Task Based Activities

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Use of Task Based Activities in the Teaching of Drama

Use of Task Based Activities in the Teaching of Drama

Thus the paper makes an attempt to provide taxonomy of variety of task-based activities that can be used for the teaching of The Importance of Being Earnest (1994) at the undergraduate level. It states that the students’ active participation in the task-based activities enhance their understanding of drama. While designing the task-based activities for the teaching of drama, an attempt is made to integrate the language skills, listening, speaking, reading and writing. The students are also encouraged to use the cognitive sub-skills. Thus, the paper proves that the task-based activities play a significant role in the teaching of drama.
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The Effect of Task-Based Activities on Iranian Beginner EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension

The Effect of Task-Based Activities on Iranian Beginner EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension

Abstract. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of applying task-based activities on students’ listening comprehension im- provement. It also aimed at providing evidence to show how shifting from a traditional language teaching approach into the TBLT approach can positively affect the process of learning listening skill. To do this, 80 participants were selected from three English language institutes in Shiraz. Participants of the study were chosen by assigning a placement test and they were divided into two groups. In the experimental group, the participants were taught listening skills based on the tenets of task- based teaching while the participants in the control group were taught listening skills traditionally. This process continued for 20 sessions. A pre-test and post-test were administered. One-way ANOVA, correlation and t-test analyses were used to determine whether differences between the sample means were statistically significant or not. It was found that the students of the experimental group, who experienced task-based principles of teaching listening, performed remarkably better than those
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The Effect of Using Task-Based Activities on Narrative Writing Performance of EFL Learners with Different Personality Types

The Effect of Using Task-Based Activities on Narrative Writing Performance of EFL Learners with Different Personality Types

The present research is an attempt to provide new evidence for the efficacy of Task-Based Activities on narrative writing performance of Iranian Introvert vs. Extrovert EFL Learners. The primary focus of the study is to investigate the effect of task-based activities as like tasks of class discussion and mind mapping which may develop EFL learners’ writing of English as a foreign language. In the second place, it tried to scrutinize the amount of effect of these activities on writing proficiency of Extrovert vs. Extrovert learners. For this purpose, 100 male intermediate Iranian EFL learners were chosen from a total number of 133 and assigned into four groups (two experimental and two controls) through their performance on a sample pre-test of Nelson. The target learners of this research were learners of Shokouh foreign languages institute in Tabriz, Iran. Data were collected through pre and post-test writing descriptive essays to find any progress at end of the treatment session. Data were analyzed through two-way ANOVA and Paired Samples t-tests. The results of the statistical analysis demonstrated that the experimental groups outperformed control groups while the more impact was on extrovert than introvert learners. The results of the study can have significant implications for EFL teachers, learners, researchers, policy makers and syllabus designers.
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Task-Based Activities on EFL Learners Argumentative Writing with a Focus on Introvert vs. Extrovert Learners

Task-Based Activities on EFL Learners Argumentative Writing with a Focus on Introvert vs. Extrovert Learners

The present research is an attempt to find out the efficacy of Task-Based Activities on argumentative writing performance of Introvert vs. Extrovert Iranian EFL Learners. For this purpose, 100 female upper-intermediate Iranian EFL learners were chosen from a total number of 168 and assigned into three groups (2 experimental and 1 control groups) through their performance on a Nelson (Homogeneity Test). The target learners of this research are learners of Vaskeh Institutes, in Iran. Data were collected through pre and post-test. Data were analyzed through Paired Samples t-tests. The results of the statistical analysis demonstrated that the task-based activities has significant effect on experimental groups performances but it has more impact on extrovert than introvert learners.
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An English Laboratory: Task Based Activities

An English Laboratory: Task Based Activities

On the other hand, some group-oriented classroom- based activities can be improved by adapting them to the language laboratory. For example, paired activities involving one student describing something or giving directions to another student may be better accomplished in the language laboratory than in the classroom. Lab pairing eliminates the opportunity for students to see or show the materials they are working with, and thus heightens listening comprehension and questioning skills. The students work in pairs or small groups and listen, discuss, reason, and draw a conclusion. At the end of a given period of time, the teacher brings the students together for a discussion about the topic.
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Contextualisation and authenticity in TBLT: Voices from Chinese classrooms.

Contextualisation and authenticity in TBLT: Voices from Chinese classrooms.

This study examined teacher beliefs and practices in communicative - oriented language teaching at a private school in China, to see how far TBLT principles were implemented and adapted to the context. We found evidence of commitment to the value of tasks within the COFLE framework, supported by teacher training abroad, pooled use of teaching materials and clear task - focused classroom communicative activities. We found some participants matching beliefs with practices which we offer as exemplars of best practice of strong TBLT, although other participants clearly preferred a weak view of TBLT activities ‘bolted on’ at the end of a class. We also noted dissonance between beliefs and practice for some participants, particularly in relation to definitions of authentic task pedagogy and content, allied to reluctance to relinquish teacher control over the classroom. We noted a general pattern of more time spent on task-based activities as students became more proficient. We identified these trends as primarily due to a lack of confidence, or of intrinsic teacher autonomy, in using TBLT, and call for more research into teacher professional development for building greater autonomy in adapting TBLT to local settings, especially at beginner levels.
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The Effect of Task-Based Listening Activities on the Listening Comprehension: A Case of Iranian IELTS Candidates

The Effect of Task-Based Listening Activities on the Listening Comprehension: A Case of Iranian IELTS Candidates

Hedge (2000) gives a procedure for designing a listening activity. Based on her model, when dealing with a listening text in class, first you must “… help students to become fa- miliar with the topic, to be exposed to some language fea- tures of the text…, to activate any relevant prior knowledge they have”. Second, you must help learners to completely understand the instruction for the activity. Third, “Although the listening itself is done individually, students can be en- couraged to check their responses in pairs or groups as soon as they are ready”. In the fourth step, the teacher receives some feedback from the students and in return, should help the students to recognize the importance of their success in doing the tasks. And finally, the teacher is advised to talk about language features and focus on the form. This stage is named the “follow-up” in which the teacher “… will assist further development of effective listening.” (p. 247). All of these stages were taken under consideration for designing the task-based activities in this study.
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Teaching English and Task-Based Method

Teaching English and Task-Based Method

The present study amis to evalute the influence of task based learning strategies on Iranian EFL students writng and reading performance by proposing different frameworks. In order to study the influnce of task based activities on Iranian EFL students writing performnace, Willis’ Task Based Leaning model is proposed whereas, for asseement of the realationship between task based strategies and reading, Rooney’s (1998) model is applied. Accordingly, 50 EFL students who are studying at Kerman Azad Unversity are selecetd in order to attend this survey. A combination of qualititaive and quantitative survey are used for data colection and data analysis. Results of the present study reaveld that using task based staregy has a positive influence on EFL students writing and reading outcomes. In addition, applying task based strategies as a learnig meathod for EFL students helps them to solve some related problems and issues independtly during writing and reading tasks. At the same time, task based learning startegies will help students to improve their writing and reading competence.
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A Comparison of Summarization Methods Based on Task-based Evaluation

A Comparison of Summarization Methods Based on Task-based Evaluation

This paper compares ten different summarization meth- ods based on information retrieval tasks. To evaluate the system performance, subjects’ speed and accuracy are mea- sured when they judge the relevance of texts using sum- maries. This evaluation method has the advantage that it can evaluate the utility of a summarization system in the environment in which it is actually used, and for the pur- pose for which it is built.

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Teaching requestive downgraders in L2: Can learners’ MI modify the effects of focused tasks?

Teaching requestive downgraders in L2: Can learners’ MI modify the effects of focused tasks?

Findings also revealed that the DIG as an output-based task was much better than the CR task in the improvement of learners’ recognition of pragmatically appropriate and linguistically accurate utterances. Logically, it is expected that the DIG as an output-based task should improve learners’ production rather than recognition ability. In this regard, the better performance of the participants in the DIG task on the recognition measure can be explained in terms of the design of the test. The test required learners not only to select the best choice of the provided scenarios but to explain why they had not selected other choices. This means that behind the simple recognition, learners had to analyze, judge and identify the appropriacy and accuracy of each choice. Therefore, the participants in the DIG task who had both an opportunity for production and their attention was explicitly drawn to the target features gave a better performance on this measure than those in the CR as an explicit input-based task.
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Online discussion in a CALL course for distance language teachers

Online discussion in a CALL course for distance language teachers

shed some light on the issues of the use of technology and the potential of CMC for teacher training. Nunan (1999), for example, investigated the learning op- portunities provided by a web-based Master of Science program in TESOL through a case study. The participants in the study were four native speakers of English and one native speaker of Japanese. Data for the study included tran- scripts of synchronous web-based chats over an 8-week period and students’ evaluations of the course in interviews. Nunan found that the students made connections between the context of their work and the context of their learning in web-based chatting, the discourse of the synchronous interactions was simi- lar to face-to-face interactions, student-centred discussions occurred as the course developed, and the interactive classes facilitated the evolution of a shared cul- ture between participants. While pointing out that web-based courses offer great potential for constructivist, student-centred and collaborative approaches to learn- ing, he concluded that the technology is simply a tool which can be used to support face-to-face instruction. In another study on web-based bulletin board (BB) discussions in a TESOL MA course entitled Methods of Teaching Second Languages, Kamhi-Stein (2000) investigated 20 students’ participation patterns in face-to-face discussions and in web-based BB discussions and their attitudes toward the latter. Through the analysis of transcripts of web-based BB discus- sions, Kamhi-Stein found an increase in student contribution and a decrease in the instructor’s participation. She also found that there was no difference in the level of participation of nonnative English speakers versus native English speak- ers and that web-based BB discussions promoted peer support and collabora- tion whereas face-to-face discussions reflected the initiation-response-evalua- tion pattern. She concluded that a web-based BB system can be a means of integrating technology into TESOL teacher education and helps teachers de- velop knowledge through collaboration.
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Online Full Text

Online Full Text

The advantage of using subjective measurements such as rating scales is that they are easy to administer and no instrumentation or calibration is required. The process is generally non-invasive (although it may interrupt the task) and the data easy to interpret. In this study, the measurement used was a modified Borg-CR10 and mental fatigue scale. They were measured before and after the experimental task. The Borg-CR10 is a category scale with ratio properties that can yield ratios and levels and allow comparisons [18]. The scale ranges from 0 to 10 where 0 represents no fatigue and 10 represents maximum fatigue. The mental fatigue scale followed the measurement from a study by Huston [19]. The scale used is a five point bipolar scale consisting of four categories with descriptors. The categories are the subjects’ feelings of “fresh-weary”, “awake-sleepy”, “physically strong-physically weak” and the level of “interest-boredom”.
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Task based learning with children

Task based learning with children

One way to think about classroom tasks/ pedagogic tasks for young learners is that they can be the same as those designed for adults. For example, the above-mentioned Willis and Willis (2007) categories can be used in children’s classrooms as well with appropriate content. Cameron (2001: 32) writing about tasks for young learners recommends a three-stage approach, as recommended with adult learners. Task implementation for children involves: the pre-task phase, the target task phase and the follow-up phase, but Cameron also stresses the need to balance ‘task demands’ and ‘task supports’. The difference between task demands and task supports is the space for growth and opportunity to learn (Cameron 2001: 22-25). Cameron (2001) further highlights that tasks for children should have coherence and unity, meaning and purpose, a clear language-learning goal, a beginning and an end, and they should involve the learners actively. Legutke, Müller-Hartmann and Schocker-v. Ditfurth (2009: 38- 43) similarly suggest that tasks for children should be challenging, should promote active, playful and creative participation, and confidence and willingness to take risks. Tasks may have the potential to contribute to developing learners’ autonomy and responsibility through choice and repetition. Tasks for children will also integrate different language skills. In addition to the four skills (speaking, listening, reading and writing) other skills might include miming, role-playing, drawing, cutting out and crafting. Legutke et al. illustrate these task characteristics with an example where a teacher introduces a picturebook to a class of young learners (see also Mourão, this volume, for further discussion of the potential and challenges of picturebooks with young learners).
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Power aware scheduling algorithm for DVFS clusters

Power aware scheduling algorithm for DVFS clusters

• 1. Uniform Outlet Profile: This approach is based on the inlet temperature of each computing node. The algorithm assigns more tasks to the node that have a low inlet temperature and fewer tasks to nodes that have high inlet temperature. By this a uniform outlet temperature distribution is achieved.

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Form-based Approaches vs. Task-Based Approaches

Form-based Approaches vs. Task-Based Approaches

Kim (2009) investigated the impact of task complexity on the occurrence of language related episodes with thirty four ESL learners in two different tasks. Two groups of learners with different level of complexity performed four tasks. Kim's findings partially confirmed Robinson's Hypothesis claiming more cognitively demanding task leads to more negotiation of meaning and language related episodes( LREs) dvocates of strong version of TBLT (see e.g. Krashen, 1982; Willis and Willis, 1998) view task as a necessary and a sufficient condition for L2 learning. To them, no explicit grammar instruction is required in stretching learners' interlanguage and task can be incorporated into the syllabus as a unit of teaching in its own right. Vilches (2003) points out that the changes in the syllabus of the university produced a positive effect on learners' proficiency compared to that of former syllabus. Interested in investigating which writing task, (a composition task, an editing task, or a text reconstruction task) generates the greatest amount of grammar attention. Storch (2001) assigned tertiary second language learners to one of the above conditions. He conceptualized focus on grammar as the frequency of LREs observed in leraners' production. Participants in the composition task were required to write a composition based on a diagram; editing task learners were presented with a text containing grammatical errors and instructed to correct them; and the third group was given a text which comprised content words, where learners were asked to provide necessary function words.
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Task-based language teaching and learning

Task-based language teaching and learning

The next contribution, by Zhisheng (Edward) Wen, looks into the interaction between working memory (WM) and task-based planning and performance. WM is now considered as a cornerstone of cognitive psychology and during the past ten years or so SLA researchers have turned their attention to the pivotal role of this cognitive mechanism in second language learning and performance. Whilst several studies have examined whether and how task design features and implementation conditions interact with working memory capacity, virtually all of them have used general measures and conceptualizations of working memory. Wen’s research, however, uses finer -grained measures and is framed within Phonological/Executive Hypothesis (proposed by Wen) which, as befits the name, zeros in on two specific components of WM. Although Wen’s results do not point to any statistically significant relationship between participants’ PSTM and L2 performance measures, they clearly demonstrate that participants’ EWM was significantly correlated with some lexical, syntactic and stylistic features of L2 speech performance. This research constitutes an original and innovative contribution in that very few previous studies, either in the field of cognitive psychology or in SLA, have set out to directly compare and investigate simultaneously the distinctive effects of phonological short term memory and executive working memory on L2 task-based speech performance in different planning conditions.
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Classroom Interaction Patterns in EFL Task- Based Classroom

Classroom Interaction Patterns in EFL Task- Based Classroom

This research adopted questionnaire, observation, and interview. The observation was used as primary data to find out patterns of classroom interaction. The researcher observed the teaching learning activities in the classroom when TBI was implemented. The classroom observation gave an opportunity for the researcher to see reality in the classroom closer and more objective. For instance, the researcher saw how the lecturer conducted teaching learning activity in the speaking class, what strategies that the lecturer used, how lecturer solved a problem during learning processes, and how lecturer assessed students’ speaking performance when the students completed one of the tasks, such as role play and debate. The observation was carried out four times, and during the observation the researcher recorded and made notes of English conversation or activity done by the learners.
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Cost Effective Ant Colony Optimization in Cloud Computing

Cost Effective Ant Colony Optimization in Cloud Computing

Al-maamari, et.al.[11] Explained Dynamic Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (DAPSO) based task allocation algorithm. Algorithm is used to amend the functionality of the basic PSO algorithm with minimize the make span of particular job set and maximum resource utility. The utilization of DAPSO algorithm is to enhance inertia weight and CS (cuckoo search) algorithm is utilized in the local search. Author has proposed a new algorithm, which is combination of DAPSO and CS called Modified Dynamic Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (MDAPSO). Proposed algorithm gives better result as compared to PSO, DAPSO, and PSOCS. Amandeep, et.al. [12] studied that a cloud workflow scheduling problems with a single objective. Author suggested the multi-objective hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm built on non-dominance sorting technique for explaining the workflow arrangement crisis. The algorithm’s performance solves three conflicting objective energy intake, make span and total cost with budget and deadline restrains. An effort of the author extends the QoS constraints like trust management, reliability and VM migration. Author has improved multi-objective optimization issue into single objective optimization issue by means of scalar technique. Awad, A.I.et.al. [13] Explained algorithm for the enhancement of overall task performance in scheduling cloud computing environment. Algorithms based on heuristic techniques using load balancing mutation particle swarm optimization. LBMPSO (load balancing mutation particle swarm optimization) improved the execution time; make span, roundtrip time, transmission cost, load balancing between task and virtual machine. Guo, Lizheng, et al. [14] studied that task scheduling optimization method in cloud computing. Author compared and analyzed particle swarm optimization with crossover and mutation and local search algorithm depends on particle swarm optimization. Author planned the particle swarm algorithm embedded in SPV and improved the performance. In future Algorithm work based on research is for catering the energy efficiency and accessibility of services in cloud computing. Kennedy, James. et.al. [15] intended a particle swarm optimization (PSO) method using Non-linear functions. Algorithm explains the particle swarm optimization in terms of its precursors and in shortly the stages of its development from social simulation to optimizer. The concept of pbest and gbest are similar to the crossover operation as suggested in genetic algorithm and use
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Greedy scheduling of tasks with time constraints for energy-efficient cloud-computing data centers

Greedy scheduling of tasks with time constraints for energy-efficient cloud-computing data centers

In a data center with heterogeneous servers, the servers with the highest computing capacity, which is defined as the maximum number of tasks a sever can process in par- allel, are the most preferred servers in the assignment of tasks. This server may provide a lower energy expenditure per processed task (or bytes). In this case, the optimiza- tion problem can be interpreted as a greedy-assignment scheme. For this, it is considered that the central sched- uler sorts the servers based on their energy efficiency, and assigns tasks to the most energy-efficient servers first and it then continues to allocate tasks to the second most effi- cient servers on the list, and so on, until no task remains or else, servers’ queues are full.
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Linking up learners of Chinese with native speakers through WeChat in an Australian tertiary CFL curriculum

Linking up learners of Chinese with native speakers through WeChat in an Australian tertiary CFL curriculum

When asked about the most difficult or least important part of the WeChat task, 6 out of the 15 participants (40%) could not think of anything negative. They confirmed that they greatly enjoyed the task. Three students (20%) mentioned that the difficult part was that their native speaker partners spoke too fast that they had to play the voice messages several times to be able to comprehend them. In addition, they said some- times their native speaker language partners spoke sentence after sentence without a pause, which was quite challenging for them to follow smoothly. Two other students (13%) commented that it was a bit hard to start a conversation at the very beginning. One participant (7%) mentioned that her native speaker language partner had a differ- ent accent from that of the teachers, which brought some difficulty in understanding the voice messages. One (7%) said that she found it hard to ask good questions. An- other student (7%) expressed his wish that his native speaker partner stay with the topics assigned because he found that his native speaker language partner sometimes strayed from the topics. The last point mentioned (7%) was that sometimes native speakers used vocabulary that the learner did not know. The learner had to check a dic- tionary or ask friends for help.
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