Koper, Merriënboer and Jochems (2004) argue that the integration of digital technology in teacher education develops the professional skills of prospective teachers. Ferreira et al. (2014) emphasise that ICT allows teachers to access a wide range of openly available digital information and to develop their own professional network virtually. López-Pérez, Pérez-López, Rodríguez-Ariza and Argente-Linares (2013) argue that the internet facilities provide learners with opportunities for learning autonomously on their own pace and facilitates their positive results. A study by Rasiah (2014) revealed that social media like the Facebook was indeed viewed as an effective tool in a student-centred learning environment which enriched students’ educational experiences increasing the relevance of the subject matter and encouraging students to collaborate with their peers. In addition, Albayrak and Yildirim (2015) state that Facebook as a course management system has the potential to increase student involvement in discussions and out-of-class communication among teachers and students. Hung and Yuen (2010) also emphasise that social networking websites provide opportunities for students to interact beyond the classroom, which, as a result, leads to additional learning opportunities and also enhances participation in the face-to-face classroom. However, Rana (2018) argues that in absence of specific strategies to implement the ICT in education policy, lack of funding for the resources and ICT infrastructure and teachers’ professional development, it may take decades to realise the minimum level of ICT resources in educational organisations.
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With the advance of information and communication technology (ICT) and the growth of interest in the use of the Internet for education, teachers are now working in new online environments. In line with this situation, there is great need for teacher development in the integration of ICT into teaching and learning activities and in the design, implementation and evaluation of e- learning. In productive and practical ways, computer-mediated communica- tion (CMC) can help teachers build and apply their knowledge, collaborate in their learning with fellow teachers, and reflect on their classroom practice. This chapter addresses the issue of how the features of CMC foster teacher development in terms of communication, collaboration and reflection. Exam- ples are taken from CMC activities employed for a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) course in a postgraduate program. It is suggested that teacher development can be effectively promoted by CMC with interactive communi- cation, professional collaboration and critical reflection in situated contexts.
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Digital technologymay be referred to as an extensionof Informationand Communication Technologies (ICT) which encompass a range of hardware; software applications and information systems. Thus, the introduction of digital technology in education is expected to penetrate and transform teaching and learning across the curriculum (Hennessy, Ruthven & Brindley, 2013). The significant usage of these technologies is expected to be considered in the classrooms on daily basis. However, this is a concern to the Department of Basic Education (DBE) that its goal has not yet been achieved and that the White Paper on e-Education is still relevant (Mnisi, 2014). With that regard, the policy goal of the then Department of Education (DoE) (2004) states that every South African learner in the General and Further Education and Training (GET) bands will be ICT capable by 2013 (that is, use Information and Communication Technology (ICT) confidently and creatively to help develop the skills and knowledge they need to achieve personal goals and to be full participants in the global community).
Professional training and development refers to many types of educational experiences to learn and apply new knowledge and skills that will improve teacher performance on the job related to the individual’s work (Mizell & Forward, 2010). No doubt training and professional development programs for teachers would allow them to have opportunities to learn more from time to time. Moreover, such programs will ensure teachers stay up-to-date on education information in certain research areas and the latest curriculum implemented and that teachers are engaging with new technology available and several resources that help to improve their teaching. The training provided by central office will provide a platform for teachers to upgrade their skills and knowledge, sharing knowledge with peers, and connecting to the latest changes in the education field.
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Teachers in Malaysia need intensive training in the use of information technology (IT) to facilitate its integration into classroom activities in ways that enhance thinking and creativity. The teachers also need to learn how to facilitate and encourage students to take charge of their own learning. The findings reveal that teachers still have difficulty in using certain applications such as MS Excel. For the longer term, recommended that to remain confident in their knowledge of technology applications, these teachers need to enhance their skills regularly and stay up to date through continual professional development. Furthermore, the teaching methods of all subject areas require a fresh orientation towards a more experiential and student-centered approach supported by interactive ICT multimedia tools and IT or Information Systems (IS) network learning.
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and students’ assessment and its blend with the existing traditional teaching and learning practices. It was found that technology integration in teaching and learning across these dimensions has not fully materialized in this university. The regression analysis employed reveals that integration has a negative correlation (-.112) with the value of technology in this learning environment. This implies that the level of technology integration in the university is still at an unprecedented level such that its value could not be attached to established technology impact in teaching and learning. This is in support of Adegun’s (2007) finding that technology integration in Nigerian education is still at a rudimentary stage. As a form of recommendation, Kozma (2005) suggests some policy considerations for ICT integration in education that can help in generating the desired outcome. He recommends that the technology plan should describe how technology will be coordinated with changes in curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, teacher professional development and school restructuring.
While technology increases teachers’ training and professional development needs, it also offers part of the solution. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) can improve pre-service teacher training by providing access to more and better educational resources, offering multimedia simulations of good teaching practice, catalyzing teacher-to trainee collaboration, and increasing productivity of non instructional tasks. ICTs also can enable in- service teacher professional development at a distance, asynchronous learning, and individualized training opportunities. Finally, ICTs can overcome teachers’ isolation, breaking down their classroom walls and connecting them to colleagues, mentors, curriculum experts, and the global teacher community.
Located within a broader initiative of teacher education reform in Scotland, this study explores teacher and student teacher mentoring relationships in the classroom. A preliminary study to investigate these relationships was conducted involving a focus group discussion with three teachers and an interview with a deputy head teacher in two Scottish primary schools. Findings indicate that teachers are clear about the concept of mentoring and its potential benefits for supporting a new scheme in initial teacher education. More importantly, teachers acknowledge the need for on-going training for those serving as mentors or supporter teachers and they are also positive about establishing a collaborative relationship with student teachers in the classroom based on egalitarian principles. The research showed that how a collaborative mentoring relationship between teachers and student teachers can be enhanced is one of the key questions/issues that needs to be explored in the next stages of the research.
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In most schools with intranets the development of the learning resources is uneven and related to the enthusiasms of individuals or groups of teachers of certain subjects. Eventually these enthusiasms will rub off, but this is too important a development to take place incrementally, in an ad hoc manner. The teachers need time and they need support and co-ordination. At King Edward VII there are a number of learning resource assistants who can support teachers in the development of learning resources for the intranet and who support students in the independent learning areas and clusters. There is also a specific learning resource assistant in science. She has been in post for two years and is one reason why most of the school's science curriculum is online. The others, newly appointed, cover humanities, modern languages and English. This model may be extended across the school if the budget priorities will allow. At George Spencer School there are three non-teacher information managers, two of whom are graduates. They are available in the two resource centres for supporting students with independent learning and for adapting teacher materials to the online environment. The third is also available at any one time to be booked by staff to help out with ICT-based learning in the classroom .
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The present work examined the application of information and communication technology (ICT) support systems for teaching and learning physics in selected secondary schools in Eleme local government area of Nigeria. It applied descriptive survey method, oral interview and observation techniques to study the level of available ICT infrastructure, the qualifications and skills of Physics teachers, experience of students, ability to use ICT facilities for teaching and learning, benefits of use of ICT in such education system and perceived hindrances to its applications. Selected six schools each were randomly studied from the public and private secondary group of schools whilst the student population of students was 120. Standard questionnaire was designed, tested and distributed to both staff and students of the chosen institutions. The data collated were analyzed using statistical frequency counts, percentage grading scores and t-test. The results confirmed that some information communication and technology facilities were available in some secondary schools in the study area. For example, Onne Secondary School, Onne (Public) and Ranjennys’ High School, Ogale (private) have a good number ICT infrastructure but the drive for its application is lacking due to some serious hindrances. It was also observed that lack of skilled and computer literate teachers cum technical staff affected the uses of the available ICT resource facility. This created low interest and morale for the students thereby making applications of ICT difficult. Besides it was revealed that the average success of learners (students) in external public examinations where ICT-applied examinations are emphasized was about 51.5%. Thus the desires and interest in computerized examinations is rated as low as 38%. Additionally, most students interviewed stated that regular teachings with ICT resources were completely absent. Hence the students could not really derive modern benefits of ICT conducted examinations and learning.
Other researchers have also been working in this area. Kutnick et al (2005) undertook a project designed to provide information on the nature and uses of within-class pupil groupings for teaching and learning in secondary schools in England. Their paper focuses on qualitative interviews with 20 teachers from three core curriculum areas in six schools. Interviews concerned the range and explanations for teachers' choices of group size and related teaching and learning practices. Interviews were transcribed and semantically content analysed. Results show that in some subjects (e.g. science and English), small group work formed an integral part of lessons. This was influenced by practical factors such as the need to share equipment or by the inherently interactive nature of the curriculum area (e.g. the role of discussion within English literature). In other subjects, groupings used in classrooms were dependent on individual teacher preferences. Only a few teachers considered the relation of social interaction and thinking, a dominant theme in current theories of learning. Teachers gave little actual pedagogic consideration to the learning purposes of different sizes of groupings. The size and composition of groups were heavily influenced by issues of pupil behaviour. Other factors that affected teachers' practice were the physical environment of the classroom and school seating policies.
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The definition of ICT tools consists of a broad range of digital devices such as computers, tablets, multi – touch screen, interactive white boards, mobile devices, cameras, Abstract: Teachers are form human resource that facilitates the acquisition of requisite skills, knowledge and attitude necessary for the fulfillment education goals. For better education delivery, competence of teachers in ICT is imperative. Adopting ICT in teaching and learning by teachers is believed to highly improve their productivity in instructional duties as well as embracing technology in education. However, studies show that little information exists on determinants of ICT adoption in ECDE centers for its effective mainstreaming in instructional process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the determinants of ICT adoption for teaching and learning among rural and urban in ECDE schools in Kenya with particular focus on Kisumu County. The study objectives included: examination of aspects of teacher training for ICT adoption in teaching and learning in ECDE schools; establishment of accessibility to ICT resources for teaching and learning in the centers; determination of the attitude of teachers towards adoption of ICT in instruction; establishing teaching strategies that embrace ICT adoption in ECDE schools and; assessment of management systems for ICT adoption in the schools. Study population was 2220 teachers in ECDE schools from which a sample size of 200 respondents was drawn. Questionnaire and interview schedule were employed to collect data. Instrument pilot testing was done among 20 teachers to determine validity and reliability. Data was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative data was sorted, transcribed and categorized into themes and sub-themes and then reported. Quantitative data was coded and processed using SPSS computer package to generate frequencies and percentages and summarized in tables. The findings of the study is hoped to establish the determinants of ICT adoption for its better implementation in teaching and learning in ECDE schools in the county.
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The staff developer’s role should be to recognise the differences between teachers at various stages of development and provide support appropriate to each, thereby minimising conflict and maximising the possibility of a successful outcome in both human and organisational terms (Oja 1991, p.56). As Hubermann found, ‘Overall, few were happy with conventional inservice formats (“not aligned with my needs”....”specialists who never ran a class of kids”....”good exchange with colleagues, but then it was over and nothing was resolved.”)’ (Hubermann 1995, p.207). In practical terms, this may require the development of differing training environments for teachers at major stages (Ingvarson 1998b, p.1020). Those at more concrete levels of development could have a highly structured environment, whilst teachers at an increased mastery level for whom the benefits of workshops and how-to courses decreases could undertake less structured training (Darling-Hammond & McLaughlin 1999, pp.398-399). In fact Hubermann found that teachers were most satisfied ‘when they were able to tinker productively inside their classrooms or with two or three colleagues in order to obtain the instructional and relational effects they were after’ (1995, p.206. See also: Darling-Hammond & McLaughlin 1999, pp.378, 380).
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Given that the professional development model is school-based, teacher-participants in the nation-wide survey opted for a classroom follow-up. Classroom follow-up is one of the characteristics of an effective professional development programme identified by many practitioners (Ingvarson, 2005; Lieberman & Pointer Mace, 2008; Plummer, 2005). Classroom follow-up contributes significantly in enhancing teacher professional growth be- cause they receive instant feedback on their challenges. The one-shot model currently in practice offers very lit- tle classroom follow-up to teachers. The new Organisational Chart of the Ministry of Basic Education (2012) clearly traces the pedagogic supervision system. The MASLEPT teacher professional development model sug- gested in this study requires a member of the pedagogic supervision system to play an active role. As a facilita- tor in a professional development programme, he/she continues with a classroom follow-up to support teachers in the implementation of the new knowledge. Many studies have shown that professional development pro- grammes fail to yield the expected results because there is usually no follow-up after teachers attend such train- ings (Ingvarson, 2005; Lieberman & Pointer Mace, 2008; Plummer, 2005; Tante, 2010). When there is a class- room follow-up the difficulties teachers face in implementing a lesson can be addressed on the spot. It is worth noting that professional development on technology integration can be very demanding and frustrating at times. Building teachers’ confidence as they work up the TPACK developmental stages to become advanced users of technology in instructional processes will be guaranteed through regular classroom follow-up and support as per the MASLEPT model.
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project undertaken by the Ministry of Education to provide universal ECE to all children within an ambitious time scale. Lack of resources, lack of qualified teachers and large class sizes are likely consequences of these sweeping changes, which make the introduction of child- centred pedagogies in these settings highly challenging. In addition, the long hours of academic study reported by parents and the somewhat gruelling and regimented timetable in ECE discussed by teachers adds further complexities to a system which arguably focuses more on quantity of engagement than quality. The necessary time spent to explore a concept through a play-based learning method like Drama in Education cannot as yet compete with parents’ and teachers’ expectations of keeping pace with others throughout China. As reported by all respondents, if it takes a week to explore the numbers 0-5 through a drama-based approach, others in China may have studied 0-60 during the same time period, and time is a commodity that cannot be ignored in what is perceived as an all-consuming drive to succeed in the terminal examination, the Gaokao.
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Project management is a methodology used to achieve objectives of a project in cost effective and timely manner. There are different project management methodologies depending upon nature of project and nature of organization. Broadly the approach of project management can be divided into categories of traditional waterfall and agile. Traditional waterfall approach recommends executing the project in sequential manner. In recent time the industry product lifecycle has become shorten which require faster implementation and iterative approach of product development. This approach is well suited for agile. Due to its iterative nature, Agile enjoys wide popularity in sectors where the requirements from the customer are continuously changing. Agile project management uses various frameworks like Scrum, Kanban, XP (Extreme Programming) etc. To implements the principles of agile framework, different tools can be used like Jira, Trello, Wrike etc. The primary objective of this paper is two-fold. First, it provides the detailed overview of agile scrum methodology. After that, the paper goes on the comparative analysis of the industry tools of
The respondents were asked whether they are familiar with Internet browsing, 76 percentages said that they know about internet browsing. 40 percentage of the respondent said that they know about downloading and 56 percentage of the respondent said they know preparation of power point. Remaining 24 percentage of the respondent don’t know about the internet browsing 60 percentage downloading as well as 44 respondent said don’t know preparation of power point. By this study it found that to give more important for training program to teaching educator about fundamental MS office program and Internet
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the uses of digital technology by teachers and students for teaching, professional development and learning at senior secondary level. The survey was conducted on 20 teachers and 155 students of senior secondary CBSE affiliated schools located in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Self-developed questionnaire consisting of 51 items for teachers and 36 items for students based on different aspects of digital technology was used as tool. The study found that (i) 95% of teachers are aware of internet and are using effectively in their teaching as well as professional development, (ii) all teachers have knowledge on software like MS Word, MS Power Point, MS Excel etc. and they agreed that digital technologies are helping them in teaching effectively,(iii) all students have Smartphone at their residence, (iv)96.12% of students are familiar with software like MS Word, MS Power Point, MS Excel etc and know how to use it for learning, and (v) 72.25% of students admitted that lack of time due to heavy homework are the barriers for not using digital technology for leaning. The study has suggested implications for teachers, students, schools and also for Government.
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A community of practice involves much more than the technical knowledge or skill associated with undertaking some task. Members are involved in a set of relationships over time (Lave and Wenger 1991, p.98) and communities develop around things that matter to people (Wenger, 1998). The fact that they are organising around some particular area of knowledge and activity gives members a sense of joint enterprise and identity. For a community of practice to function, it needs to generate and appropriate a shared repertoire of ideas, commitments and memories. It also needs to develop various resources such as tools, documents, routines, vocabulary and symbols that in some way carry the accumulated knowledge of the community. In other words, it involves practice: ways of doing and approaching things that are shared to some significant extent among members. Rather than looking to learning as the acquisition of certain forms of knowledge, Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger have tried to place it in social relationships – situations of co-participation. As William F. Hanks puts it in his introduction to their book: “Rather than asking what kind of cognitive processes and conceptual structures are involved, they ask what kinds of social engagements provide the proper context for learning to take place” (1991, p.14). It is not so much that learners acquire structures or models to understand the world, but they participate in frameworks that that have structure. Learning involves participation in a community of practice. And that participation “refers not just to local events of engagement in certain activities with certain people, but to a more encompassing process of being active participants in the practices of social communities and constructing identities in relation to these communities” (Wenger 1999: p.4).
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The role of the teacher in developing ICT use in different SUC’s in Region VI is utterly critical, yet there are many obstacles to be faced, in addition to those already listed that emerged more generally. A primary barrier to teachers’ readiness and confidence in using ICT – despite general enthusiasm and belief in benefits for learners – is their lack of training, either initially or in-service. This results in lack of proficiency in using ICT, and knowledge of all of the potential uses and roles of ICT in teaching and learning.
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