Later I would attend a weekend immersion in reo, a wānanga. I had been anticipating a weekend immersed within the ancient sounds of my tūpuna, my ancestors. I recalled an experience like this once before when I had been immersed within an ancient language. This was when I was standing amongst many Indigenous people from many Indigenous nations in the ancient village of Sacchaymama, Cusco Peru. Standing surrounded by strangers, dressed in their own traditional clothing. I could not see the speaker in front of me, so I had to listen carefully. As I began to get weary from the heat and the high altitude, I sat myself on the ground and my view of the welcome event was improved. I had carefully peered through the bright orange threads of the ancient Chilean skirt, as I did the speaker came into view. The Inca King stood proud high above the spectators from around the globe. He was dressed, as any Inca god would be imagined, draped in cloth and gold. At this moment I realised that I had believed a lie, that the Inca were dead that their language was lost. They existed as defiantly as any other Indigenous peoples. The Inca King speaks with a resonance that is primordial, echoing across the landscape. Gently closing my eyes so that I can engage my sense of hearing more acutely, I begin to feel a sense of time passing as I was transported to a time long before now, before the Spanish arrival and the desecration of an ancient culture. I opened my eyes and I was sitting in the first session of the te reo wānanga. The introductions had begun. The words came quickly and easily to the kai ako, our teacher. My ears were confused at first. They had been listening to English. It had been a long time since my last reo immersion.
Sixteen individuals of M!ori descent participated in this study. The sample ranged in age from 19 to 57 and included 5 males and 11 females. At the time of their recruitment into the study depression levels of the sample ranged from the mild to severe ranges. However the one participant with a pre-treatment score in the mild range withdrew from the study after attending just two sessions. Four participants resided in the Kapiti area, five in the Porirua area and seven in the Wellington area. The majority of participants were existing clients of Te Whare Marie – M!ori Mental Health Services (n=14), one was a former client of Te Whare Marie, whilst the other had not met public service criteria as their depressive features were within the mild-moderate range. A range of co-morbid factors were identified by their care team as present among the participants in this research. These included alcohol and substance abuse (n=7), anxiety disorders (n=6), personality disorders (n=3), and prior diagnoses of bipolar II disorder (n=2). However despite these complexities all of the participants had been given a primary diagnosis of a major depressive episode.
In order to assess whether the students have considered diverse worldviews in their project design, I will therefore be asking the following question during the student presentation: “How does your design make appropriate consideration of cultural aspects of your end users?” Similarly, this question must be addressed in the student’s final report, there must be a consideration of the stakeholder groups for which this product is developed. This requires consideration of teaoMaori by the student. Consequently, my students will need to include in their final report a consideration of how the product will meet the needs of the end user group, with particular focus on design features that take into account Maori end users. This will be a condition of learning outcome 5 of the final year project: to communicate effectively with customers, peers, technicians, and engineers (where customers are the end-users) and means the project is aligned to graduate profile outcomes SK5 and SK7 with particular recognition of cultural factors, which is seldom done explicitly in final year projects.
Hemideina maori is a cold-adapted species that is freeze tolerant (Ramløv, 1992; Sinclair et al., 1999). Monthly survival was highest over winter and lowest over summer during the breeding period for both males and females in all three years. This could be due to the influence of warm temperature on a cool-adapted insect, stress and injury from breeding and mate competition, or a combination of these factors. It would be interesting to model survival as a function of local variation in average summer temperature recorded over a longer period of time, so that predictions about the effects of climate change on alpine ectothermic populations could be made.
This theory is supportive of indigenous nurses, for Maori nurses there is a recognition of the importance of being Maori within the workplace inclusive of cultural awareness and identity, the support of and access to Maori networks inclusive of matauranga Maori for the benefit of tangata whaiora and the adoption of Maori models of health (Simon, 2006). Also, Native American nurses overtly immerse their cultural world into nursing practice (Lowe & Struthers, 2001; Struthers et al., 2005; Sherwood & Edwards, 2006).Their nursing concepts invoke a holistic approach to health incorporating the spirit, the emotion, the physical and the family. The use of traditional knowledge entails the acknowledgement of relationship, respect, wisdom and values. As well as connection, viewed as the characteristic that assists to honour people in the past and of the present through sharing and anticipating, by building, taking risks, creating togetherness, cohesiveness, unfolding, interrelating with all, healing, interweaving and transforming. Other integral dimensions of care respect and trust complete seven dimensions of one Native American nursing model (Lowe & Struthers, 2001).
Focus groups were deemed an appropriate method for research with Máori for several reasons. First, face-to-face engagement with participants in a group setting allows for observation of tikanga (Máori protocols) in the process of data collection. Smith (1999, p. 120) cites several tikanga / principles of conduct for research with Máori; Aroha ki te tangata (a respect for people); Kanohi kitea (the seen face); Titiro, whakarongo. . . korero (look, listen. . . speak); Manaaki ki te tangata (share and host people, be generous); Kia tupato (be cautious); Kaua e takahi te mana o te tangata (do not trample over the mana of people), and; Kaua e mahaki (don’t flaunt your knowledge). The focus group process allowed for observation of such tikanga, in particular by enabling the researchers to connect with participants, to show respect and care for them, and provide a space for them to share their stories and perspectives, which the researchers in turn would listen, learn from and respect.
capitalist culture: musicals, music hall, variety TV spectaculars, pantomime, cabaret- showbiz, in a word. He further suggests that “We often use entertainment broadly interchanging with words such as enjoyable and phrases such as, „I like it‟. Any cultural product any person likes is for them entertainment, and that entertainment creates a category of responses” (Dyer, 1992, p. 2). Dyer suggests that entertainment is not taken seriously because “It rejects claims of morality, politics and aesthetics in a culture which accords these things a high status” (Dyer, 1992, p. 2 ). An example of a group that used entertainment as a means to create a profit yet were not taken seriously was Te Pou O Mangatawhiri or TPM. Maori and Pakeha alike thought of TPM as simply a side show people, a source of amusement and contempt (King, 1987. p. 122). Billy T James has a definition of entertainment; “Entertainment to me is if I had to put it in a nutshell, it makes people feel good by singing to them, by talking to them, by doing what you do really well to them, to me, that is
promotion of assertiveness and independence may be a less relevant indicator of healthy social functioning among Maori. Hirini’s sentiments are further highlighted by the well known Maori whakatauki, ‘kaore te kumara korero mo tona reka’ which emphasises the importance placed on modesty and understatement within Maori society. Based on a review of the literature Miranda et al (2005) strongly encouraged clinicians to provide evidence based care to ethnic minority populations emphasising the importance of “tailoring” this care to make it sensitive and more acceptable to the culture of the individual receiving treatment. The incorporation of Maori customs and practices into more traditional approaches to therapy has been both aspired to and encouraged for many years. However, the lack of empirical evidence supporting the integration of innovative therapeutic techniques when working with Maori represents a dilemma of sorts for the discipline of clinical psychology. The foundation of clinical psychology and perhaps its key point of difference as compared to other helping professions is the strong emphasis on utilising empirically validated and proven methods.
their encouragement, reassurance and the deep discussions to get me over the finish line during the final stages. My thanks are also extended to the various colleagues who have been a part of PhD journey from the School of Sport and Exercise, Massey University; Te Kura Māori, Faculty of Education, Victoria University of Wellington; and, Te Tumu: School of Māori, Pacific and Indigenous Studies at the University of