Tanzania and Religion

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How gender and religion impact uptake of family planning: results from a qualitative study in Northwestern Tanzania

How gender and religion impact uptake of family planning: results from a qualitative study in Northwestern Tanzania

Family planning information is not uniformly provided to patients seeking healthcare in Tanzania. A recently published cross-sectional study shows that women are less likely to receive family planning information if they have not discussed this topic with their partner [5]. Other studies show that joint decision making about family planning is rare; men are considered primary de- cision makers regarding household matters, including number of children, and spacing of births [6]. Tanzanian men also report fear that use of family planning will pro- mote promiscuity among their female partners [7]. These factors may explain poor engagement with family planning resources: less than 1/3 of men accompanied their partners to health facilities to receive information about family planning [8]. In the absence of spousal sup- port and lack of information, Tanzanian women have low utilization of family planning methods. Less than 10% of women who sought healthcare over four-month period in rural western Tanzania reported utilizing a family planning method [5]. Further, data demonstrate that women who regularly attend religious services are unlikely to receive family planning information at their health visits [5].
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HIV and AIDS Education: The Tanzanian Case

HIV and AIDS Education: The Tanzanian Case

In many parts of Tanzania, regardless of religion, women and girls are responsible for the cooking, as well as household chores, care of babies, and agriculture around the home. Men are usually responsible for the major financial decisions in the home, and usually take care of the land or livestock for their income. It is safe to say that women have a lower standard of living than do men. Simply put, men are valued more than women. A baby boy is celebrated more than a baby girl. In my homestay, I witnessed my mama making one communal bowl of food for my roommates, her children, and me, while a separate tray, water cup, and bowl of food was separated for my baba, who ate alone.
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Relationship between Population and Income Distribution in Tanzania

Relationship between Population and Income Distribution in Tanzania

In Tanzania two factors have been outlined as the major causative of income inequality namely educational level and income inequality. Theoretical education reduces income inequality, but in Tanzania is opposite as noted by Partridge and Rickman (1998) that income was lower in Tanzania counties with more average years of education. An additional argument by Sylvester’s (2002) study, which used a cross-section of 50 countries, showed that countries with a higher average number of school years had also higher income inequality. In Tanzania the education inquality is so big of which some section of the population is more educated than the other. This gap exists even between zones, religion, gender and between tribes. The higher the educational unequality the higher the income inequality.
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The construction of 'religion' and the perpetuation of 'tradition' among Pogoro Catholics, southern Tanzania

The construction of 'religion' and the perpetuation of 'tradition' among Pogoro Catholics, southern Tanzania

Anthropologists like these have tended to regard such movements as essentially ‘m odern’ phenom ena1 because, if studied in isolation, they appear to have origins external to the societies affected by them and their ritual sequence frequently incorporates elements of Christian and bureaucratic practice. I shall suggest that, on the contrary, the practice of these movements only appears modern and innovative when the movements are considered solely in term s of themselves, divorced from the social contexts in which they operate. In fact, as I show in this chapter, the ritual sequence of these movements conforms to the structure of indigenous purification practices routinely enacted in the context of, for example, funerals and girls’ puberty rites. Such purification practice is thought appropriate for dealing with witchcraft because of the way in which witchcraft is conceptualised in much of Southern Tanzania as a prem editated act which, through the use of medicines, transform s the person into something dirty and antisocial. By conforming to the logic of what is locally perceived to be ‘traditional’ practice, the anti-witch practice of the movements not only appears valid, but can constitute an effective critique of modernity. This probably explains why anti-witch practices become m ore popular at times when state intervention or other external forces disrupt rural areas, as was the case during villagisation in Tanzania in the 1970’s, and why these kinds of movements have so often been interpreted as a response to problems generated by change. I shall argue that, among the Pogoro at least, witchcraft eradication practices are self consciously anti modern, and are
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RELIGION 170-0-20: Religion in Human Experience

RELIGION 170-0-20: Religion in Human Experience

This course examines the role, current revival, and the socio-political implications of the practice of religion in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) both from a legal and socio- historical perspective. Students will read and discuss primary Chinese documents in translation and secondary works about the five officially recognized religions in China (Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism, Daoism, and Islam) and explore the controversy around popular religions and illegal congregations. Furthermore, this course will look at the way religion, ethnicity, and politics intersect in China through an analysis of the case the Muslim Uyghurs of Xinjiang and Tibetan Buddhists of Western China.
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Religion and legal spaces: in Gods we Trust; in the Church we Trust, but need to verify

Religion and legal spaces: in Gods we Trust; in the Church we Trust, but need to verify

Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church and School was a member congregation of the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod. 12 The Synod classified its school teachers into two categories: ‘called’ and ‘lay’. ‘Called’ teachers are regarded as having been called to their vocation by God. To be eligible to be considered ‘called’, a teacher must complete certain academic requirements, including a course of theological study. Once ‘called’, a teacher receives the formal title ‘Minister of Religion, Commissioned’. In contrast, ‘Lay’ teachers are not required to be trained by the Synod or even to be Lutheran. Although lay and called teachers at Hosanna-Tabor generally performed the same duties, lay teachers were hired only when called teachers were unavailable. Hosanna-Tabor asked Cheryl Perich (‘P’) to become a called teacher and she accepted. 13 P taught secular subjects. In addition she taught a religion class, led her students in daily prayer and devotional exercises, and took her students to a weekly school- wide chapel service. P led the chapel service herself about twice a year. P developed narcolepsy and began the 2004–2005 school year on disability leave. In January 2005, she notified the school principal that she would be able to report to work in February. The principal responded that the school had already contracted a lay teacher to fill P’s position for the remainder of the school year. The principal also expressed concern that P was not yet ready to return to the classroom. The congregation subsequently offered to pay a portion of P’s health insurance premiums in exchange for her resignation as a called teacher. P refused to resign. In February 2005, P presented herself at the school and refused to leave until she received written documentation that she had reported to work. The principal later called P and told her that it was likely she would be fired. P responded that she had spoken with an attorney and intended to assert her legal rights. In a subsequent letter, the chairman of the school board advised P that the congregation would consider whether to rescind her call at its next meeting. As grounds for termination, the letter cited P’s ‘insubordination and disruptive behavior’, as well as the damage she had done to her ‘working relationship’ with the school by ‘threatening to take legal
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RELIGION 170-0-20: Religion in Human Experience

RELIGION 170-0-20: Religion in Human Experience

This course examines the cultural history of American religion and sex. Special attention is devoted to pivotal formations of the early American period and to recent shifts and developments in the American religious imaginary concerning sexuality, morality, and the "culture wars." Regarding the early American period, students will learn about Native American sexual ethics; sexual regulation in the European Christian settler colonies; the influence of slavery ideologies on American sexual practices; and the linkage between theological and social-scientific anxieties over American sex. Regarding more recent historical developments, students will study the significance of sex in religious restoration movements such as Promise Keepers; the role of sexuality in reshaping Catholic-Protestant relations; religious responses to same-sex rights; and the increasing influence of religion and sexuality American electoral politics. The course emphasizes readings in history and culture theory. Students also read primary texts in the form of missionary documents, theological tracts, and legal precedents from early and contemporary periods. Students write weekly response papers and take a midterm and final exam (essay format).
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Collaborative Edge Computing in Mobile Internet of Things

Collaborative Edge Computing in Mobile Internet of Things

If my above account is correct, an obvious question follows: why would Plato write Euthyphro and Euthyphro this way? I think there are a few reasons to endorse my account. First, it renders the character Euthyphro more well-rounded. I do not think Plato meant Euthyphro to be a two-dimensional religious zealot; not only is that not very interesting, it is not very instructive. Euthyphro himself is a cautionary tale; he is what happens when you get some of the religious ideas of Socrates with none of the reasoning. He has some of the ideas of Socratic piety, but he does not have the intellectual weight to back up his ideas; thus, he ends up looking confused and foolish. Euthyphro does not have his own daimonion. His ideas are cobbled together and haphazard. He fails to consider the consequences of the gods not benefitting from human action and fails to identify how his ideas about cleansing map on to piety, but he latches on to a very important point when he becomes preoccupied with cleansing his father’s soul through prosecution. The goal of improving the states of people’s souls is the right one, but Euthyphro does not really understand the mechanisms and Socrates’ motivations for doing so. Socrates’ religious beliefs divert heavily from traditional Athenian religion, but Euthyphro is trapped between Athenian religion and Socratic religion, which is why he clings to the concept of pollution but is forward-looking in his commitment to cleansing it.
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GANDHI’S VIEWS ON RELIGION AND SOCIETY

GANDHI’S VIEWS ON RELIGION AND SOCIETY

Gandhi had the propensity for the deeply religious and he accepted the fundamental tents of Hindu religion, with an unflinching faith in God. He also believed in the Karma theory and transmigration of soul to the extent that for him these beliefs worked as inexorable laws of nature. Hence, he believed that even a little of meritorious Karma performed would be conserved and yield fruit. 23 Despite his innate faith in Hinduism, he aspired for a universal humanistic religion which imbibed the best elements of all religions. In fact, he viewed every religion to be a specific road to the same divine goal. “Even as a tree has a single trunk but many branches and leaves, so there is one true and perfect religion, but it becomes many as it passes through the human medium.” 24 Gandhi‟s concept of religion was most comprehensive and deep. He endowed
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Constraining Moses: Rethinking Thanksgiving Day Proclamations

Constraining Moses: Rethinking Thanksgiving Day Proclamations

I consider the government of the U.S. as interdicted by the constitution from intermedling with religious institutions, their doctrines, discipline, or exercises. [T]his results not only from the provision that no law shall be made respecting the establishment, or free exercise, of religion, but from that also which reserves to the states the powers not delegated to the U.S. certainly no power to prescribe any religious exercise, or to assume authority in religious discipline, has been delegated to the general government . . . but it is only proposed that I should recommend, not prescribe a day of fasting & prayer. [T]hat is that I should indirectly assume to the U.S. an authority over religious exercises which the constitution has directly precluded them from. [I]t must be meant too that this recommendation is to carry some authority, and to be sanctioned by some penalty on those who disregard it: not indeed of fine & imprisonment but of some degree of proscription perhaps in public opinion. [A]nd does the change in the nature of the penalty make the recommendation the less a law of conduct for those to whom it is directed? 83
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Information Guide: Religion and Europe   The religious dimension within the EU and the wider Europe

Information Guide: Religion and Europe The religious dimension within the EU and the wider Europe

Religion and the EU institutions Religion and other European governmental organisations List of religious representative organizations List of Pan-European NGOs Religion in Numbers Repor[r]

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Religion, Tolerance and Discrimination in Malta

Religion, Tolerance and Discrimination in Malta

Article 17 of the Marriage Act 1975 as amended in 1995 provides for the recognition of marriages according to the rights and customs of a church or religion recognized by the Minister responsible for Justice. But Act No I of 1995 introduced a whole section relating to Catholic Marriages. Articles 21 and 22 lay down the procedure for the recognition of a marriage celebrated according to canon law rites. The subsequent provisions go into great detail to provide for the recognition and registration of a judgment of annulment delivered by an Ecclesiastical Tribunal in Malta. These provisions have the combined effect of rendering the Ecclesiastical Tribunal at the same level of competence as the civil courts in questions of annulment of marriage. But the most draconian provision is article 30, which gives precedence to the Ecclesiastical Tribunal over the Civil Courts. In fact when the Ecclesiastical Tribunal accepts a petition for annulment, the relative decree of acceptance is communicated to the registrar of the Civil Courts. According to subsection 2 of that article, “(2) Malli ssir ir-reġistrazzjoni msemmija fis-subartikolu (1) ta’ dan l-artikolu, il-qorti tieqaf milli tkun iktar kompetenti li tittratta l-kwistjoni; u meta jkun hemm pendenti quddiem il- qorti azzjoni għad-dikjarazzjoni ta’ nullità ta’ żwieg li dwaru jkun intbaghat ċertifikat lir- Registratur skond is-subartikolu (1), il-qorti għandha tissospendi s-smiegħ tal-każ pendenti quddiemha, u ma tistax terġa’ tibda tisma’ l-każ u, f'kull każ, ma terġax issir kompetenti sakemm il-każ ikun skond il-proċeduri tat-tribunal irtirat minn quddiem it-tribunal jew ikun ġie dikjarat deżert” 3 . A more discriminatory provision on the basis of religion can hardly be
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Predominance of Klebsiella pneumoniaeST14 carrying CTX M 15 causing neonatal sepsis in Tanzania

Predominance of Klebsiella pneumoniaeST14 carrying CTX M 15 causing neonatal sepsis in Tanzania

Clonal outbreaks caused by ST14 and ST48 were dis- cernible by PFGE. All outbreaks occurred in the neo- natal unit and neonatal ICU at different time-points and could be due patient to patient transmission or the acquisition from a common source (contaminated equip- ments) or from healthcare workers [28-30]. Different clones were involved in all three outbreaks; this further supports the high diversity of these strains in this setting, and represents a huge challenge for the local hospital infec- tion control team. Constant surveillance, sustainable hygiene measures and accurate detection in the hos- pital are crucial for a quick and appropriate manage- ment of these outbreaks [31]. This approach has been used in most developed countries, but can be difficult to implement in a country like Tanzania where avail- ability of even routine culture and susceptibility testing is a major challenge in many hospitals. There is also a need for the hospitals to institute an antibiotic policy guided by antimicrobial stewardship measures such as adaption of empirical treatment regimens to hospital epidemiological susceptibility data. Despite of the fact that these isolates were collected 2009–2010, no major intervention could be instituted until now to control the problem and therefore molecular epidemiology of these isolates is expected to have remained more or less unchanged for the past 3 years.
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A Bibliography of the Publications of J. Seelye Bixler

A Bibliography of the Publications of J. Seelye Bixler

donz, Journal of Biblical Literature, New Humanist, Review of Religion, Bowdoin Alumnus, Religion in Life, Books Abroad, Journal of Liberal Religion, The Wellspring, Yale Divinity News..[r]

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Leadership Effectiveness and Democratic Processes the Tanzania Experience: Are the Positive Outcomes Sustainable?

Leadership Effectiveness and Democratic Processes the Tanzania Experience: Are the Positive Outcomes Sustainable?

African scholars have in the past some even today attribute underdevelopment in Africa to colonialism and post-colonial exploitation. Such views are greatly challenged. As quoted in the Guardian in 2014, Obama in 2014 criti- cized the blames approach and urged African leaders to take responsibility for poverty and underdevelopment in the continent. Similarly, the legendary leader, the father of the nation and the first independent leader of Tanzania, Julius Nyerere, opted in 1967 for socialist policies with the aim of severing the thought to be exploitative umbilical cord. Self-reliance was a common theme that was to bring positive and sustainable socio-economic changes. Some notable achievements were recorded in the case of Tanzania: it avoided coup d‟états that were very common in Africa in the 1970s to 1980s; maintained the only surviving Union Government with Zanzibar; successfully overthrew Idi Amin of Uganda; evolved peacefully to become an open economy country and embraced multiparty democracy. Such meta- morphosis indicates leadership that attempted to be in sync with global circumstances while ensuring functional state machinery that promoted national unity. McAusland & Ghai (1966) describe Tanzania as a country that has been guided by political reality while opportunity for control and criticism remained open. Anyimadu (2016) agrees that Nyerere‟s policies had lasting positive impact for the country.
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Religion and Violence

Religion and Violence

Another author who also suggests that religion is not inherently violent is Scott Appleby who wrote, The Ambivalence of the Sacred: Religion, Violence, and Reconciliation. He discusses the importance of acceptance between religions and tolerance between individuals. His book was reviewed by Roger S. Gottlieb, who summarized Appleby’s ideas by stating, “Differences in metaphysics (which God is “really” God, whose scriptures are authoritative) and in many of the ethics of daily life (observance of Sabbath regulations, watching trashy TV shows) are a private matter of social choice, deserving of a tolerant live and let live attitude” (138). He emphasizes that the idea of a tolerant lifestyle among humans is a common belief; everyone should be able to live the way he/she desires, and believes in things that are sacred from their religious and
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Was It Science, Not Religion?

Was It Science, Not Religion?

It seems to me that Beiner underestimates what was special about religion, certainly for Locke but also for Spinoza and perhaps for Hobbes as well: that what is at stake for religious people is unique. Obeying the will of God, salvation of one’s eternal soul, is bigger and hence different than whatever is typically at stake for other kinds of thinking, even for natural scientists or intellectuals who care deeply about their work. Religious convictions have unique importance to those who hold them; if coerced to abandon or change their convictions, believers are especially apt to resist, even violently. Coerced religion is no religion at all, says Locke, 25 and Spinoza hints at the same by insisting that it is impossible to coerce people’s inner religious convictions. 26 If religious belief is different and if Locke’s, Spinoza’s, and even Hobbes’s ideas about free thought sprang from the collision of religious convictions in the religious wars of their day, then there is some difficulty for Beiner’s thesis that what these thinkers really cared about was freedom of natural science and that what was uniquely at stake in religious conviction for religious people was not after all the inspiration of these thinkers’—and perhaps our own—commitment to freedom of conscience.
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RELIGION AND SPIRITUALITY

RELIGION AND SPIRITUALITY

Conclusion: Finally I wish to conclude the paper with the beautiful thought of great contemporary mystic Charan Singhji Maharaj former Master of Radhasoami Satsang Beas , Dera, Punjab and I quote “When Ocean does not have a religion, how can an ordinary drop of ocean have one, when Sun does not have any religion, how can ordinary rays have one, similarly when the Almighty FATHER or GOD or LORD does not have any religion how can ordinary souls have one”.

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Violence and Religion

Violence and Religion

Although the majority of recent terrorist attacks have been perpetrated by violent activists in the name of religion, the Five Pillars of the Islamic Faith, the basic guidelines of the Islamic religion actually preach civil service rather than violence. The Third pillar of the Islamic faith, Zakat, is an obligation of the Muslim faith where the individual donates what equals out to around 2.5 percent of an individual’s net worth (Qur’an 9:71). The Holy Quran also preaches that a Hajj should be performed if a believer is physically and financially able. The Hajj is considered the Fifth Pillar; it is a ritual that was performed by the prophet Muhammad and is the most significant manifestation of Islamic faith and unity. According to Ibrahim the Hajj is performed by Muslim believers so “they may establish regular prayer: so fill the hearts of some among men with love towards them and feed them with Fruits: so that they may give thanks” (Qur’an 14:37).
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Naturalisms and religion

Naturalisms and religion

Among those who have sought to articulate an understanding of the- ology in the context of such a naturalist view of religion, Ralph Burhoe is the one who has emphasized most strongly the character of traditions as “well-winnowed wisdom.” For him, the overwhelming power of the evo- lutionary process relates to our images of God’s sovereignty. Gerd Theis- sen (1985) emphasizes the variety of adaptations that arose through evolution; he underlines tolerance or grace as the main characteristic of ultimate reality. Philip Hefner also relates “the way things are” to God; altruism and love are interpreted by Christian theology “as expression of basic cosmological and ontological principles” (Hefner 1993, 197). This need not imply that we derive religious convictions from scientific insights; in the religious myths and their interpretations reality may be disclosed in such a way as to stimulate us to spiritually and morally appropriate responses.
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