became apparent during the conversation, was the crossover between these two schools of thought. The trainees discussed the importance of experience in overcoming the challenges they faced, and the value of working with experienced colleagues to learn the skills and techniques that would enable them to become effective teachers. One of the group added that building good relationships with one’s colleagues was also an important element of professionalism. This discussion amongst the group demonstrated a patient understanding of the training process, despite admitting that they were under considerable pressure, and their conversations were light-hearted, peppered with humour and self-effacing anecdotes or comments. The Teach First group were equally good humoured in discussing their teaching experience, and the group’s enthusiasm for the profession was made clear throughout the conversation. However, the responses from the group regarding their strategies for overcoming the challenges they had identified, differed significantly from the GTP trainees.
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In England, Teach First has positioned itself strategically within the landscape of Initial teacher Education as a cost-effective route into teaching which meets a number of the recruitment needs highlighted in the House of Commons (2017) and Nuffield (2014) reports: it increases the pool of beginner teachers by attracting high calibre graduates who may otherwise not have considered teaching (Blumenreich and Rogers, 2016; Friedrich and Walter, 2015; Kopp, 2011; Price and McConney, 2013); it recruits participants for the shortage subjects of English, Science, Maths and Modern Languages; it places its participants in schools in geographical locations that otherwise struggle to recruit teachers and it fast-tracks its participants into leadership which helps meet the higher demand for leaders in Multi Academy Trusts. Yet compared to teachers trained on the PGCE route into teaching, 31% fewer Teach First teachers remain in the profession after four years (Hitchcock et al., 2017: 65) and Sam Friedman, Teach First Director of Research, Evaluation and Impact acknowledged that ‘one of the most common criticisms of Teach First is that many participants see it as a stepping stone to something better’ (Teach First, 2017). At the same time, multi-national organisations who are major Teach First donors, such as Accenture (2018), Price Waterhouse and Cooper (PWC, 2018), Procter and Gamble (2018) and Deloitte (2018) offer successful Teach First ambassadors an automatic place on their graduate programmes.
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Pressures on pupil achievement, alongside a rigorous inspection regime in English schools has arguably led to an increased interest in demonstrating the impact of beginning teachers on pupil attainment. Routes into teaching have come under intense scrutiny, not least the Teach First route (TF), which is seen as an expensive training model. Several impact studies have attempted to evalu- ate TF and its’ teachers, with mixed results (Darling-Hammond, 2006; Reynolds, Hopkins, Potter, & Chapman, 2001). This research builds on these ﬁ ndings and investigates the impact by TF beginning teachers using the Kyriakides, Creemers, and Antoniou (2009) dynamic model of educational eﬀ ectiveness as a frame- work for analysis. Findings indicate that these teacher level factors are interre- lated and not isolated characteristics. Participants move between these levels as the year progresses, and may do so in a non-linear, and non-sequential way. This study has added to an existing body of knowledge and indicates that further ex- ploration of teacher impact is necessary, especially in terms of enabling teachers to assess their own impact on pupils, and to understand what it is they are doing that is making a diﬀ erence.
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Teach First aims to address educational disadvantage by placing Teach First participants in schools with the most educationally disadvantaged pupils. There are two questions to answer when deciding the appropriate way to do this. First, how does one define educational disadvantage? Second, in the absence of observing all characteristics of a pupil that define them as educationally disadvantaged or otherwise, which socio- economic indicator (or combination of indicators) best predicts whether a pupil suffers from educational disadvantage? This chapter addresses both of these questions. Section 4.1 outlines the procedure we use to define a measure of educational disadvantage, which is described in more detail in Appendix D. Section 4.2 assesses which socio-economic indicators are best able to predict this measure of educational disadvantage. We do this first by correlating each indicator with our continuous measure of educational disadvantage. Second, we calculate the percentage of young people who are classified consistently by each socio-economic indicator and our indicator of educational disadvantage created from our rich survey data.
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Societal, economic and technological changes have redefined the role of a professional engineer. Being a professional engineer who is in the forefront of this evolution are not only expected to possess a good command of relevant knowledge but also the ability to be critical thinkers, effective in making informed decision, life-long learners, diversified social skills to work in different contexts and personals, and ability to be competent users of knowledge. To acquire these assortments of knowledge and skills as well as readiness to take on the demands of the today’s society, education practices needs to take a radical change from conventional direct teaching approaches to a more constructivist framework whereby students are active participants in the learning process rather than a passive recipient of knowledge. However, simply putting students in a constructivist learning environment will not only be unhelpful to students, detrimental effects could happen as well if strategies are not in place to help learners acquire the necessary schema to be successful in this environment. In this paper, we have presented an integrated approach to teach engineering mathematics for first-year students in a post-secondary level institution. From the results of this study, following implications are suggested.
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When taking an introductory course in mathematical economics or quantitative methods in the social sciences as part of program requirements students have never or rarely been exposed to differential or difference equations and the general solution to those of first-order, first-degree with a variable term and a variable coefficient. It is, therefore, particularly difficult for beginning students to understand the concept of the particular integral and the complementary function. When discussing the simplest types of equations with a constant term and a constant coefficient, textbooks assume that students know the method of solving the general case of equations and take that solution as ready-made. By use of a particular integral and a complementary function they try to provide students with a formula giving the time path of a function but to the student it is not clear how the formula obtains. More specifically, students do not understand how the particular integral and the complementary function come about and how the general solution is obtained.
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Irrespective of culture, education always has consequences in the later lives of those who undergo it (Bruner, 1996). Blandford’s (2008) study showed that pupils in London secondary schools benefit- ted from the generation of new energy in the classroom, and from the new and varied cultural backgrounds that the TF trainees often bring with them, (Blandford, 2008) widening the perspectives of the pupils they teach. Thus, CRT is not necessarily a one-way process—pupils and teachers learn from each other in both classroom settings and beyond. When new teachers bring new and different cultures into the lives of young people, then it is possible that we may be increasing these conse- quences in a way that broadens the outlook of the teachers, and possibly challenges their own cul- tural assumptions. Of course, this cultural passage may be reciprocated, in that teachers would also benefit from the experience, even if it were only something as simple as learning new references to use in class. This type of two-way interchange between learner and teacher can arguably be aligned with the cultural synthesis ideas of Freire, in which the differing views support each other, and in which knowledge of each other’s culture is transformational and liberating (Freire, 1996). In his ideas on cultural synthesis, Freire talks of the undeniable support between the two different sides, as it were, and which I would argue was indicated in this research. Indeed, as this and other research has shown, teachers do experience growth in their levels of cultural sensitivity while teaching cultur- ally diverse learners (Lastrapes & Negishi, 2011). That is, they adapt, and continue to do so, as they develop as teachers, they become culturally adaptive teachers.
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all indications, at the beginning of each school year, the children whose parents or wards registered them in the school for the first time, usually cries at getting to the school. This is because the school environment appears to be bigger than their houses and full of diverse people. Furthermore, the school environment becomes hustle to the children when second language is introduced as the language of communication and instruction in the school. It was established that the hustle environment the children were subjected may to lead to their eventual dropping out of school. Similarly, it was also asserted that children who learn in their mother tongue do not find it difficult when a second or additional language is introduced as the primary language of instruction in the later stage of the primary education. Fluency and literacy in the mother tongue ultimately lay a cognitive and linguistic foundation for learning other additional languages. In other words, when a child receives formal instruction in his/her mother tongue at the primary school level, then gradually transition to academic learning in the English language, he/she would learn the second language as quickly as possible. Additionally, from the interpretive point of view, children who do not learn in their mother tongue lack self-confidence as learners, moreover, their interest in what they learn decline and this lead to poor academic performance which ultimately culminate in early drop out of school.
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Never tell lies to anyone (30), it is important for my child to be honest (22), those who are honest always win (15), honest person gains everyone’s trust (14), honest is before anything (8), the most important virtue (8), Be honest towards people (8), it earns respect in the society (7), to be a fair individual (6), honest person is affectiond (6), honesty brings value (6), honest person is successful anywhere (5), honest person does not harm those around (4), honest people maintain order within the society (4), life’s key word (4), must advocate for the truth (4), honest person is on the right path (3), the honest person is honest to himself (3), people must be honest regardless of return (3), the dishonest will face problems (3), one must be honest to the family (3), it is the basic in order to be a good man (3), honest person is good person (3), honesty is the meaning of life (3), everyone affections the honest man (3), to respect others’ rights (3), must learn to be honest without return (2), always gains (2), the first characteristic that an individual should possess (2), must not leave in a lifetime (2), his being honest will affect all his life (2), will benefit himself and others (2), must never leave honesty (2), to be good to the nation (1), to be a man of success and faith (1), man will speak of his character (1), the honest man will be respected (1), lies will impair a person (1), in order for his future to be saved (1), if s/he is not honest, s/he will face problems (1), it is the value that makes a man a man (1), s/he will not support society if s/he is dishonest (1), must wear his heart on his sleeve (1), to be as Allah orders (1), must be taught in early ages (1), the most needed thing (1), it supports other values (1), for a world without lies (1), to keep away from bad habits (1), it is very hard to be honest in the age we live (1).
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these accents, and great efforts to sound native-like while, according to Kirkpatrick (2007), "accents are closely bound up with feelings of personal and group identity" (p. 37) and thus such a view among Iranian learners is in fact a threat to their local identity (Pishghadam & Kamyabi, 2008; Pishghadam & Navari, 2009). Therefore, it becomes evident that ignoring the great influence English teachers have on the students and leaving this source of power unsupervised is, in effect, using it at the service of linguistic imperialism, though unintentionally, through fostering cultural derichment and fading local identities. A second way of dealing with this potential source of power, on the other hand, could be taking it under control and using it to the benefit of the educational purposes. That is, having acknowledged this special merit of English teachers, the system can make most of it by using it both to resist linguistic imperialism, which is integral to teaching English (Phillipson, 1992), and at the same time to enhance life qualities in students and thus educate them for life. To this end, the system needs to make a paradigm shift in its ELT towards Applied ELT and redefine the role of English teacher –from passive transmitter of the first generation to the conscious agent of change of the third generation –through training educational language teachers.
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Education has become an effective instrument to strive poverty and inequality in modern societies. It is also used for laying the foundation for a sustainable growth and development of any nation. Primary education is the core of development. It is the level of education that develops in the individual the capacity to read, write and calculate. In other words, it helps to eradicate illiteracy, which is one of the strongest predictors of poverty (Bruns, et al, 2003). Primary education is the largest sub-sector of any education system and offers the unique opportunity to contribute to the transformation of societies by means of the education of children. Primary education is the only level of education that is available everywhere in both the developed and the developing countries as well as in urban and rural areas (Akinbote, 2001). In some European countries, even in developed ones, primary and secondary schools are not prepared for the change in curriculum for language teaching. Primary and secondary schools in Turkey are anxious that they will not meet new standards and requirements of European Union to teach languages in a more effective way such as English and German.
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Observational and non-observational tech- niques were used to collect data. The former were journals, blog group discussions and conferences. The latter were metaphors and questionnaires. Journal entries were done in terms of description, interpretation, intervention points, action plans and follow-up. Blog group discussion was done by means of the postings and feedback of stu- dent teach ers and supervisors in their own blogs. Stu dent teach ers and their practicum supervisors also held a group and individual conference as a way to exchange their impressions about the Re- flective Teach ing Intervention Proposal ( RTIP ) process. As to the non-observational techniques, student teach ers were administered three ques- tionnaires aimed at determining student teach ers’ perceptions about reflective teach ing and its im- portance and at capturing student teach ers’ per- ceptions about the impact of the reflective teach ing insights and practical tools they explored through- out their teach ing practicum experience. Further- more, student teach ers individually drew two metaphors, an initial one which would represent them as prospective teach ers and a final one which would represent them as reflective practitioners. The main purpose of this task was to find out which were the insights and beliefs they held about the teach ing learning process and to assess their initial and post-intervention perceptions on reflective teach ing based on the descriptions they made of their metaphors. They made different kinds of rep-
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belief changes the teachers might have made between the dates of the assessments. Pajares (1992) felt the teachers might be unaware of the beliefs which shape their activities. Typically mathematics education researchers utilize a case study methodology to determine the teachers’ beliefs which furnishes a wealth of information for researchers. Ambrose et al. (2004) However, a case study with the magnitude of 150 participants would be far too time consuming to complete in a timely manner. The researchers wanted to assess the prospective teachers years prior to entering the classroom. The ultimate goal of the survey was to determine what might affect prospective teachers’ subsequent learning of mathematics which included their beliefs about mathematics and mathematics understanding and learning. The ultimate goal of the belief survey was to determine if it was subtle enough to obtain a gamut of scores on each of the beliefs and if the survey would be able to accurately measure their belief changes. The pre-test survey was administered in the first of four mathematics courses for prospective elementary school teachers at the beginning of the course and the posttest at the end of the course. A final score for each belief was a combination of individual scores from the rubric. The scores were ordinal since the sum of the scores was not used. Then a rubric-of rubrics system was developed which could be applied to each belief. Developing the rubric for this study was the most time consuming component. There were seven beliefs measured by the survey. Four beliefs, as an example included: “understanding mathematical concepts is more powerful and more generative than remembering mathematical procedures; if students learn mathematical concepts before they learn procedures
In all the universities, staffing is a common problem, as the visited universities were characterized with a small number of permanent staff, supplemented by large numbers of part-time staff. The problem is often caused by either limited positions available for recruitment of permanent staff at the University or difficulties of getting individuals who meet minimum education qualifications. Most universities require candidates for permanent positions to possess a Master’s degree in a relevant discipline. Universities resolve this by recruiting part-time staff. In the case of universities in South Africa, instructors with only an honours degree are hired due to difficulties of recruiting suitable Master’s degree holders into part-time positions. Relying heavily on part-time staff brings its own challenges. One of these is high labour turnover caused by part-time instructors who constantly look for permanent jobs with better remuneration packages. The situation is more or less the same in Ghana. Both the University of Cape Coast and the University of Ghana have a small number of full-time staff and a large number of part-time staff. For example, at the University of Ghana there are six full-time lecturers and about 25 part-time staff at the Language Centre. This has made it possible for staff to teach between 2-5 groups of students in any given semester.
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Meanwhile, considerably more of the participants had positive responses towards bystander CPR than those who did not irrespective of the method of bystander CPR training. This is consistent with related earlier reports from Nigeria [20-24]. Similarly, Kanstad et al  reported that young Norwegians were motivated to perform bystander CPR despite known barriers and concluded that by providing students with good quality basic life support training in school, the upcoming generation in Norway might strengthen the first part of the chain of survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases. A report by Thoren et al  showed that major reasons for not being educated in CPR among cardiac patients were lack of awareness of the availability of CPR training for the public, lack of interest or lack of enterprise. Taniguchi et al  and Hunziker et al  reported that the main reasons for laypersons not showing willingness to perform bystander CPR were inadequate knowledge and doubt of being able to perform the techniques effectively, fear of disease transmission and fear of possible complications arising in the process. The study by Enami et al  showed that the new guideline on the basic life support slightly but significantly augmented the willingness to make an early call by the respondents.
Within the Crossover project it is difficult at times to tie the taught theory sufficiently well to the set tasks. The tasks here are difficult for the students to complete because they lack confidence in their practical skills. In some cases this is overcome by bright students within the team who have managed to pick up the theory and have become more competent. They can often be encouraged to work beside the poorer students so that less able students improve. This fits in well with the idea of cognitive apprenticeships but also suggests that the students need to have a more gradual ramp up to the tasks in hand. Perhaps the most powerful tool here would be some examples where the teacher fails to solve the problem correctly at first (as suggested by Schoenfeld).
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The job description of a kindergarten teacher includes teaching as well as planning, evaluating, monitoring behavior, and more. Kindergarten teachers are responsible for preparing lessons plans which will teach students basic subjects and skills. These lessons should cover skills in reading, writing, math, science, and social studies. Other job duties include organizing field trips, honing social skills, and discussing behavioral issues with parents (“Kindergarten Teacher” 4). In the past, kindergarten was more relaxed, but now “academics begin to take priority in kindergarten classrooms. Letter recognition, phonics, numbers, and awareness of nature and science…are taught primarily in kindergarten” (“Teachers” 2). There are state standards outlining what must be taught in kindergarten. In addition, teachers must “plan, evaluate, and assign lessons; prepare, administer, and grade tests…and maintain classroom discipline…Teachers also prepare report cards, and meet with
Lander wants students, when taught about the Holocaust, to become aware of the “capacity for violence and compassion” in every human being (2013, 12). It is envisioned that the important “moral, social, and spiritual” values taught (10) will lead students to gain insights and make informed choices when confronted with injustice in our modern world (Salmons 2003). According to Rutland, Holocaust education “can provide an important educational framework to promote…positive interfaith and interethnic relations,” given that teachers are aware of suitable Holocaust teaching material and the emotional needs and reactions of their students (2010, 75). It is not only a moral obligation to remember and teach the Holocaust, but also a tribute to the one- and-a-half million children (similar in age to the students being taught) who lost their lives in this historic genocide.
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Methods: A patient safety training package designed for medical students was delivered in the first year and second year in four Australian medical schools. It comprises eight face-to-face modules, each of two hours. Seminars start with an interactive introduction using questions, video and role play, followed by small group break-outs to discuss a relevant case study. Groups are led by medical school tutors with no prior training in patient safety. Students and tutors then reassemble to give feedback and reinforce key concepts. Knowledge and attitudes to patient safety were measured using the APSQ3, delivered prior to safety teaching, at the end of the first and second years and 12 months after teaching ceased.
In light of the growing body of evidence for out-of-hos- pital systems and care, the need for this evidence to be im- plemented, as well as the required scientific approach to do this effectively, it would appear that it is now more im- portant than ever to equip paramedic students, the likely future managers and leaders of ambulance services, with the knowledge and skills of improvement science. Effective teaching requires a repertoire of teaching methods that will engage students actively in learning . Although the range and effectiveness of methods used for teaching improvement science to clinicians and healthcare students has been systematically reviewed in other healthcare disciplines such as medicine and nursing [32–35], the evidence regarding the specific sub-group of paramedicine students has yet to be fully explored and synthesized in the literature. The aim of this scoping review is to systematically explore and critically appraise the current state of evidence regarding strategies to teach improvement science to paramedicine students. To achieve this overall aim, the review will: