This article describes the Teacher Institute for Curriculum Knowledge about Integration of Technology (TICKIT) and identifies key characteristics of its professional development model. The goal of this report is to share the TICKIT model and findings so that future researchers and practitioners can use them to replicate or adapt to their programs. While we compare our program model to general ideas from the professional development and staff development literature, the creation of this model relied primarily on own experience taking a design experiment approach (Collins, 1999). We focused our research and development efforts to examine what professional development models work within the context of TICKIT and its participants. We began our model development process by identifying characteristics of Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT) (Fisher, Dwyer, & Yocam 1996; Sandholtz, Ringstaff, & Dwyer 1997). The initial TICKIT model incorporat- ed principles from ACOT described in Yocam (1996), which include: (a) professional development activities ought to be situated in the classroom; (b) teacher participants should attend in teams of two to four members from the same school; (d) professional development activities ought to incorpo- rate a constructivist learning approach; (e) participant teachers ought to engage in conversations and reflections regarding their teaching practices, their students, learning theories, technology, and how their teaching practic- es can be changed; (f) teacher participants ought to develop technology integrated lessons or units that can be implemented in their own classrooms; and (g) teacher participants need to be provided with support after they finish the program. Additionally, as a means for building practical teaching knowledge TICKIT participants were required to engage in action research and systemically reflect on their practice.
In 2007, the Cameroon Ministry of Basic Education put in place an Information Communication Technology (ICT) Policy and Strategy Plan outlining guidelines for the development of ICT in schools. The plan envisaged the production of an ICT-literate workforce which will acquire thinking, learning and communications skills to respond to the demands of the 21st century. With a clear policy objectives put in place to develop ICT across the school curriculum, the government and her development partners are gradually equipping schools with the re- quired ICT resources (Nkwenti Ndongfack, 2010). Although ICTs are gradually being made available in class- rooms, most schools with no electricity, computers and internet connection continue to be left behind. Teachers who have access to ICT in their schools under-utilise the resources for instructional purposes. Pupils from rich backgrounds with access to computers and internet connection at home are more technology-savvy than their teachers. This category of pupils poses a lot of challenges to their teachers when it comes to using technology in classrooms (Inspectorate of Pedagogy in Charge of ICT Annual Report, 2011). Teachers’ inability to handle this category of pupils has been largely blamed on little or no professional development (Fru, 2011; Karsenti, Collin, & Harper-Merrete, 2012). The lack of these skills and technological resources significantly inhibits the use of ICT tools in teaching and learning.
There is a consensus view from a substantial body of research that teachers have pedagogical challenges in the use of digital technology teaching and learning activities (Ertmer, Ottenbreit-Leftwich, Sadik, Sendurur, & Sendurur, 2012; Almekhlafi & Almeqdadi, 2010; Goktas, Yildirim & Yildirim, 2009; Hutchison & Reinking, 2011; Tezci, 2011). These challenges include low-bandwidth technology which can be unreliable and break down at any given moment, and can be an obstacle for accessing the Internet (Lemke, Coughlin & Reifsneider, 2009). It is also argued that most teachers have been slow to transform the ways they teach, despite the influx of new technology into their classrooms; and despite the desired outcome of the technological progress in schools, the implementation remains a major challenge (Herold, 2016). It is also noted that schools are underfunded and teachers are undertrained, facing environments where the technologies they use are not always reliable (Smith, 2015). Furthermore, the results revealed some of the major digital technology challenges as the limited budget; inadequate professional training; teachers’ resistant to change; inadequate network infrastructure; unreliable device and software; no systems to use technology for curriculum; and that education districts did not see immediate need for more digital technologyintegration in teaching and learning (ibid).
interdependence between overall attitudes and proficiencies by conclusion of the study. As students participated in teaching and learning with technology, at some point during their two- year experience a shift occurred and the relationship between attitudes and efficacy increased. What cannot be determined is how much time is necessary in order to effect the corresponding change. Findings from the literature review suggest that more time using technology leads to better computer attitudes, with corroborating studies indicating that to feel comfortable using computers takes approximately 1,000 hours of training or more (Liu, Macmillan, & Timmons, as cited in Lambert, Gong, & Cuper, 2008). While the correlation reported in this study does support the premise that a time factor is needed to influence attitudes and proficiencies, beyond the establishment of how much time, knowledge of quantity is insufficient without also acknowledging participants' quality of experience. These questions could be addressed in the future through experimental manipulation of the technologyintegration variable to draw conclusive evidence for the time and quality elements, as the significant correlation found could be the result of other unknown intervening or mediating variables that emerged over time. As well, a more intentional qualitative approach could shed light on such questions, along with rigor in the use of pilot testing during question development to ensure validity of the constructs used.
As noted above, it is not the mere presence of, or access to, ICT-resources that will transform education. Transformation will be effected through what teachers do with the technology that is available to them. Because technology and the local context are changing it is necessary for teachers to engage in an ongoing process of inquiry through which they appropriate the affordances of technology to develop creative responses to local needs. The cyclical process of teacher inquiry is central to the model and is informed by systemic inputs, contextual factors including the needs and responses of learners, and the wider professional networks and communities within which teachers share their experiences and from which they draw inspiration for their own continuing learning. Teacher agency is a critical element for motivation through the sense that their contribution is valued and their professionalism trusted. The cycle of inquiry at the heart of this model is consistent with the recommendation for design-based research that arose from EDUsummIT 2103 (Albion et al., 2015b). Teacher-researchers adopting inquiry learning and working close to the context of learning are well placed to discern what works well for learning and to adopt or adapt practices as appropriate to their context. There is no claim that this model is the solution to all the challenges of TPD for ICT in education but it does encapsulate principals from successful cases and points the way to future developments.
Harris & Hofer (2011) also looked at instructional planning in a professional development initiative using a TPACK structure. The type of planning studied by Harris & Hofer was distinctive from traditional methods of professional development or technologyintegration planning. Technologyintegration was not the reason for the planning, but rather an overall instructional plan that took into account technological, content, contextual, and pedagogical considerations. Although curriculum and content were still given first priority before and after their professional development initiative, teachers allowed more strategic consideration to technological influences that could impact student learning after their professional development (p.225). The planning described by Harris & Hofer also satisfied Zhao & Cziko’s (2001) three conditions to ensure that teachers use technology more in their classroom: that is 1) teacher belief that technology facilitated a higher level goal better than strategy previous to the technology 2) teacher belief that using technology will not disturb other high-level goals, and 3) belief that the teacher had the ability and resources to use technology (p.21).
Crawford (2000), Guadelli (2002) and Fraser (2005) observed that the pedagogic day seminar also known as the one-shot workshop model for teacher professional development is practised by many countries. Despite the widespread applicability of the model, the researchers argue that it does not promote long term change in teach- ers’ practice and has generally failed to transform what teachers do in the classroom. One of the reasons identi- fied by the researchers is that there is usually no follow-up after the training. Even if participants felt that it was beneficial, the likelihood that they would integrate the skills and knowledge acquired into their practises and maintained them over time is very slim. Guadelli (2002) commented that teachers from the same school attend- ing this model of professional development have very little chance of continuous collaboration and networking after the event because of no follow-up and support. The researchers concur with this view because working as an Inspector of Pedagogy in the Ministry of Basic Education for the past eight years and a teacher educator for 23 years, the limited number of supervisory staff and other resources cause a limited follow-up of teachers after their participation in the pedagogic day seminar. The lack of proper follow-up indicates that teachers will be unable to build on the knowledge and skills discussed at the workshop or get practical support from their col- leagues to effectively integrate technological knowledge into their practices. Based on the weaknesses observed in the existing model of teacher professional development on technologyintegration, this study was conducted with the following research question in mind:
● A lot of studies have shown that lack of teacher confidence is one of the main barriers for integration of ICT (Bingimlas, 2009; Schoepp, 2004). It influences the motivation of teacher if there is no interaction with such tools of technology (cox, preston & cox, 1999b). the teacher’s ability to design the types of activities that effectively apply collaborative inquiry to e-learning tasks for intensifying student knowledge continues to be crucial, whatever the subject area, student age or software choices (Kimber, pillay & richards, 2007). according to pelgrum (2001), teachers did not have sufficient knowledge and skills regarding ICT; as most countries did not yet succeed in realizing adequate facilities to keep teachers up-to-date with regard to new technologies. professional development is an outstanding issue and teachers need to feel themselves as professional users of technology. When they are taken into a system they are not enough capable of, their lack of confidence turns into fear of failure in using the technology (beggs, 2000). it means, teachers need to be educated. the teacher training system in turkey has not any specific education about the use of technologyintegration in learning and teaching process, indeed the teachers do not have either confidence or competence.
students performed as well as traditionally taught peers on standardized measures of learning even though they used class time learning how to utilize a variety of technology, and the greater attention on higher order, complex processing skills may have taken away from basic skill instruction. ACOT Report #7 (Baker et al., 1990) evaluates the first two years of the ACOT technologyintegration study using the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, Iowa Tests of Educational Development, analysis of student writing samples, School Attitude Measure, Self-Concept and Motivation Inventory, and teacher, student, and parent interviews. Using these tools, ACOT researchers found that secondary students in ACOT classrooms were more capable of improving the quality of their rewrites on essays, many teachers reported a positive impact on their job interests and performance, and parents believed the project benefited their children in their child’s knowledge of computers, attitudes towards learning, and achievement. ACOT researchers interpreted the ability of ACOT students to perform at the same level of traditionally schooled students as a positive outcome because of the significant changes in instruction that may have affected student results on a standardized test of basic knowledge (Baker et al., 1990). Additionally, ACOT researchers observed that teachers noted growth in their own abilities and viewed students’ roles in the learning process as more active. This report demonstrated the need for further investigation into new assessment methods in assessing how technology affects the classroom environment. Researchers felt changes in student attitudes and level of thinking were present in their informal observations of ACOT classrooms.
Even though Zimbabwe is a developing country, innovations in information and communication technologies (ICT) are impacting the country at a rapid pace. As a result, the education system in general, and teacher education in particular, needs to prepare students with the technological knowledge and skills needed in what today is being referred to as the global knowledge society (Association of African Universities, 2000). The Africa University [a pan-African institution located in Zimbabwe] Strategic Development Plan 2001 – 2008, (2002) in its executive summary, for example, asserts that, “The development and application of ICT to African higher education is crucial and urgent if the continent is going to be able to reduce the knowledge, technological and economic gap between itself and the rest of the world” (p. 4). It also observes that institutions in Africa need to prepare themselves to meet technologyintegration issues and other challenges and demands of the 21 st century. The strategic plan then cautions that African tertiary institutions “need to run very fast to avoid falling very far behind” (p. 4).
It is important that DNPST understand how the technologies they have been exposed to since childhood can be used to teach. Zhao, Pugh, Sheldon, and Byers (2002) add that the implementation of new technologies into teaching is a messy process. DNPST’ technology competency and beliefs about how technology tools are effective in education and it is crucial for DNPST to use these tools in classroom (Bai & Ertmer, 2008). Research have shown that DNPST’ attitudes toward self-competency and their personal beliefs about technology directly affect the pedagogic intention and likelihood of implementing new technologies in their classrooms (Tondeur, van Braak, Ertmer, & Ottenbreit- Leftwich, 2017; Anderson & Maninger, 2007; Teo, Lee, Chai, & Wong, 2009; Choy, Wong, & Gao, 2009). On the other hand, the importance of pre-service and in-service teacher preparation has a great effect on DNPST’ will to use technology in classroom. Systematic professional growth throughout teaching career is key for today's classroom. Tondeur et al. (2017) state that professional development is key to technologyintegration. According to Mouza and Karchmer-Klein (2013) there is a great need for professional development in learning to teach with technology for educators. Also, Corkett and Benevides (2015) and Teo (2009) support the idea of introducing different types of technology tools that DNPST may encounter or need in classrooms through pre- service teacher education or professional development sessions.
Over the past ten years innovations in the use of ICT in schools have moved from introducing them into the classroom, integrating into teaching and learning, through to sophisticated e-learning practices that have continued to evolve (Garrett, 2011). Current policy and practice, nationally and internationally, accepts that e-learning can enhance student learning. Whilst there is some debate on the impact on the use of ICT on student achievement (Reynolds, Treharne & Tripp, 2003; Ward & Parr, 2010), it’s use has been found to have positive impacts, especially when integrated into teaching and learning in authentic learning environments (Chandra & Lloyd, 2007; Herrington, Reeves & Oliver, 2010). The continued progress in e-learning requires different and innovative ways of conceptualising, measuring and evaluating the educational developments in both teachers’ use of ICT and the effect it has on student learning outcomes (Reeves & Hedberg, 2003; Reeves, 2006; Trimmer, Kennish & McNamara, 2007). New and different approaches to educational technology research and evaluation of e-learning and related pedagogy are evolving concurrently with educational practice.
With the advance of information and communication technology (ICT) and the growth of interest in the use of the Internet for education, teachers are now working in new online environments. In line with this situation, there is great need for teacherdevelopment in the integration of ICT into teaching and learning activities and in the design, implementation and evaluation of e- learning. In productive and practical ways, computer-mediated communica- tion (CMC) can help teachers build and apply their knowledge, collaborate in their learning with fellow teachers, and reflect on their classroom practice. This chapter addresses the issue of how the features of CMC foster teacherdevelopment in terms of communication, collaboration and reflection. Exam- ples are taken from CMC activities employed for a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) course in a postgraduate program. It is suggested that teacherdevelopment can be effectively promoted by CMC with interactive communi- cation, professional collaboration and critical reflection in situated contexts.
While the researcher is working in the school in which the study took place Herrington, McKenney, Reeves, and Oliver (2007) note that most design based research includes participants in the researcher’s own practice due to the fact that this type of research cannot be conducted in isolation of practice. In this study the researcher was also the principal in the school in which the study took place. It was a function of leadership to provide the time for the professional learning and to rearrange schedules to provide additional time structured in a way that teachers noted impacted their practice. Leadership is a key component to ensure the focus stays on the professional learning and that time is embedded within the structures of the school day or teachers’ working hours in order to implement this design. Leadership also required all teachers to participate in the professional learning opportunity as it was a schoolwide goal and expectation. A suggestion for future professional learning developers is to propose a technologyintegration schoolwide goal be considered by leadership as part of a formal school improvement plan. This would ensure leadership stays focused on the professional learning experience and provides the time necessary for teacher learning.
The world is rapidly moving into digital media and information. The role of ICT is widely accepted, and its presence has basically transformed the practices and procedures of all forms of venture within education, business, governance and personal life. Although a study by Oliver (2002) found that the education sector is comparatively less influenced by the development and use of ICT than other fields such as business and industrial fields, several studies (Freitas & Conole, 2010; Meier & Spada, 2008; Rana, 2018; Rana, Greenwood & Fox ‐ Turnbull, 2019; Roth, 2009; Stensaker, Maassen, Borgan, Oftebro & Karseth, 2007) reported that the rapid development of digital technology and its use has internationalised and commercialised higher education, and provided multiple flexible learning options such as part-time and distance learning. Gulati (2008) argues that with the dynamic features of ICT, teachers and learners can create open independent and accessible educational prospects. He further emphasises that the web technology has made it possible to share the issues of educational disparity and social exclusion, and ideas to solve such problems and that the use of digital technology has gradually shifted teaching and learning strategies. Ferreira, Haddad and Faria (2014) emphasise that ICT can be resources for learning for both teachers and students and it provides them with opportunities for sharing their experiences and for updating themselves with the latest informative materials and theoretical improvements in education.
Yildrin and Kiraz, (1999); Reynold and Morgan, (2001); Oigara and Wallace, (2012) in their various studies stress the importance of technology training and mentoring as a major factor that could enable teacher develop positive attitude toward technology, which will invariably encourage them to use it to enhance classroom instruction. Another salient point on student teacher preparedness to use technology as identified by Bullock (2004) was the state of the technology skill demonstrated by those assigned to mentor the teacher in training. The skill and ability to mentor effective use of technology may enable or disable pre- service teachers’ use of technology. Groove (2008) submitted that preparing pre-service teacher with the skill of using technology for pedagogy related activities is a complex process with so many mediating factors. Pre-service teachers’ professional competence in the use of modern tools continues to attract researcher’s interest due to their role in the society. As a result, studies on the impact of how these professionals are train for the utilization of technology for pedagogy and content delivery became the focus of research. While studies of Brzycki and Dudt (2005) as well as Sulton (2011) concluded that teacher training programme are less effective to prepare pre-service teacher to acquire the proficiency needed for integration of technology for teaching in a most effective way, Fleming, Motamedi and May (2007) were of the view that the more hand-on demonstration on technologyintegration a pre-service teacher is exposed to, the more confidence they developed in using instructional technology skill after their graduation from teacher training school.
However, a large number of studies have documented teachers’ gender disparity in the perception and use of technology within different settings. For example, Zhou & Xu (2007) surveyed a large number of full-time faculty and instructors at a large Canadian university and found that females had lower confidence and less experience in using computers as a part of their teaching strategies. Yuen & Ma (2002) surveyed 186 pre-service teachers based on the framework of the Technology Acceptance Model and found that the level of perceived usefulness, perceived ease-of-use, and intention to use computers in the classroom was much lower for females than for male teachers. Markauskaite (2005) investigated gender differences in self-reported experiences to instructional and computer technology (ICT) use and ICT literacy among first-year teachers. Questionnaires were given to 151 female and 66 male teachers. In this study, the researcher found that male teachers tended to be more confident in their ability to use computers in the classroom than were female teachers. Zogheib (2006) investigated computer use among pre-service teachers related to experience with technology, demographic factors, motivation for use, personality factors and learning styles. Zogheib’s study utilized a mixed-method design collecting quantitative data via surveys and qualitative data via interviews. Data resulting from this study showed that female pre-service teachers used computers less than their male counterparts.
technology for electrical system which simply converts the conventional power grid towards the modern grid in order to regulate sustainable, economic and reliable electricity. Many developed and some developing countries already adopted smart grid technology for sustainable operations even though many countries are struggling for shortage of electricity, proper electricity infrastructure. This paper presents the technological factors for smart grid implementation and lesson learned from countries who have already adopted to achieve sustainable development. It also analysis some factors for countries who wants to install it.
Ukraine’s acquisition of a fullyfledged partner status in continental technological projects depends on the most basic model for realizing interests in the global arena: actively participating in the life of the international community. This is particularly relevant in light of Ukraine’s governmental economic development programs that predict by 2010 about 65 — 70 per cent of Ukraine’s trade turnover will be taken up by the «far abroad» 1 as a result of the growing diversification of world trade, while in this context relations with the EU are viewed as a baseline orientation in the refocus of geostrategy. The EU is composed of powerful economies featur ing high standards of living and technological ad vances. However, skeptical assessments of the poten tial for UkraineEU cooperation are misplaced. Allegations to the effect that «Europe is not inter ested in a powerful Ukraine preferring to have it as a an appendix supplying raw materials» cannot be justified with arguments that rest on a profound analysis of global cooperation and integration trends.
Big data technology has received widespread attention in recent years, which refers to the technology system that captures, discovers and analyzes a large number of kinds and sources of complex data at high speed and extracts its value reasonably. The smart grid is regarded as one of the essential technical fields of big data applications. On the one hand, a large number of intelligent meters and broad application of sensing technology, the power industry has produced a large number of diverse structures, multiple sources of data, how to store and apply these data, is a difficult problem facing power companies. On the other hand, using these data can expand more value-added services for power companies and reduce the environmental impact.