One of the indicators of English language proficiency used by Malaysian public universities is the Malaysian University English Test (MUET). This study seeks to examine whether MUET is an accurate predictor of academic performance of a group of English teachereducation students. The participants for this study consisted of 111 first and second year students who were enrolled in a B. Ed Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) program at a local public university. A general linear multivariate regression was conducted using the SPSS for the overall score of the MUET together with their scores on each of the test components and the students CGPA (Cumulative Grade Point Average). The analysis was carried out to identify important predictors of academic achievement by correlating each of the independent predictor variables with each other as well as with the academic achievement criterion. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that reading and listening components were significant predictors of students’ academic achievement. These findings seem to indicate that the different components of the MUET can be used to predict students’ academic performance more accurately than the overall MUET score itself. However, there is a need for continuing predictive validity studies in different contexts. Context specific studies are important as they provide empirical evidence and contribute to an increasing literature on the relevance of MUET in higher education settings.
Aside from the desirability of changing the persistent commercial preference for NESTs in international contexts, Saffort and Kelly (2010) indicate the need for changes in institutional language practices in Britain. These authors argue that the invisible linguistic and cultural capital of multilingual student teachers should be recognized and appreciated, but their study shows how multilingual students are subordinated and disempowered in current discourses of monolingual teachereducation institutions (Ibid.). In another study on teachereducation programs, Ilieva (2010) observes the ways in which student teachers react to and adopt authoritative program discourses in the process of developing their professional identities. While this study indicates some agentive power of NNESTs, they are unfortunately not free of institutional discourses promoting the linguistic and cultural supremacy of NESTs. Thus a brief survey of current World Englishes literature reveals the persistence of the native speaker fallacy and its pervasive effects on the perceptions and identities of NNESTs internationally.
Abstract Current technologies are changing delivery options for post-graduate teachereducation. Many practicing teachers who return to school to prepare to educate English learners choose distance learning. This article explores teachers’ perceived satisfaction with the quality of online courses, with the collaborative tasks required in these, and the extent to which the teachers consider the online course format effectively prepares them to work with English learners. This study reports qualitative and quantitative finding from a questionnaire administered to teachers who completed graduate level courses in an online format. Data gathered strongly support online course delivery as a viable and appropriate format for post-graduate teacher preparation. Study findings are encouraging for the effectiveness of online course formats to prepare practicing teachers. Responses on the survey questionnaire completed by participants document their perception that online courses are as rigorous as F2F coursework given effective online delivery formats that include appropriate instructor availability, timely and positive feedback, and flexible course organization.
our teachers, training, all to the exclusion of educating, is wrong. And that's the situation we are facing today" (Jarvis, S. & Sunskis, A., 2007). Jarvis and Sunskis (2007) explain that the problem with solely training teachers is that the training quality and the specific skills learnt depend on the mentor and the class student teachers are exposed to. Every class is unique and if prospective teachers only get trained they are limited to their own experience. When faced with a different class and situation, if the teacher cannot go back to theory and pedagogy they may not have the tools to adequately do their job. It is in the best interest of the public and students for teachers to have a broad knowledge base that is the foundational knowledge for the development of critical thinking skills and reflective thought. Initial teachereducation prepares teachers to have those skills by teaching such concepts and topics as: diverse perspectives, human rights, parental involvement, social issues, stages of learner development, professionalism, and ethics and values (Gambhir, M., Evans, K., Gaskell, J., 2008). Moreover, many educators make the case for the importance of critical inquiry, professional collaboration, and the use of research to improve student learning and teacher performance (Bransford, Brown & Cocking, 2000; Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2001; Fullan, Hill, & Crevola, 2006; Katz, Sutherland & Earl, 2005). This is a transformative approach and reflective of the richness of teachereducation. Gambhir and al. (2008) explain that,
Another assumption for the PGDE program is that a pre-service teacher who has ob- tained a BSc can teach related scientific discipline in a high school. For example, it is assumed that pre-service teacher who specialized in molecular biology at the under- graduate level will be able to teach ecology at secondary school level since these are all the topics in the biology curriculum. Or a pre-service teacher with an engineering degree and able to teach physics in a high school. While this may be generally true, some pre-service teachers experience tensions in teaching subject matter knowledge that they are not proficient. Although content upgrading courses are available for pre- service teachers, the number and range of courses offered is not able to keep up with the varied and different demands of pre-service teachers who entered the program. There is also currently few research carried out in Singapore to better understand how much content knowledge is required for science teachers to be proficient in their teach- ing. While it seemed important to understand this aspect of science teachereducation, few studies are in the pipeline to examine this issue due to the complexities related to data collection in this type of research. One possible way that the MOE is working on to overcome this issue of low confidence with subject matter knowledge is to have formal peer mentoring structures whereby pre-service teachers with different specialization backgrounds are put together in learning communities. It is hoped that this will encourage a culture of peer learning to level up subject matter knowledge.
Through MGMP, it is expected that teachers can maintain the quality of its performance by doing their task as teacher in accord with public need particularly in working field. By MGMP involvement in performance enhancement process, it is demanded to always do various breakthroughs which in turn will build quality education. Quality education will has high value, so MGMP implementation has very strategic role in the effort to enhance teacher performance. In order that MGMP activity is beneficial and can be run as expected, the members is expected to be involved in each stage of organization activity such as program planning stage, implementation stage and evaluation stage. However, earlier study result (Firman: 2016) showed that teachers basically only involved and involve optimally in implementation stage of MGMP only. Teachers not only involved in planning stage such as in program arrangement or scheduling. It is seen that the role of administrator is more dominant and this program arrangement also was not done through teacher’ need analysis. As for in evaluation stage, in which teachers only as object of evaluation, namely persons who are evaluated.
A total of six learning elements which were prepared using the MLITA were observed by the 3 ESL teachers over a period of 28 weeks (May – November 2010). Prior to this, the researchers conducted four training workshops (January – March 2010) for the action research teacher and the 3 ESL classroom observers to familiarize them with the Multiliteracies framework and in using the Teacher Rating sheet (TRS) to assess students’ engagement in writing in English using the MLITA. The action research teacher designed the six LEs during the workshop with guidance from the researchers (refer to Appendix I). During the workshop sessions, the action teacher prepared several drafts of the LEs until the final version was approved by the researchers. In addition, the stipulated writing genres taught adhered to the existing English syllabus. Discussions on the intricacies of the proposed design of the LEs following the MLITA helped the action teacher to employ appropriate strategies to teach writing to her ESL students. The designed LEs were closely reviewed by the researchers to ensure that key elements of the MLITA were incorporated in the various knowledge processes. The LEs were constructed based on the essay requirements in the SPM continuous writing section which specifically covers the following six genres in Paper 1: Reflective, Descriptive, Narrative, Argumentative, Factual and Free Style essays. The classroom observers were given detailed information on the assessment criteria underlying the implementation of the TRS to evaluate students’ progress in the writing classroom. A total of 6 classroom observations were carried out by the 3 ESL teachers (one for each LE). This number of observations is in line with the justification provided by Crano and Brewer (2002) who highlight that the number of observers is dependent on the context and requirements of the study. In this study, the researchers trained the 3 ESL teachers on using the TRS to evaluate students’ progress in the writing classroom. The construction of interview questions for the ESL teachers as respondents was given due consideration with regards to the research question and conceptual framework of this study. This procedure involved segregating themes and issues in relation to the area of study which is closely aligned to the teaching and learning of writing using the MLITA.
The ICT revolution has influenced almost every aspect of human being including education. Teacher need to move with the times. For this the training of teacher in ICT skills is must. The various schemes and programmes have been launched both at government and nongovernment levels to develop ICT skills in teacher. Various Universities have designed specific courses for teachereducation through ICT. ICT is a powerful and effective means for education.
The cooperating teacher is encouraged to leave the room for brief periods of time after he/she feels the teacher candidate is capable of handling the situation adequately. The teacher candidate needs ample opportunity to develop initiative and use good judgment. This suggestion does not mean that the teacher candidate is to be left alone for an extended period of time, nor with classes that may be difficult to control. Classes should not be turned over to a teacher candidate on a moment’s notice, except in the case of an emergency. The cooperating teacher is responsible for
Indirect feedback is a strategy of providing feedback commonly used by teachers to help students correct their errors by indicating an error without providing the correct form (Ferris & Roberts, 2001). Indirect feedback takes place when teachers only provide indications which in some way makes students aware that an error exists but they do not provide the students with the correction. In doing so, teachers can provide general clues regarding the location and nature or type of an error by providing an underline, a circle, a code, a mark, or a highlight on the error, and ask the students to correct the error themselves (Lee, 2008; O’Sullivan & Chambers, 2006). Through indirect feedback, students are cognitively challenged to reflect upon the clues given by the teacher, who acts as a ‘reflective agent’ (Pollard, 1990) providing meaningful and appropriate guidance to students’ cognitive structuring skills arising from students’ prior experience. Students can then relate these clues to the context where an error exists, determine the area of the error, and correct the error based on their informed knowledge. Indeed, facilitating students with indirect feedback to discover the correct form can be very instructive to students (Lalande, 1982). It increases students’ engagement and attention to forms and allow them to problem-solve which many researchers agree to be beneficial for long term learning improvement (Ferris, 2003a; Lalande, 1982).
Children in special schools were seen as geographically and socially segregated from their peers, and the initial movement to locationally integrate these students in mainstream schools (‘integration’) shifted to one where the whole school was encouraged to become more adaptable and inclusive in its day-to-day educational practices for all students (‘inclusive education’). Pedagogy in particular was highlighted as the key to meeting all students’ educational needs by making the curriculum flexible, and so more accessible. teaching methods which can make curriculum accessible to children with disabilities can also make learning accessible to all students (Ainscow, 2005; Ainscow, 1991), a teacher or school principal is well on the way to improving the overall quality of their school.
The Teacher Work Sample Folio has a total of eight components, seven of which deal with teaching processes identified by research and best practice as fundamental to improving the internship in teaching. The eighth component requires the teacher to plan integrated lessons in selected content areas of language arts and reading; mathematics and science; the social sciences; the arts; and physical and health education. In addition, this component requires that these lessons be aligned with the Mississippi Curricular Frameworks and/or the Common Core Standards. Each dimension (of the teaching process) of the Teacher Work Sample is followed by a TWS criterion or indicator, the task, a prompt, and a rubric that defines various levels of performance on the standard. The criteria and rubrics will be used to evaluate your work. The prompts help document the extent to which you have met the criteria. Included in this packet are sample answers to each prompt.
Critical incidents can be positive and/or negative events and may be identified by reflecting on a ‘teaching high’ or a ‘teaching low’ (Thiel, 1999). A teaching high in a language class could be a sudden change in the lesson plan teachers make during class because of their perceptions of the current events. They, then, decide to alter the events and this change, in turn, has some positive overall effect on the lesson such as more student response. A teaching low could be a specific classroom incident that is immediately problematic or puzzling for the teacher, such as one student suddenly crying during class for no apparent reason. The case study reported on here could be classified as a teaching ‘low’ for the teacher because the negative comments provided by the student went beyond what the teacher was expecting. As such, the self-reflective narrative (in the form of a critical incident) outlined in the above case study demonstrates how real practices (also note the use of the teacher’s own words throughout) can conflict with expectations and outcomes. However, as McCabe (2002, p. 83) recommends, when we begin to analyze such critical incidents in which outcomes conflict with our expectations, “we can come to a greater understanding of the expectations themselves—what our beliefs, philosophies, understandings, conceptions (of the classroom, of the language, of the students, of ourselves) actually are.” Indeed, by vividly recalling and describing such critical incidents, teachers can begin to explore all kinds of assumptions that underlie their practice.
This paper discusses the development of beginning physics teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in the context of teaching basic electricity during a one-year Professional Graduate Diploma in Education course (PGDE) and beyond. This longitudinal study used repeated semi-structured interviews over a period of four-and-a-half years. The interview schedule followed a line of development through the secondary school electrical syllabus in Scotland. Fifteen student teachers were interviewed during the PGDE year. Six of them were followed up at the end of the Induction Year (their first year as a newly qualified teacher), and again two-and-a-half years later. Thematic analysis of the interviews showed that before the beginning teachers had taught any classes, their initial focus was on how to transform their own subject matter knowledge (SMK) about electricity into forms that were accessible to pupils. As the beginning teachers gained experience working with classes, they gave vivid descriptions of interacting with particular pupils when teaching electricity which showed the development of their pedagogical knowledge. This played a significant role in the teachers’ change of focus from teaching physics to teaching children as they transformed their SMK into forms that were accessible to pupils and developed their general pedagogical knowledge.
The challenges of rural mathematics education prior to our high school one- to-one program were quite typical. The department and district struggled to “keep up” with wealthier, neighboring districts. Large sums of money were spent each and every year on graphing calculator technology so we could offer our students what we thought was a technology-rich mathematics education. Through requisitions and grants we were able to secure classroom sets of graphing calculators and enough graphing calculators to issue one to each Calculus and Precalculus student for their use during the school year. At that time we had an isolated computer lab located in the building, but lab time was difficult to schedule, manage, and preparation was always a challenge because one never knew what technical difficulties one would encounter in the lab setting. All of this changed, however, in June 2004, when our school board approved a one-to-one laptop initiative at the high school. That fall every student (and teacher) was issued a laptop, complete with a full-slate of applications to use throughout the school year.
as it allocated six times more amount for the improvement of the education system in comparisons to the previous plans. The XIth FYP (2007-2012) sought to reduce dropout rates in elementary education from 52.2 per cent in 2003-04 to 20 per cent by 2011-12; develop minimum standards of educational attainment in elementary school, and through regular testing monitor effectiveness of education to ensure quality; increase literacy rate for persons of age 7 years and above to 85 per cent; lower gender gap in literacy to 10 percentage points; increase the percentage 8 from the present 10 per cent to 15 per cent by the end of the XIth Plan (MHRD, 2012). Similarly the XII the plan also focussed primarily on inclusive education that is the education for all. The XIIth FYP (2012-2017) has accorded high priority to the expansion of education, ensuring that educational opportunities are available to all segments of the society, and ensuring that the quality of education imparted is significantly improved. (MHRD, 2012) All these policies have long term implications the success of which lies on the quality of teachers available/ entering the system. The teachereducation thus has come under tremendous pressure to produce quality teachers who can, with their teaching skills, retain the student population who is now accessing the classrooms after the removal of several barriers under the above mentioned schemes and programmes.
Currently, after this analysis, we can claim that she follows the ‘reflective in, on and for’ approach in a clear way in her teaching with slight modification. She also cares about Dewey (1933 P.9) three important attributes of reflecting teaching which are “open mindedness, responsibility and wholeheartedness”. The following teacher also consider the Editor (2011), view of reflective teaching which means looking at what you do in the classroom, thinking about why you do it, and thinking about if it works - a process of self- observation and self-evaluation.
Besides, some teachers believe that grammar rules should not be taught in isolation has somehow made the process of correcting the students’ errors even more difficult. The comments or feedbacks regarding these types of errors are commonly given in indirect way; normally in spoken form. This causes difficulties to some students because they can process the information better when dealing with direct comments compared to hedging and indirect speech acts. Apart from that, politeness which comes along with hedging causes difficulty in understanding for the students’ part as well. This occurs most probably because the teachers try to appear more polite and to secure the relationship between the student and teacher.