Findings of the study showed that the hypotheses which stated that there is no significant relationship between job design (skill variety, taskidentity, task significance, autonomy and feedback) and employee engagement was rejected, hence the alternative hypotheses accepted. In skill variety, this shows that employees are more likely to be engaged as a result of different range of skill possessed. Thus, people whose jobs are varied are more likely to experience a sense of energy in relation to their work. Some studies have shown that monotonous work can lead to psychological distress and disengagement (Morgeson and Humphrey, 2006). When a worker is responsible for a whole piece of meaningful work (taskidentity) and perceive their work as significant, then they are more likely to invest their whole self into their work and experience a sense of pride. Adam Grant, (2008) conducted an interesting experiment involving lifeguards that illustrates this point. The lifeguards were divided into two groups, the first group were read stories featuring heroic life guards and the second group were not read any stories. One month later, those who had heard the stories reported stronger feelings of self- worth than those in the second group. Such feelings of self- worth can generate high levels of engagement. Again, people whose work is autonomous experience a feeling of responsibility, and are more likely to invest effort into their work, even in the face of obstacles.
Ali et al (2014) inspected “the impact of job design on employee performance, mediating role of job satisfaction: A Study of FMCG‟s Sector in Pakistan”. The research measured the influence of job design on worker performance while the mediation effects job satisfaction, although job design has several methods they made use of the JCM model (Oldman & Hackman, 1976), which includes five scopes of Job Characteristics Model (skill variety, taskidentity, task significance, job autonomy and feedback) on worker performance. The study was carried out since nearly all companies working in FMCG industry are multinational; they are following almost the same processes and strategies of their parent enterprise with minute change accordingly. A quantitative research method was implemented and it received about 90% responses out of the 150 sample size that was chosen. The findings of this investigation showed that there is a positive relationship between job design and employee performance. While the mediating impact of Job satisfaction is also found to be having a positive effect on employee‟s performance. Companies always have the mission of finding the distinctive means in order to improve the performance of the workers; this study would assist to analyze how an adequate job design would help to improve the worker performance.
However, this growth can only be achieved when the challenges of performance within the PE firms are overcome. Kathurima and Kipanga (2013) found that PE firms are grappling with such challenges as redundancy, profit reduction and high employee turnover. Designing jobs in a balanced manner so as to encompass all the five characteristics namely skill variety, taskidentity, task significance, autonomy and feedback remains a topic that receives little interest from employers and policymakers as a driver of performance compared with other aspects of management such as leadership or management style (Truss, 2012). On the other hand, Gatauwa (2014) suggested that lack of awareness is the key challenge in Private Equity in Kenya because it is a relatively new concept and little research has been done regarding job characteristics in the industry. These challenges affect performance of the PE firms, which is a reflection of the actual performance of the employees.
The results were analyzed in two stages as described earlier in the analysis part of the methodology chapter. The stage – I analysis demographic information results showed that the respondents comprised of 24 percent female and 76 percent male. The maximum number of respondents fell in the age group of “20-29” years and minimum number of respondents fell in the age group of “50 and above” years. In terms of percent 61 percent of the employees were of the age of 20 to 29 years, 23 percent employees were of the age of 30 to 39 years, 12 percent of the employees were of the age of 40 to 49 years, and 4 percent of the employees were of the age of 50 and above years. In terms of education 3 percent were intermediate, 29 were graduate and 68 percent were masters and above degree holders. Thus most of the employees held the “Masters” degree. In terms of experience employees having atleast experience of one year were selected in the sample. In terms of experience 23 percent of the employees had the experience of 1 to less than 2 years, 35 percent of the employees had the experience of 2 to less than 05 years, 42 percent of the employees had the experience of 5 and above years. The mean results of the respondents ranged from a minimum of 4.6 for task autonomy to a maximum of 5.28 for internal work motivation with standard deviation of .839 for autonomy to 1.033 for taskidentity. The reliability measure (Cronbach’s Alpha) ranged from .500 for task autonomy to .722 for growth satisfaction. Overall mean, standard deviation, and Alpha reliabilities are displayed in table 1
The first core dimension skill variety refers to the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work, which involves the use of different skills of the employee (Hackman & Oldham, 1976). It is important to distinguish skill variety from task variety because the use of multiple skills is distinct from the performance of multiple tasks (Morgeson & Humphrey, 2006). The use of multiple skills is often challenging and thereby more attractive. Still, jobs that involve the performance of a number of different tasks are likely to be more interesting and pleasant to perform (Sims, Szilagyi, & Keller, 1976). On the other hand, when jobs are already complex, increasing task variety may also produce job overload (Morgeson & Humphrey, 2006). Taskidentity is the degree to which the job requires completion of a whole product or service, meaning that the job is done from beginning to end by one person (Hackman & Oldham, 1976). The rationale behind taskidentity is that the results of the job can be easily identified (Sims et al., 1976). It turns out that jobs that involve an intact task, for example the completion of an entire product or providing a complete service, are often more interesting to perform than jobs that involve only small parts of the task (Hackman & Oldham, 1980). Task significance is the extent to which the job has considerable impact on the lives or work of others. This could be the customer or someone else in the external environment or someone in the immediate organisation, like colleagues (Hackman & Oldham, 1976). Employees in jobs that include activities that have a significant effect on the physical or psychological well-being of others are likely to experience more meaningfulness in the job they are performing (Hackman & Oldham, 1980). Like task significance, also the characteristics variety and identity determine the experienced meaningfulness of the job, which is the degree to which the individual experiences the job as one which is generally meaningful, valuable, and worthwhile (Hackman & Oldham, 1976).
Multiple job scopes and work varieties have initiated criticism among the academics as they consume both their effort and time more than what they can do in actual work time (Ramli et al., 2013). However, job characteristics are bound to the university, as was highlighted by Basarudin et al. (2016), in which characteristics at work may be different based on the status of a university (i.e., APEX, research, focused or comprehensive university). In relation to that, the actual conditions of job characteristics in research universities remain ambiguous. Besides, there is a limited number of studies which discuss job characteristics in terms of skill variety, job autonomy, task significance, taskidentity and feedback, since past studies tended to investigate other job characteristics, such as workload, social support and working hours, in the setting of research university (Basaruddin et al., 2016; Markom et al., 2011). Therefore, this study sought to extend the present body of literature by examining the job characteristics of academics in research universities in the perspectives of skill variety, job autonomy, task significance, taskidentity and feedback.
Though engineers and scientists share many similarities in innovation creation, a critical difference in scientists is that they occupy knowledge creation and interpretation roles. Engineers create tools which can be used to improve processes or to enhance the functioning of other tools. Applied engineers in many aspects focus their work on improving process, troubleshooting, and repair of devices. A large number of studies found in the literature review focus on engineers and scientists concerning research and development activities. In this context, scientists and engineers typically work hand in hand. Therefore their usefulness as analogs is correct. However, applied scientists utilize the tools developed by engineers and the data collected to produce empirical results that might be deeply meaningful. The difference in the applied areas of science and engineering leads to the need to study each individually as the tasks and focus of work differ. This study addresses the gap in the literature by focusing specifically on scientists using a robust theoretical approach. The cited works primarily focus on elements of Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory. None have utilized the Job Characteristics Theory to characterize job satisfaction in engineers or scientists. This author’s study applies a more precise theory to investigate the influences of specific job characteristics on the job satisfaction and the role of managerial training to overall job satisfaction. The results of the study found that scientists in managerial roles perceive lower overall job characteristics than scientists in technical roles. However, among scientists in managerial roles, managerial training had a significant positive influence on the perception of Skill Variety, TaskIdentity, and Task Significance. The study revealed evidence that managerial training had a positive effect on the job satisfaction of scientists in managerial roles through indirect effects in job characteristics. Moreover, we observed a higher number of scientists returning to technical roles from management roles than reported in previous literature.
Bremner, and Carrière (2011) studied on the effects of skill variety, autonomy, task significance and taskidentity on job-related work stress at the medical facility and the mediating effect of the importance of work. A survey was conducted on a sample of approximately 1100 workers from a Canadian hospital and was administered in the French language. The study established that skill variety was the most significant of all other job characteristics. The direct relationship between skill variety and cynicism suggests that having the opportunity to conduct complex and challenging work is engaging for those that work in the healthcare field. The four job characteristics examined in the study only helped to explain about twenty-four percent of the variance in meaningful work. This suggests that there are other important variables that can explain incremental variance in meaningful work. It also implies that there are additional ways in which practitioners and managers can help to facilitate the emergence of meaning at work.
Abstract: Organizations are always in pursuit of finding ways to enhance their performance. One of the ways is to enhance employee performance by incorporating job characteristics that contribute to employee motivation, satisfaction and commitment of the employees. The job characteristics necessary for better performance of employees are skill variety, taskidentity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of job characteristics on the performance of employees among Private Equity Firms in Nairobi City County in Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the effect of skill variety, taskidentity, task significance, autonomy and feedback on employee performance among private equity firms in Nairobi City County, Kenya. The study also sought to determine the mediating effect of employee motivation on the relationship between job characteristics and the performance of employees among private equity firms. The theories used in the study were the Job Characteristics model, Herzberg’s two-factor theory and the Demand control model. The study adopted a descriptive research design and involved a census of all 210 employees in 25 different private equity firms in Nairobi City County, Kenya. Questionnaires were used for primary data collection. To ascertain the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, a pre-test was conducted on one of the private equity firms where the cut-off for Cronbach alpha was taken as a value of 0.7 and the aggregate alpha value in this study was 0.755. The quantitative data in the study was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive analysis comprising the mean, frequency, percentage and standard deviation while inferential statistics was stepwise multiple regression. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to conduct the analysis. 116 questionnaires out of the 210 distributed were used for analysis, which translates to 55% of the response rate which was adequate for the study. From the findings, variety of skills, taskidentity, autonomy and feedback were found to affect the performance of employees, while task significance did not significantly affect employee performance. The results also indicated partial mediation by the mediator on the independent variable. The study recommends that Job characteristics be considered in planning and evaluation of employees’ jobs and performance respectively. Increased freedom in decision making and job rotation were cited as some of the ways in which the Private Equity Firms could increase employees’ motivation, hence their performance.
Job characteristics theory is a theory of work design which provides a set of implementing principles for enriching jobs in organizational setting. Tasks characteristics of a job consist of five “core” job characteristics such as; skill variety, taskidentity, task significance, autonomy and feedback that affect five work related outcomes namely, motivation, satisfaction, performance, and absenteeism and turnover through three psychological states that is, experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility, and knowledge of results. This research papers explores the task characteristics of job in the study area in terms of skill variety, taskidentity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. The study concludes that tasks characteristics in Lakhsmi Seva Sangham (LSS) were satisfactory and need to give more decision-making autonomy and work scheduling autonomy for further development so that they can give optimum outcomes to the unit.
Festivals, as an example of causal leisure, are often used by individuals to enact societally defining differences (McNay, 2010). A decision to patronize a festival is therefore not only based on attendance at the event, but as a way for the individual to “reinforce their individual self-image, communicate to others their desired identity, and signal allegiance to a desired social group” (Grappi and Montinari, 2011, pg.1138). So although festivals are only temporary, the associated identity label provides a degree of meaning prior to, or in the absence of, full commitment to a social category (Meyer, Becker and Van Dick, 2006). With this, lifestyle and values become symbolically reflected in the experience-scape (Cuthill, 2007), that is the site of market production in which experiences are staged allowing for diverse groups to come into contact with each other (Ritchie and Hudson, 2009). While the introduction of experience terminology may hint toward the more classical experience literature (see Woodward and Holbrook, 2013 for a discussion), this paper intentionally chooses to concern itself more with the interaction between the diverse groups, and how perception of agency becomes bound in those external influences (Kivetz, 2005), that is, how festivals can both support and constrain identity construction (Barnhart and Peñaloza, 2013).
The procedures were identical to those used in experi- ment 1 (see Table 1) including the participants being introduced to each other as the co-actors of a task. The only difference was that all the participants performed only 3 blocks individually. We introduced two partici- pants to each other upon their arrival: “This is your partner. You two will do a task individually first, and then perform the task together.” Then one of the partici- pants (A) received instruction about the task and performed the individual condition with an empty chair beside him/her (see Table 1), while the other participant (B) was invited to wait outside the room. Participant A left the room after finishing the task, and then partici- pant B came into the room to receive instruction and to perform the task. Similar to experiment 1, the partici- pants only needed to respond to half of the trials accord- ing to the name color. Feedback messages showing “Correct”, “Incorrect”, and “Slow” were displayed in go trials, as in experiment 1. The participants received the feedback “Correct” when they did not respond in no-go
The relationship between our sense of ourselves and our work is complex (Glynn, 1998), not least when there are mismatches between this sense of who we are and the demands of our job role or organisation (Dukerich et al., 1998). This is not restricted to those engaged in ‘dirty work’ (Beech, 2008). Work and organisational life regularly present provocations to our conceptions of ourselves, to our personal identities. Some writers anticipate that individuals experiencing such mismatches will resolve the conflicts, for example through personal adjustment, forming a sub-culture with like- minded colleagues or exiting from the organisation (see Meyerson and Scully, 1995; Glynn, 1998; Ashforth and Kreiner, 1999). However, not all of these avenues are open to everyone, especially in times of economic uncertainty when resigning or not being a ‘team player’ could lead to unemployment. Many people may be trapped in situations where their personal values and sense of self conflict with the demands of their job. Organisations are often defined by their presumptions and their attempts to marshal the ‘internal striving’ of individuals (Alvesson and Willmott, 2002). These aims can come to interfere with the relationship between self-evaluation and self-concordance in pursuit of organisational goals, a relationship that forms an important element of job satisfaction (Judge et al., 2005). Organisations present a range of roles that an employee is expected to assume, adapting their manners and characteristics as appropriate. There is a potential conflict embedded in this adaptation as different senses of one’s character are presented for interpretation. By prescribing and proscribing actions, ways of thinking and self-presenting, working life exerts influence over us (Kärreman and Alvesson, 2004). Adapting to new or changing organisational roles requires identity work, an adjustment as we understand our relation to our role and all that it entails. The demands of such transitions or adjustments may become a source of deep tension for workers required to act in ways that conflict with their pre-existing sense of self or values, provoking significant and complex professional image construction (Roberts, 2005) that could lead to a confused social identity (Hogg and Terry, 2000; Kreiner et al., 2006) and great insecurity (Collinson, 2003).
Indeed, (Osaghae & Suberu, 2005; Plessis, 2001; Faleti, 2005; Arena & Arrigo, 2006) have identified various classifications and separately contended that identity has remained a major element that generates and reinforces conflicts, competition for state control and ownership of resources. Osaghae & Suberu, (2005) broadly defined identity as any group attribute that provides recognition or definition, reference, affinity, coherence and meaning for individual members of the group, acting individually or collectively. They further explained identity from the perspective of Geertz (1963) famous distinction between primordial ties which are basically ascriptive and based on the “givens” of life (tribe, kinship, and ethnicity among others), and civil ties, which hinge on industrial society-type aggregations like class, political party affiliation, interest group membership, and so on (Osaghae & Suberu, 2005).
stimuli containing at least one target (target identity - person 1, target emotional expression - sad, or both targets). The targets were: Person 1 expressing a sad emotion (redundant targets); Person 1 with a happy expression (target identity and non-target expression); Person 2 with a sad expression (target expression and non-target identity). The other half of the trials used stimuli that did not convey any target attribute: Person 3 with a neutral expression, Person 4 with a surprised expression and Person 5 with an angry expression (all of them non-target-identity and non-target emotion). Prior to the scanner sessions, participants completed an initial practice block of 30 trials during which they were given feedback on their accuracy and reaction time (RT) after each trial.
In Nepal ethnic and class are rigid marker of stratification but such scenario is not noticeable among Nepalis in India. The difference in ethnicity among the Nepali community in India and Nepal, can be attributed to the phenomenon where national identities shift into primary position for individuals in relation to ethnic, caste or racial identities. Moreover it can be also be attributed as a result of comparatively liberal attitudes towards mixed marriages within the Indian Nepali Community, though they maintain ethnic and caste names, almost inhabitants are linked with members of putatively distinct ethnic groups through kinship as well as through informal community relationship. 16 Caste hierarchy is very strong in Nepal compared to Indian Nepalis. Both commensual and marital relation among the Indian Nepalis is influenced by secular values in education, occupation, status. Even after two centuries of political consolidation of Nepal, if we ask anyone about their identity, we would generally get response in terms of their ethnic group. A person will say himself to be a Rai, Limbu, Gurung, Bahun, Kami or Pradhan, but this identity transcend outside Nepal, a person becomes a Nepali to others. T.B Subba says that this not only because others understand this identity but also because he/she feels more secure to be identified so. A Newar may not come across another Newar or a Gurung may not come across another Gurung, but he/she will certainly come across another Nepali. And introducing oneself as a Newar or a Gurung for Indian Nepalis will encounter queer responses says Subba. 17 Consolidation of strong Nepali identity was demonstrated during the Gorkhaland movement in Darjeeling, slogans such as “Lepcha, Bhutia, Nepali- hami sabai Gorkhali (Lepcha, Bhutia, Nepali- we all are Gorkhas) were raised.” 18
nature – both emotional and evaluative – having to do with belonging to a community, the sharing of a common destiny and of consequent behaviours of loyalty, trust and solidarity. On the contrary, the concept of identity refers to an aggregat- ing and motivating nucleus of values, symbols and meanings that translate into norms of coexistence, political and social institutions as well as life practices (Smith 1991). Identification consists of subjective dispositions and people’s behaviours. Collective identity is a social fact connected to institutional re- alities. The identity of a group of people is the result of a ge- netic process of shared values that become symbolic-cultural factors of aggregation (mitopoiesis). It has to do with values and institutions codified within the democratic constitutions that also sometimes may not be immediately manifest. The two concepts are linked in the way that the contents of identity are at the basis of the process of identification. They delineate the borders between those who belong and those who do not be- long to the community, influencing others’ perception, while the way and degree in which the members of a community recognize them modifies the content itself. Another way to de- fine the two concepts is to distinguish between the subjects (who identifies you and with whom you identify with) and the objects or content of the identification (values, meanings, symbols, norms, institutions) that permit us to define who we are. A large part of empirical research on the European collec- tive identity are of the first type and examine whether, to what extent and for what reasons European citizens identify them- selves with the European Union as a community or with Eu- ropeans in general. But there are also contributions that, like this, examine the substance of European collective identity, deducing it from philosophical arguments (the inheritance from the Enlightenment), historical and sociological studies (on modernization), normative principles of constitutions, but also analysis of the content of the elite’s discourse, produced by popular culture and by both the traditional and digital mass media. In this essay we will first concentrate on the con- cept of identity as we have defined it, that is, on the nucleus of values and common institutions, then we will discuss how the European identity has changed over time (also in relation to national identities) and what are the mechanisms that may fa- vour its taking root in the current situation.
4 the motor buffer. The motor processor can use these chunks as a single stimulus, after being triggered by the cognitive processor to read the codes for each movement and execute the series of movements relatively autonomous (Abrahamse et al., 2013). studies showed that longer sequences are executed as more than one successive segment (Abrahamse et al., 2013). The process of these rapid successive segmentation is called concatenation, where different chunks within a sequence are executed as smoothly as possible. When a sequence contains more than one chunk, only the first key-specific stimulus of each chunk needs preparation. The point where the first key-specific stimulus of the next chunk within a sequence is initiated, is called the concatenation point. At the concatenation point, the reaction times can be slower, due to preparation for the motor chunk. When the circumstances are right, the motor processor and the cognitive processor will race each other. In the race the motor processor will trigger a response from the motor buffer and the cognitive processor select each key-specific response (Verwey, 2001). The cognitive processor may also use explicit sequence knowledge or spatial/verbal coding in the race with the motor processor. During the execution of the DSP task participants can obtain explicit knowledge about the sequences. The explicit knowledge about the structure of the sequences can be verbal knowledge as well as spatial knowledge (Abrahamse et al., 2013). Spatial knowledge means the knowledge about the spatial position of the different elements of the sequence. Verbal knowledge refers to being able to verbally reproduce the different elements of the sequences.
A possible explanation for the lower division assigning higher subjective task value for soccer than the upper division may be the aura of exclusivity. That is, with increased competitive play and limited selection opportunities, the exclusivity of being chosen for the team roster may prompt younger athletes to assign great value to being good at soccer. It is further plausible that, freshmen and sophomores, still limited in their social networking and activity involvement more so than juniors and seniors, enjoy soccer more than other activities ascribing great importance to it in their life. Barnett (in press; 2006) determined that highly competitive and selective activities in high school resulted in aspirant participants ascribing high levels of importance in gaining the right to participate in school activities. Further, the overt social nature of adolescents’ discretionary choices extend the level of importance that soccer participation may have for the lower division, as (athletic) identities have been determined to highly correlate with (sport) attainment value (Cox & Whaley, 2004).