TAXONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF CYPSELAR FEATURES IN SOME SPECIES OF VERNONIA (VERNONIEAE – ASTERACEAE)

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Taxonomic Significance of Anatomical Characters in Some Species of the Family Myrtaceae

Taxonomic Significance of Anatomical Characters in Some Species of the Family Myrtaceae

Although the five species investigated belong to five distinct genera, [22] reported that the morphological fea- tures of the seed surface sculpture as revealed by SEM show no clear boundaries between the species of the same tribe except minor variation in the anticlinal and periclinal walls, so that the anatomical structures inform additional features for distinction of these species. Some are of high taxonomic significance such as the presence of hypodermis in leaves of Psidium guajava, the absence of stomata in the abaxial epidermis of Callistemon vimi- nalis and P. guajava, the occurance of isobilateral and dorsiventral leaf type appears to be a good diagnostic characteristic for the generic level, the wavy outline of C. viminalis stem and the presence of more than one vascu-
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Anatomical studies on twelve clones of Camellia species with reference to their taxonomic significance

Anatomical studies on twelve clones of Camellia species with reference to their taxonomic significance

Anatomical studies of leaf and stem of twelve clones of Camellia were investigated. Cross sections of the stem of all the clones exhibited a typical pattern of arrangement of tissues characteristics of woody plants. Two types of idioblastic sclereids were found in the medullary parenchyma of the taxa studied. While astrosclereids were present in 10 of the twelve clones, the vesciculose sclereids were found only in the four clones belonging to C. sinensis. Leaves of the clones show variations in the number of palisade layers. Astro sclereids, brachy sclereids, and dendritic forms were observed in the leaves, their distribution varying in the different clones. A few other micromorphological features are also recorded. Our study forms a basis for answering uncertainties in taxonomic revision in the genus Camellia.
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The taxonomic significance of trichome type and distribution in   Melolobium  (Fabaceae)

The taxonomic significance of trichome type and distribution in Melolobium (Fabaceae)

All species of Melolobium Eckl. & Zeyh. were examined for epidermal features and particularly the glands which are a distinctive feature amongst the southern African Genisteae. For comparative purposes, three species o f Argxrolobium Eckl. & Zeyh.. all l i \ e species of Dichilus DC. and five species of Polliillia C.H.Stirt. were also examined for trichome type and distribution. Three trichome types are recognized in Melolobium. Trichome type and distribution provide an important insight into taxonomic relations at species level in Melolobium and sometimes even allow a distinction between regional forms. The distribution of glands (sessile and stalked) is o f considerable diagnostic value in identifying species o f Melolobium. A key to all the species o f the genus based mainly on type and distribution o f trichomes. is presented.
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Nutritional Composition of Species in the vernonia hymenolepis Complex in Kenya

Nutritional Composition of Species in the vernonia hymenolepis Complex in Kenya

It forms a rich herbal flora of highland Kenya. It has also been documented as a potential tumor inhibitor (Kupchan, Hemingway, Werner, Karim, McPhail & Sim, 1968). Vernonia calvoana in Cameroon and Nigeria plays an important role in human nutrition, because of its high mineral content and it is also important medicinally (Fube & Djonga, 1987). However it is often confused with V. hymenolepis (Jeffrey, 1988) and sometimes treated as its synonym (Ucheck Fomum, 2004). The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional value of Vernonia hymenolepis. The use of local biodiversity to meet our food and nutritional needs requires not only accurate information on the identities of the plants that have the potential of being used as foods but also reliable and accessible data on their nutritional composition.
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Leaf epidermal studies of some medicinal plant species of the family annonaceae in the pra - suhien forest in the central region of ghana.

Leaf epidermal studies of some medicinal plant species of the family annonaceae in the pra - suhien forest in the central region of ghana.

Peels were made from both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of each sample using a thin layer of clear nail-vanish spread and allowed to dry, and latter peeled off using a fine forceps. The epidermal strips obtained were cleared of chlorophyll in chloralhydrate. The strips were thoroughly washed using distilled water, stained with Safranin O, and mounted in drop of pure glycerol on a glass slide. Twenty slides were prepared for each of the plant species, examined under the (epidermal cells; nature of trichomes (if present); nature of distribution and dimension of stomata. The stomatal dimensions considered were the length and breadth, and also the Stomatal Index (SI), which is given as
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Some physico-chemical features of lake Ulugöl (Ordu-Turkey)

Some physico-chemical features of lake Ulugöl (Ordu-Turkey)

Lake Ulugöl is a small lake in Ulugöl Natural Park in Gölköy-Ordu. The lake has 1200 m altitude, an area about 39 decare and average 15 m depth. It has occured in the pit area resulting from landslides. Lake Ulugöl is differentiated from other landslide dammed lakes according to its formation in the Black Sea Region. Hydrophytes such as Carex, Equisetum, Juncus, Myriophyllum, Potamogeton, Typha are quite abundant in littoral zone surrounded by Fagus forests. For stocking studies, 20000 unit young Cyprinus carpio was introduced in to the lake in 1994. Salmo trutta abanticus that is an endemic species in Lake Abant and its environment was introduced in to the lake, with a project started in 2008. In this study, some physico-chemical parameters in the surface waters of the lake have been seasonally investigated between September 2006 and August 2007. Also, the lake water has been
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Seed Morphology of Some Species of Indigofera (Fabaceae) from Saudi Arabia (Identification of Species and Systematic Significance)

Seed Morphology of Some Species of Indigofera (Fabaceae) from Saudi Arabia (Identification of Species and Systematic Significance)

but simple irregular reticulate surface appeared in I. ar- recta, I. articulate and I. coerulea var. occidentalis. Compound or bireticulate surface also has three forms, it may be thin in the outer reticulum and thick in the inner one, thick in the outer reticulum and thin in the inner layer or the outer and the inner reticulum have the same thickness, the first form present in I. argentea and I. spi- cata, the second form present in I. amorphoides, I. co- lutea, I. oblongifolia and I. spiniflora and the third form are showed only in I. tinctoria. The ridged seeds surface texture also are appeared in two froms, it may be wrinkly ridged in I. Arabica and I. trita var. subulata, wrinkly ridged to bireticulate in I. volkensii, or groovy ridged only in I. linifolia. Scaled surface also are existed only in I. intricata and rough surface is appeared only in I. hochstetteri. It is cleared that, the texture of the seeds surface is essential and of great importance property to distinguish among the investigated taxa, it is used to dis- tinguish clearly among species of I. spinosa, I. sessili- flora, I. linifolia, I. intricate, I. tinctoria and I. hochs- tetteri.
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STUDY OF WHOLE PLANT OF VERNONIA CINEREA LESS. FOR IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

STUDY OF WHOLE PLANT OF VERNONIA CINEREA LESS. FOR IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

In vitro antioxidant activity of petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol extracts of whole plant of Vernonia cinerea Less. have been tested using various antioxidant model system viz, DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, ABTS and reducing power. Methanol extract of V. cinerea is found to possess higher DPPH radical scavenging activity. Petroleum ether extract of V. cinerea exhibited highest hydroxyl, superoxide and ABTS radical cation scavenging activity. Petroleum ether extract of V. cinerea showed the highest reducing ability. This study indicates significant free radical scavenging potential of V. cinerea which can be exploited for the treatment of various free radical mediated ailments.
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Taxonomic studies in the Aizoaceae from South Africa: three new  species and some new combinations

Taxonomic studies in the Aizoaceae from South Africa: three new species and some new combinations

The material upon which the description is based, comes from a locality south of Vanrhynsdorp, where the plants were first noticed by A. Ellis and P. Desmet in 1996. The species had previously been misidentified as Brownanthus corallinus and grows together with it in one of the known localities. The new species is distinct­ ly sm aller and more compact in growth than B. coralli­ nus and the older stems are only slightly woody towards their bases. It also differs from B. corallinus (Figure IB) by the hair-like epidermal cells which cover the stems (Figure 1A). Furthermore, the bladder cell idioblasts of the leaves are noticeably more reduced in size compared to the ones in B. corallinus and the bases of young leaves overlap, which is never found in B. corallinus (Figure IE. F). In addition, the leaves in B. corallinus are sub- cylindrical, whereas in B. glareicola they are convex below and concave above. Further differences may be found in the seeds. These have a conspicuous crest in B. glareicola, which is not known for any other species of Brownanthus (Figure 1D).
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Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Leaves of Vernonia Cinerea Less

Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Leaves of Vernonia Cinerea Less

The present study on pharmcognostical characters of Vernonia cinerea will be providing useful information in regard to its identity and help to differentiate from the closely related other species of V.cinerea. The presence of anomocytic stomata and T-shaped trichomes with 2-6 celled stalk are characteristic features of V.cinerea. The other parameters of quantitative microscopy may be useful for the future identification of the plant.

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Significance of moonlight in photoperiodic responses of insects

Significance of moonlight in photoperiodic responses of insects

(Neuroptera) and Schalidomitra variegata (Holland) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) at Kawanda Research Station, Kampala, Uganda (Fig. 5), which show a rapid increase of catch on the nights imme[r]

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A new species of Eridontomerus with taxonomic and faunistic notes on some other taxa (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Torymidae)

A new species of Eridontomerus with taxonomic and faunistic notes on some other taxa (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Torymidae)

one carina medially. Hind femur finely serrate on posterior margin. Forewing 2.00-2.15 times as long as wide; all setae on forewing pale yellow; marginal vein 1.8-2.0 times as long as postmarginal vein, 2.5-3.0 times as long as stigmal vein. Sculpture of gaster finely alutaceous, more shiny than in females. Hind margin of Gt 1 and Gt 2 more or less incised medially. Variability. The ranges in all measurements are given above; the variation in colour is as follows: scape from partly (in basal half) to entirely testaceous, with or without metallic tint, but always more darkened in the distal part of scape. Lateral parts of thorax and gaster dark testaceous in some specimens, without metallic reflection and blue colouration. Gaster reticu- lation finer and barely visible in the distal part of dorsal side of Gt 1 and Gt 2 , emargination of Gt 1 and Gt 2 sometimes deeper than in holotype, especially more or less incised in males. Differential diagnosis. The new species differs from the remaining species of Eridontome- rus by the combination of the following characters: thorax clearly blue-violet at least in dorsal part, covered with silver setae; venation of wings predominantly pale yellow; disc of wing below the marginal vein with sparse setation; body generally robust. According to the original description by Z EROVA & S ERJOGINA (1999), the new species seems to be similar to E. sapphy-
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Morphological Structure of Swimbladders in some Commercial Fishes from some Markets of Yangon, Myanmar

Morphological Structure of Swimbladders in some Commercial Fishes from some Markets of Yangon, Myanmar

Abstract:- The morphology of swimbladders from seven species of fishes Lepidocephalichthys guntca, Cirrhinus mgrigala, Labeo rohita, Channa punctatus, Anabas testudineus, Macrognathus zebrinus and Clarias batrachu were studied during July to September 2014. Fishes were purchased from some markets such as Nandawin, Sanpya and ten quarter markets situated in South Okkalapa Township.. Five individuals of each species were used. The general morphology of the swimbladders were recorded with figures and tabulated forms. Two types of swimbladder, physostomatous and physoclistous types were recorded. In order Cypriniformes, the swimbladders were two lobes with transparent walls. In order Perciformes, it is tube- shape, single chamber. In order Siluriformes, the swimbladder is heart-shaped and thick walled. In all studied fishes, the length of the swimbladder was strongly related to the standard length of the fish. The shape and size of swimbladder and the thickness of its wall are different from each other, so is the importance of swimbladder. Swimbladder has become an attractive and persuasive fish product because of its nutrient basic ingredient useful in other goods. To sum up, the production of swimbladder is very popular and economical. The study of swimbladder and their functions should further be observed due to a few researches concerning swimbladder of fishes.
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Diagnostic criteria of different species of leishmaniasis in Balochistan, Pakistan

Diagnostic criteria of different species of leishmaniasis in Balochistan, Pakistan

In Pakistan, leishmaniasis is either caused by Leishmania major (zoonotic) or Leishmania tropica (anthroponotic). It generally heals spontaneously within a year but the clinic - pathological picture of leishmaniasis is variable depending upon several host parasite related factors. The incubation period is usually measured in months, but may range from a few days to over a year. The initial lesion appears as a red furuncle-like papule. The papule gradually enlarges in size over a period of several weeks and becomes more dusky violaceous hue. Eventually, the lesion becomes crusted with an underlying shallow ulcer, often having risen and somewhat indurate borders. The healing is usually with a scar that is typically atrophic, hyper pigmented and irregular (cribriform). In addition, the classical types may often show a clustering of lesions, skin crease orientation, volcanic nodules, satellite papules, subcutaneous nodules, and iceberg nodules. Some other uncommon morphological features of localized leishmaniasis, in addition to the above-mentioned classical picture, are described in following sections. According to type of lesion we can conclude that the cutaneous leishmaniasis is more common type of leishmaniasis seen in areas of Pakistan. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Balochistan province of Pakistan. Upto 4000 new cases are registered yearly at Bolan Medical Complex, a tertiary care hospital in Quetta while a lot more attend other public and private hospitals. The wet/rural type of CL which is a zoonotic disorder caused by L. major is more prevalent in the region [9] It is commonly known as Kaaldana (kaal = year, dana = lesion) by local pushtoon population and Saldana by other people of region. Typical lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis do not make any diagnostic problem, while some cases
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Documentation of Snakes Species Richness in Palpa, Nepal

Documentation of Snakes Species Richness in Palpa, Nepal

Fig 2:- No. of Snake Species According Family This district represents different agro-climate zones comprising of valley, flat land to middle hills and high hills. With regard to the topography of the district, it has Siwalik or low mountainous range and Mahabharat or mid mountainous range. It has a number of valleys famous for agricultural production mainly paddy. Some of them are: Rampur, Madi, Arghali, Kachal and Darpuk (DTMP, 2012). Agricultural fields, riparian areas, ponds, wet lands etc provide a variety of habitats for frogs and their ophidian predators. Human activities increase the rodent population which also becomes the regular prey items for many snakes. Thus such type of habitat is suitable for the richness of snake species. In general, people cannot distinguish the poisonous and non-poisonous snakes. They think every snake is poisonous. So, they kill snakes whenever and wherever they meet them. Thus, the snake species are decreasing day by day.
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Significance of Fruit and Seed Coat Morphology in Taxonomy and Identification for Some Species of Brassicaceae

Significance of Fruit and Seed Coat Morphology in Taxonomy and Identification for Some Species of Brassicaceae

The cluster analysis obtained from fruit characters only (Figure 4(a)) showed that species were grouped into two major clusters and each cluster divided into two groups, the first cluster I consisted of five species: Coronopus didymus and Farsetia burtonae recorded in group I while Cardamine hirsute , Cakile arabica and Sisymbrium irio present in group II. The cluster II comprised five species: Raphanus sativus (group I) and Brassica juncea , Eruca sativa , Brassica tourne- fortii and Savignya parviflora (group II).

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Significance of Health & Physical Education P...

Significance of Health & Physical Education P...

The number of obese Medicare beneficiaries nearly doubled from 1987 to 2002, and the spending incurred by them almost tripled. Overweight and obesity is also a crisis among children. The number of overweight children aged 6- 11 has tripled over the past three decades. Approximately 17 percent of today’s youth are overweight. The health effects of obesity are devastating. For children born in 2000 in the INDIA, if obesity rates remain unchanged, their lifetime risk of being diagnosed with diabetes at some point in their lives is estimated at 30 percent for boys and 40 percent for girls. Obesity also is a major contributor to heart disease, arthritis, and some types of cancer. Annual deaths associated with obesity are estimated to be between 100,000 and 300,000 in the INDIA School health education programs can reduce health risk behaviors such as tobacco use, poor nutrition, lack of physical activity, drug and alcohol use, as well as actions that increase stress, and risk of injury, and violence. Because these behaviors are amenable to change, quality school health education taught by trained and certified health educators provides the best opportunity to promote positive health behavior among children and adolescents.
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In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of some Tablet Formulations of Sulfisoxazole

In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of some Tablet Formulations of Sulfisoxazole

Sulfisoxazole in usually administered by mouth and prescribed in the treatment of infections of the urinary tract. By virtue of the large number of diverse types of excipients needed in their manufacture, tablets are potentially proved to show variations in biological availability. Var ious parameters such as particle size, crystal form, aqueous solubility, wettability of the drug and excipients like diluents, binders, lubricants, glidants and granulating agents influence drug bioavailability from tablets. In recognition of the potential low bioavailability of some drugs from tablets, the USP XXII 1990 has prescribed dissolution minimum. Sulfisoxazole is one such drug for which dissolution test in prescribed.
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The Significance of Some Spectral Features in Mating Call Recognition in the Green Treefrog (Hyla Cinerea)

The Significance of Some Spectral Features in Mating Call Recognition in the Green Treefrog (Hyla Cinerea)

In addition to having similar gross temporal features, natural calls and equally attractive synthetic calls shared two features: 1 a waveform periodicity or quasiperiodicity of about 300[r]

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The Effect of Osmotic and Ultrasound Pre-Treatment on Some Physicochemical Features of Avocado

The Effect of Osmotic and Ultrasound Pre-Treatment on Some Physicochemical Features of Avocado

and reduction of quality on final product (9). To improve quality of products, some methods as osmosis, blanching before drying are used by researchers and their effects on qualitative properties of dried products are investigated (10). According to the researchers, osmotic pre-treatment for its easy and controllable method is a good pre-process for drying fruits (11). Osmotic dehydration is a process to eliminate a part of water of plant and animal products by submerging it in hypertonic solution and required driving force for transfer of water from food texture to osmotic solution is the difference between osmotic pressure of hypertonic solution and food texture and can be used as an independent stage or in combination with other processes as drying by air, freezing, frying, microwave, canning and etc. (12). Due to the application of osmotic solution (process waste) as the natural source of color, flavor and antioxidants, this process is economical and it also can control mass transfer coating during the process and reduce absorption of dissolved sold materials. Generally, coating materials before osmotic dehydration process without negative effect on water exit avoids the influence of dissolved sold materials to food texture. Cellular walls can be remained as complete and their thickness is similar to the thickness of new sample. Dehydration process by osmotic method leads to reduction of Shrinkage of final product compared to the samples as dried directly under hot air (10). Using coating besides control of osmotic process reduces food value and maintains organoleptic features as well (13). Also, in this study, ultrasound pre-treatment is used. Using ultra-sound waves increases humidity influence coefficient and reduces drying process. Due to cavitation, ultrasound waves create rapid expansion and contractions in matter as similar to compression and releasing of a sponge and water can exit solid matrix and creates micro channels for easy mass transfer during drying by hot air (14). Ultrasound drying is of great commercial importance. In this method, food is less damaged and is dried with low humidity percent (15). In this study, we investigated the combinational pre-treatment of coating and ultrasound osmotic dehydration process in drying process of avocado slices by hot air. The present study aimed to provide dried product of Avocado with good qualitative features.
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