prospects . There are three main categories of motivation: intrinsic, extrinsic and no motivation .  state that it is intrinsic motivation that sets certain patterns of genuine behaviour that reflects a person’s feelings rather than pre-arranged manners only adopted to serve a deal. More specifically, intrinsic motivation derives from three fundamental needs: 1) self-determination; 2) a sense of competence and achievement and 3) the need for social relationships. The more one feels strong enough to make their own decisions, the higher the level of intrinsic motivation .  puts forward the concept of three types of intrinsic motivation: one for the learning process, a second for fulfillment and thirst for a stimulatory experience. A study by  suggests that in- trinsic stimulation facilitates students’ adjustment to school environment, relieves stress, arouses positive feelings and results in better handling of issues at school. It has been found that intrinsically motivated students perform considerably better and take great pleasure from lessons   . What is more, verbal aggressiveness has proved to spoil enjoyment in class, weakens attempts for improvement and undermines educators’ prestige   . Further research of  confirms that when teachers embrace unfortunate methods of communication, students are adamantly opposed to them.
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In the past decade, the rise of interest in interpersonal relationships in education is mirrored by an increased focus on the importance of relationships among educators. Recent studies suggest that relationships among teachers are important in building strong school communities (Penuel, Riel, Krause and Frank, 2009), and that strong teacher networks can enhance teacher commitment and give teachers a sense of belonging and efficacy (Grodsky and Gamoran, 2003). Moreover, strong social relationships in and among schools are found to play a crucial role in policy implementation, instructional change, and teachers professional development in support of increased student achievement (Baker-Doyle and Yoon, 2010; Daly and Finnigan, 2010; Moolenaar, 2010; Veugelers and Zijlstra, 2002) and interpersonal relationships among teachers are important as they provide access to information, knowledge and expertise (Frank, Zhao and Borman, 2004), facilitate joint problem solving (Uzzi, 1997) and shape an environment of trust (Bryk and Schneider, 2002). . After reviewing the available literature in this field (Brok, Tartwijk, Wubbels and Veldman (2010), Brady (2011), Fan (2012) and Wentzel (2012) the investigator felt the need to develop the teacher interpersonal relationship scale owing to the fact that human relationships have drastically changed over the period of time due to the impact of digital media and ever-changing socio-economic behaviour pattern. Studies also indicate that interpersonal relations of the teachers to different dimensions and especially with the students can play a vital role in creation of smooth teaching learning environment in the class rooms and academic achievement of the students is always influenced positively by cordial and democratic relations.
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Several previous studies found an association between interpersonal relationships and student interest in a related domain within a relatively short period of time. For example, Midgley and her colleagues found that when students moved from elementary teachers they perceived to be low in support to junior high teachers they perceived to be high in support, the intrinsic value of math was enhanced, while students who moved from teachers they perceived to be high in support to teachers they perceived to be low in support experienced a sharp decline in both the intrinsic value and perceived usefulness and importance of math (Midgley, Feldlaufer, & Eccles, 1989). Goodenow (1993) reported that early adolescent student-perceived teacher support explained over one third of students’ assessment of the interest, importance, and value of the academic work of that class. Basu and Calabrese Barton (2007) found that when the science learning environments were shaped by how students value relationships, youth developed a sustained interest in science. Patrick, Mantzicopoulos, Samarapungavan, and French (2008) found that kindergarten students’ motivation in science was positively related to children’s reports of qualities of their relationship with their teacher. The present study, taking a retrospective approach, further strengthened the assertion that from the students’ perspectives, interpersonal relationships could constitute an influential factor for the development of relatively long-term domain-specific interest in science.
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2 learning and development. Therefore, the formation of interpersonal relationships necessarily precedes the emergence of successful learning relationships, which can be thought of as inextricably embedded in mutuality of social action. Acceptance of this premise demands that attention be paid to the opportunities for relationship formation and the quality of those relationships as a prerequisite for learning relationships, when researching educational experience. Giles (2011) has argued that despite the importance of relationship to educational experience they are largely invisible and taken for granted; he states that ‘it is time to recognise and address the impact of relationship’ (p89) in education. In this paper we focus on the transition from primary to secondary school and present data that demonstrate the challenges for both teachers and new students in the formation of interpersonal relationships, and so by extension, learning relationships. We do not claim that the contexts we present represent all schools but rather, through analysis of our data, we illustrate that quotidian and implicit practices in educational institutions can serve to militate against relationship formation and that perhaps as much attention needs to be paid to opportunities for relationship formation as is paid to curriculum content. Whilst a body of work on educational transitions has identified the importance of relationship (see Tobbell, O’Donnell and Zammit 2010; Hargreaves and Galton, 2002; Hännikäinen and Rasku-Puttonen, 2010; Martínez, Tolga Aricak, Graves, Peters-Myszak and Nellis, 2011) in the negotiation of the new environment, there is little explicit emphasis on the perceptions of relationship from those in transition and the practices and actions which underpin interpersonal relationship formation and how these construct transition in the learning environment. Moreover, there is very little work which provides contemporaneous data reflecting the actions, behaviours and perceptions of students in transition and the staff group who support them. We would argue that in order to understand relationships in transition to new learning environments, the meanings which emerge from the actual behaviours in context are necessary and this work seeks to address this gap in the literature.
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The environmental and professional conditions are doing at university‟s education an „imposition‟ of a teaching-learning process and its assessment. Nowadays, a new function is demanded to the university‟s teacher, not just as a facilitator of his/her students‟ learning but also as a group dynamiter, team-works. At High Education, more and more frequently, it begins to get power to the necessity for answering to training apart from providing concepts to its professionals, to contribute with the instrumental and attitudinal resources which qualify them professionally to develop the tasks. According to the new use of didactic and organisational proposals at the High Education, High is essential that departs from concepts such as „work through projects‟, „interpersonal relationships‟, „creativity‟… it is placed in points of view of the university teachers‟ quality development. The hole structural change we have fulfilled with the European‟s Space of High Education (EEES) will not mean nothing if people continue doing the same as they used to do before in terms of pedagogic language.
For the first question as for the other two, the answer is no! Therefore, teachers should always expect that it would be known from one moment to another, it is only a matter of time. In the case where the learner has a high regard for himself / herself; he / she would at least tell her best friend and so, from the mouth of best friend to the ear of another best friend, everyone will be informed. Otherwise, the learner discloses all the “secrets” of the teacher to his or her friends as evidence of his / her bad behavior, of the sully life he / she lives without any remorse (through telephonic, mail, email exchanges... if possible video). On the forum sexuality (2014), a young girl of 16 years wrote this: “He promised me to keep our relationship in secret but I told a few people around me”. In these circumstances, the adolescent is not at fault given his age but has only one regret, explains Alvin (2006): “Afterwards, she remains little or morally guilty for the mistake she have made, that it is having exposed herself and for not being able to resist the pressure or the desire to go to the end”. From this analysis, there is both the necessity and complexity of understanding this affective dimension.
Relational power was a factor considered in the research design (Barbour, 2007). It was determined that relational power would not be an issue as the first author was a colleague of the participants and not in a position of authority. The study may be considered insider research given the first author’s relationship with the participants and employment at the primary school. Hockey (1993) maintains that insiders are able to blend into situations, making them less likely to deleteriously affect the research setting. Insiders also can have a better initial understanding of the social setting because of their intimate knowledge of the research context. Additionally, since relationships with the participants were already in place, much of the rapport building work had already been done.
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Oral communication apprehension(OCA) refers to fear or anxiety that forms when an individual communicates or anticipates orally communicating with other people. A description of interpersonal relationships and interaction noted that this type of apprehension is both a character trait in communication and an indicator of maladjusted social communication . People with oral communication apprehension find it more difficult to maintain successful interpersonal relationships and tend to be subject to negative comments from peers . Personal interactive behavior is primarily affected by the evaluation of possible actions by the object of the interaction or by an individual’s fear of being threatened by others. When the behavior expressed by someone new conforms to the interpersonal threat perceived by the individual, he may attempt to block the interaction between them; conversely, when a new person’s actions have the effect of reducing interpersonal threats that the other person fears facing, actions to promote interaction between them may be taken . In interactions with family and close friends, individuals generally have a significant level of mutual understanding due to their longstanding connection, especially in terms of whether they are in danger of criticism . When an individual is rejected by another in the course of establishing an interpersonal relationship or even in maintaining the relationship he wants, great fear  or even negative effects on personal, mental and physical health can result [33,34]. Thus, if the object of interaction is someone with whom it is difficult to get along, others may not be willing to have further contact with him or even actively avoid further contact; in some situations, however, such as with colleagues and classmates, individuals cannot choose with whom they interact.
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not been examined in Croatia or a broader region, or in a transitional (post-communist) context in general. That is why we recently started to explore physician–physician relationships as a part of a larger scientific project. This article presents a study on the general public’s perceptions of physician–physician relationships and their professional standing in Croatia. We used general public perspective, keeping in mind the most recent shift from the physicians’ perspective of defined medical professionalism toward a public (patient)-centered perspective that is recognized in the construct of social (moral) contract, as well as in the concept of patient centered care. 5–8
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2019.104029 426 Psychology Low Machs primarily by their lack of emotional attachment. The emotionally detached interpersonal orientation is in fact an essential factor of Machiavellian- ism; High Machs and Low Machs are described by the terms “ cool syndrome ” and “ soft touch ”, respectively (Christie & Geis, 1970). Given High Machs’ lack of emotional attachment, it is quite natural that they exhibit deficits in empathy (Wastell & Booth, 2003; Jones & Paulhus, 2009). Numerous studies have found that Machiavellianism bears a negative correlation with empathy (Watson, Biderman, & Sawrie, 1994; Wastell & Booth, 2003; Austin et al., 2007). Such empathy deficits may not only offer High Machs an advantage in their ability to manipulate or deceive others in order to achieve their own goals, but they may also harm their social relationships. Accordingly, it is not easy for High Machs to get involved in close relationships; their interpersonal relations are associ- ated with hostile behaviours as well as characterized by a great deal of distrust, disrespect and lack of loyalty.
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Inter-Annotator Agreement. The annotations were done by two graduate students. They started annotating small batches of pairs of people, and discussed disagreements with each other. After several iterations, they annotated independently 10% of all pairs of people generated. Table 4 depicts the inter-annotator agreements obtained. Overall Cohen’s kappa coefficient is 0.68, and the coefficients range between 0.59 to 0.74 depend- ing on the dimension. Note that kappa coefficients in the range 0.60–0.80 are considered substantial, and over 0.80 would be perfect (Landis and Koch, 1977). Given these high agreements, the rest of pairs were annotated once.
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In this study, we demonstrate that there is a positive correlation between UAC and TMH, and UAC plays a posi- tive predictive role in TMH, consistent with relevant studies home and abroad. For example, Pan (2004) found there is a close relationship between administrative climate of school and SCL-90 results of teachers. In Pan’s opinion, the core of administrative climate is the leadership of the president, the president’s consideration and influence have a significant correlation and great influence to teachers’ mental health (Pan & Cheng, 2001). Cheng and Tang (1997) find out that there is a very positive correlation between president’s leadership and as- pects of organizational climate. They think that good leadership may lead to good relationship among president, teacher and students, and a good interpersonal relationship will promote good leadership, which will greatly in- fluence the healthy development of school organizational climate and teachers’ psychology. On the other hand, with the development of bureaucratic administration and president’s prime responsibility, power in most univer- sities is gradually in charge of a few persons, they manage university autocratically. This style of managing is closely related to the future and development of a school, and this leadership will obviously influence teachers’ behavior. The goals of the tasks, rules, working procedures, measures of awarding and punishing, welfare, fair- ness and just and so on will all have a great impact on teachers’ psychological behavior. There are mainly three classic types of leadership: authoritarian, democratic and laissez-faire leadership (Kreitner, 1989). Different leadership will lead to different leading style and behaviors, which will form different organizational climate. Different organizational climate will influence members’ psychological climate, for example, autocratic leadership controls power in one person, he exercises all the power himself without staff members’ participation, lack of respect and trust of the staff members. In this case, a leader will never listen to the opinions of the staff members
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The insignificant effect of self-disclosure on relationship maintenance may have occurred because people might engage in self-disclosure for reasons other than maintaining interpersonal relationships. In addition, the significant effects of self-disclosure and relationship maintenance on intimacy confirm the findings obtained by Bauminger et al.  and Ledbetter . In online communities, when users disclose more personal information and constantly interact with other participants, the intimacy among them increases, which further causes users to use online communities more frequently.
In this paper, ﬁrstly a fractional order nonlinear dynamical model of interpersonal re- lationships has been introduced. A detailed analysis for the asymptotic stability of equi- librium points has been given. Finally, numerical simulations are presented to verify the obtained results.
= 40; Fo (i) = 49.38%, the total number N = 81), compared with the indicators of the “cooperation” category (F (i) = 6; Fo (i) = 7.41%, N = 81). In the narratives of the “Y” generation, on the contrary, indicators of the “cooperation” category were more often (F (i) = 23; Fo (i) = 25.27%, N = 91), while the number of words containing indicators of “competition” was almost 2 times less (F (i) = 12; Fo (i) = 13.19%, N = 91) (χ2 = 21.939, p <0.01). When describing the interpersonal relationships of the heroes of the “Harry Potter” movie, in the respondes of generation X indicators of “competition” (F (i) = 25; Fo (i) = 35.71%, N = 70) can be more often founded than “Cooperation” indicators (F (i) = 16; Fo (i) = 22.86%, N = 70). The narratives of representatives of Y generation were characterized by a larger number of indicators of the “cooperation” category (F (i) = 69; Fo (i) = 43.67%, N = 158), compared with indicators of the “competition” category (F (i ) = 21; Fo (i) = 13.29%, N = 158) (χ2 = 11.748, p <0.01). Thus, representatives of different generations perceive the same movie in different ways, paying attention to different strategies of interpersonal relations, and the “Y” generation pays more attention to cooperation, which can be explained as a search in the artworks of that strategy relations that this generation lacks in real life: the outer world, which for them more often shows itself from the standpoint of competition, requires the search for other strategies (cooperation) in films.
II relationship dimensions to explore inner mechanisms of supply chain integration. It demonstrates that interpersonal relationships are able to initiate and motivate firm level integration, which modifies the presumption that firm level relationships are predominantly established first in Western cultural contexts. It also sheds light on applying theoretical lenses in supply chain integration. It extends social exchange theory from relationships between parties that are on the same level to different levels of interpersonal and inter-organizational relationships. Meanwhile, it applies resource dependency theory by addressing how interpersonal relationships influence dependence levels on supply chain partners to form firm level relationships. Furthermore, it extends resource orchestration theory by suggesting that inter-organizational relationships and interpersonal relationships can be orchestrated to achieve supply chain integration capabilities.
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There were two stages to the diachronic analysis. The first stage employed a narrative strategy (Langley, 1999). It was aimed at sorting out the course of events over time to eventually arrive at two narratives that described in detail what had been happening in the course of each of these two product development episodes. The second phase then took these two narratives and scrutinized them for who had been involved and what interactions had been taking place within and across the firms and other types of organizations that were involved in each episode. This then yielded a fine-grained assessment of the network of relationships, how they were enacted, and also allowed us to identify when and how the three paradoxes appeared to play up and how and whether they were settled. This then culminated in what can best be described as some abductive creative thinking (Klag & Langley, 2013; Van de Ven, 2007) where we combined existing insights and theoretical terminology with what emerged from the data.
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One important point about these phenomenological approaches needs to be emphasised here. These approaches represent a particular type of insight into caring relationships in nursing. They have lead to a clearer understanding of some of the relevant issues and experiences of those involved, but I have also found these to be somewhat sterile and barren because they fail to bring to life the experiences of the informants. If the researchers had returned to their informants and showed them the distilled findings I am not convinced that in their present form, they would mean a great deal to the informants. If this is the case then this type of analysis is flawed to some extent. The phenomenological approaches above have adopted a type of phenomenology which is closely linked with phenomenological philosophy. There has been a tendency in these reports to attempt to distill the essence of the experience of caring in nursing practice. However, they do not reflect the lifeworld and concerns of the individuals taking part in the research. This may be because of the particular type of approach to phenomenology adopted in the research. The research ’protocols’ or raw data, which were analysed often tend to be brief and generated from selected informants judged to be ’articulate’. The findings have tended to be removed from the real context out of which they were generated. They have to some extent become the property of the researcher. But more significantly, their understanding of phenomenology tends to be eidetic at the expense of what is existentially descriptive.
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The elite college students are the national capital in the academic field. In accordance with the findings of the present study, the spiritual growth, the main lever for coping with daily life complications, gained the highest score in this sampling. This attitude was similarly ob- served in Turkish dental students.  Obviously, this is regardless of any religious or spiritual belief of the stu- dents’ community. In spite of that, physical activity was the lowest in this student group. This low score was likely observed in female Turkish dental students.  For variety of reasons, students may not be involved in physical activity. This can be related to the volume of courses, less sport facilities, or less attractive sport op- tions. There is no doubt that physical activity has a determining role in health status of students. Kuwaiti students had similar weakness in their life-style.  In fact, the highest score of spiritual growth and the lowest score of physical activity was also evident in Mexican,  Indian,  Turkish medical Students,  Jorda- nian,  and Malaysian students. 
Essentially, it is the responsibility of the SMT’s to ensure that each learner succeeds in her academic endeavour. It is for this reason that the Education Amendments Act places the principal as the leader of the SMTs and the central figure in the learner’s performance and accountability regarding academic achievement. The current research intends to establish the SMT and principal role with regard to leadership displayed in curriculum matters. Although most teachers value assessment and accountability as part of curriculum coverage, they feel hesitant about the implications of the assessment in Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Accounting, and English. It is imperative that when teachers lack confidence in a subject’s content delivery, it is the responsibility of the principal, together with his SMT, to take charge of professional development and act as instructional leaders. Teachers indicated that when instructional best practices exist in their schools, when assessment is ongoing, and when weaker students have extra opportunities to learn, high-stakes testing takes public schools in the right direction.
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