataset includes all the necessary information needed to determine food stamp eligibility, benefi ts, and income levels. The simulation model calculates the changes in benefi ts for each household in the sample under various policy scenarios, which are used to calculate the overall percent change in benefi ts issued from a percentage change in the maximum benefi t. The model used in this study assesses impacts on participants only. It does not take into account any increases or decreases in participation that might occur if an alternative price adjustment policy were actually implemented.
In the following analysis, whether one is “optimistic” about future progress in poverty reduction depends on whether one thinks that the new path for the poverty rate in the developing world outside China since 2000 will be extended into the foreseeable future. Current population projections imply that lifting one billion people out of poverty, measured against the $1.25-a-day standard, would require a poverty rate of only 3 percent (to the nearest integer). 10 In describing the two paths to that goal, the discussion will focus on three dates: 2022 (10 years from the time of this writing), 2030, and the date at which the 3 percent target is reached.
gastrostomy. They could try to ﬁ gure out whether it is the G-T itself that is causing physical and psychological distress or, instead, whether José is angry about his poor prognosis and expressing that anger by refusing even supporting treatment such as nutrition through the G-T. Such treatment will likely help him reach his goal of doing things on his own. It would be helpful to gain a little more insight into the parents’ situation because they appear to have different views on whether the gastrostomy should be removed. It seems, from the case description, that the mother has accompanied José more closely during his illness; his father may not have spent as much time with José as he had hoped because of his job and his role as the primary provider. Thus, the father may not have witnessed the suffering of José’s journey as intimately as the mother has and his understanding about the medical facts of José’s case may not be as clear as hers. Perhaps he is still hoping that his son can be cured.
Contractual Chains and Networks
Many industries, particularly construction, road transport 46 and parts of manufacturing, have a high incidence of the use of contractual chains or networks. For example, the production of clothing often takes place via a long contractual chain, at the top of which are the major retailers, which enter into arrangements with principal manufacturers, which in turn give out orders for the production of clothing goods to small factory sweatshops, which then engage home-based outworkers. 47 Motor car manufacturers typically purchase parts from independent suppliers, and once the car is assembled it is sold via distributorships or franchises by independent companies. Organisations at the top end of contractual chains, or at the centre of these networks, can exercise significant power and control over the operations, and working conditions, of others party to the arrangements. As Collins 48 points out:
We kick start this experience with a sea salt body scrub to begin the cleansing process, followed by the great pick me up “Body Recharge” massage, packed full of essential oils that will lift your spirit but soothe the mind. Emerge feeling refreshed and ready for your final treat – an express facial to leave your skin glowing. The perfect indulgence!