External support for professionaldevelopment of business English teacher refers to support from education department and universities. Education department can support professionaldevelopment of business English teachers from the perspectives of policy and finance. At the same time, universities should provide business English teachers with training opportunities and opportunities of business practice. First, universities should provide business English teachers with enough training opportunities because there are some advantages of teacher training. Business English teachers are trainees with working experience and clear learning target (Ellis & Johnson, 2002). They participate in teacher training with strong motivation, aiming to solve problems in their teaching, thus they can achieve better learning effect. Apart from providing training opportunities, universities should pay attention to training quality. Before training, universities should analyze the learning needs of business English teachers in order to identify business English teachers’ learning need comprehensively and make the training content is what business English teachers need, thus avoiding the waste of money and teachers’ time. Second, universities should offer business practice opportunities to business English teachers. Universities can cooperate with corporations and appoint some business English teachers to work in cooperative companies. Thus business English teachers can take part in business practice to accumulate business knowledge. From the analyses above, external support can help business English teachers improve in the aspects of teaching competence and business knowledge.
Teacher self-efficacy is a complex construct as evidenced in the literature. External forces such as professionaldevelopment and status on the continuum of experience appear to influence how teachers perceive their efficacy in the classroom (Tschannen-Moran & McMaster, 2009). Moreover, in classroom environments with increasing numbers of students with challenging behaviors and unique learning needs, such as those exhibited by children with ASD, teachers are vulnerable to increases in perceived stress and anxiety that may lead to burnout. Supportive environments that provide teachers with feedback, positive social persuasion, and opportunities to be reflective appear to influence teacher self-efficacy and possibly mitigate burnout. Results of the present study indicated that facilitated discussion and self-reflection assignments may make a difference in special education and general education teachers’ perceived self-efficacy and burnout as they return to professionaldevelopment that emphasizes evidence-based pedagogy and strategies to work with students with ASD. Providing contexts within both online and face-to-face professionaldevelopment such as discussion forums and self-reflection assignments where facilitated discussion and reflection can take place is one way to support special education teachers and others who work with students with ASD.
As well as changing PDS needs, the second year of teaching marked a major transition in schools' PDS strategies and processes. The targeted structured support, formal mentorship, dedicated development activities and reduced timetable that had characterised the induction year had disappeared in the second year of teaching in all but a very few of our case study schools. In around half of the schools induction tutors continued to provide informal support, although in some case this was because the second year teacher's induction mentor was also their line manager. This shift from formal mentorship to informal support mirrors the DCSF Becoming a Teacher survey of second year teachers (Tracey et al., 2008). Discrete training programmes for second year teachers were only provided in four of our case study schools, all of which were secondary schools. These focused on preparing teachers for career progression. These schools also provided high levels of other types of support and were high performing schools.
ABSTRACT : This study, entitled “Stochastic and Diagnostic Analysis of Vocational Teachers Attrition and Retention in Adamawa State” was conducted to find out the factors contributing to Vocational Teachers attrition and retention, and the strategies for curtailing the attrition. Three (3) research questions were formulated to guide the study. Pertinent literatures on the topic of study were reviewed. The design for the study was survey research design. The populations for the study were all the Vocational teachers in Adamawa State technical colleges and other government secondary schools. The instrument used for data collection was a well structured questionnaire. The data was collected through administering the questionnaires. The data was analyzed using a statistical mean rating. The results indicated that vocational teachers’ attrition was as a result of negligence of teaching profession and poor salary structure, which in turn affect the students’ performance. Lastly, recommendations were made accordingly to respective quarters that government should address the issue of negligence of teaching profession, improve the salary structure, improve standard of teaching profession, facilitate and encourage professionaldevelopment and provision of incentive and regular in-service training for all vocational teachers.
Some practical strategies were presented by Mosquera (1978). Teachers can take advantage to invest in their personal and professional well-being throughout his/her life, such as: development of self-consciousness; seek new opportunities for education or continuing education; evaluate the grievances; reassess the workload; devote time to rest and leisure and hobbies have disconnected the creatively education; chat with friends and family; stimulate discussion in groups with other teachers; seek a physical activity that is enjoyable; prevent wearing frustrations in students; seek professional help when all aid already available is not sufficient; in extreme cases opt for a strategic retreat. Such strategies are described in the teacher’s responsibility and are not as difficult to put into practice.
3. A collaborative environment: When teachers start coming together for professional learning communities, department brain storming meetings or monitoring programs, it becomes easier to pose questions and share ideas. Regular contact with others to teach the same grade or subject matter creates a natural and vital outlet for teachers to exchange resources and techniques. The formaland informal sharing of strategies and experiences keeps everyone focused on continuous improvement.
educational and science literature reviews to improve their teaching. When teachers studied the literature they were able to adapt their instructions more to current recommendations from this literature (pictograms 3, 4, 6, and 10). This tallies with the findings of other scholars (Fennema, Carpenter, Franke, Levi, Jacobs, & Empson, 1996; Rhine, 1998). Rhine (1998) believes that resources on educational research can be crucial for in-service teachers as a ‘lifelong resource’ for lesson planning. Although reading research publications is still seen as an informal experience in professionaldevelopment (Ganser, 2000), we concluded that teachers may benefit from it. Teachers in this study used the literature to find information on science subjects and to learn about effective ways to teach these subjects. Then when they discussed their findings from the literature with peers, this helped them reflect on this newfound knowledge, providing a deeper understanding of their PCK (pictograms 6 and 12). Furthermore, many teachers conducted their literature reviews with an eye to problems or concerns that had arisen from previous classroom experiences. In general we found that teachers who conducted a literature review and participated in peer discussions acquired a better understanding of the use of instructional strategies and assessment methods, such as the use of micro-based computer labs to increase students’ science skills, and the use of students’ journals to assess their students’ knowledge. In the planning of professionaldevelopment programs, therefore, teachers’ reading of educational research literature should not be underestimated, since it creates opportunities to construct new knowledge.
menting the Vision Project’s recommendations to improve public education. Moreover, there is a secondary focus on leaders in high poverty, high English Language Learner schools. The empha- sis is on their perceptions of practices that have informed student learning. Two “Tier 1” districts were selected by utilizing the Vision Project Executive Director as an informant with regard to which districts were implementing the project with fidelity in the 2014-15 school year. A con- structivist view to general inductive approach and thematic analysis guided the process used to identify themes in this study. From the qualitative data, four themes emerged. The themes identi- fied within the data include: (a) the ways formal leadership teams are organized (b) professionaldevelopment of teachers and leaders, (c) instructional strategies utilized to teach ELL students effectively, and (d) leaders’ perception of the impact and challenge of parental involvement in high poverty schools. Additionally, connections to areas of the GA Vision Project were noted in both School District A and School District B. This study contributes to the field of education by giving educational leaders in high poverty, high ELL schools support for planning, developing, and implementing instructional vision in their workplace and communities.
One of the key elements in most of reforms is the professionaldevelopment of teachers; societies are finally acknowledging that teachers are not only one of the ‘variables’ that need to be change in order to improve their education system ,but they are also the most significant change agents in these reforms. This double role of teachers in educational reforms –being both subjects and objects of change-makes the field of teacher professionaldevelopment a growing and challenging area. When teachers are given the opportunity, via high-quality professionaldevelopment, to learn new strategies for teaching to rigorous standards, they report changing their teaching in the classroom This paper provides new insights and methods needed for creating rich and innovative bases for professionaldevelopment of teachers to meet the future needs.
Knowledge is exploding and new technology is emerging so fast putting challenges before the teachers and learners. As India strives to achieve universal primary enrolment (MDG2) and implements the Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act (2009), well-qualified and effective teachers remain at the heart of school reform. The need for adequate preparation and professionaldevelopment of teachers has been recognized the world over with the realization that the teacher’ conceptions and attitudes play an important role in the teaching learning process. Professional institutions are struggling to find ways of evaluating professionaldevelopment. This article has two principal objectives. The first is to highlight the skills required for successful, lifelong professionaldevelopment. The second objective is to suggest strategies and methodologies that can assist in the acquisition of professionaldevelopment skills. Here, professionaldevelopment is considered not a product or an outcome - it is a process.
day period. It consists of motivational keynotes, networking opportunities and workshops offering practical strategies and innovative approaches to those entering their first, second, and third years of teaching. At each BTI, participants are asked to complete individual session evaluations and a summative evaluation. Data from these evaluations are read and analyzed holistically by the BTI planning committee to make suggestions for the next year. For example, the evaluations give the committee a general sense of which presentations to repeat, which speakers to invite back, and how best to organize the day. There have been no research-based evaluations of this program in regards to a needs assessment, implementation, impact assessment, or efficiency. BTI is promoted as a university-based, organized, and led beginning teacher support program with attendance growing each year. The program has interest; however, formal assessments are not available. Follow-ups with participants have not been conducted. As a result, there is a gap in our knowledge of how BTI actually affects participants’ actions and perceptions of their classroom management effectiveness. This study is the first to connect how beginning teachers actually apply what they learned in the classroom.
As long as this is the case, educatio n reform in this cou ntr y will continue to be largely ineffective. We can not expect students to change what they do if we are content for teachers to continue do ing what they have always do ne. So how can we get teachers to change what they do? The answer is high- quality teacher pro fessional d evelopment. When teachers are given the opportu nity, via high-quality professionaldevelopment, to learn new strategies for teaching to rigorous stand ards, they report changing their teaching in the classroom. Berliner has a very strong p lea when he says:
According to the previous survey, we know that teachers in this ethnic area do not pay attention to using the Internet to interact with students, which is also commonly seen in other ethnic areas. This is because many ethnic areas are mostly located in economically underdeveloped areas, and ethnic minority stu- dents may use Internet devices less frequently and and can only find less diverse resources compared with their counterparts in economically developed areas. However, with the arrival of the information age, it can be forecast that students from ethnic areas will have access to more Internet devices for learning in the future, which lays a material foundation for the online interaction between teachers and students. Therefore, the author suggests that teachers in ethnic areas should take advantage of the opportunities brought by the “Internet+” era, make full use of interactive teaching to communicate with students effectively and thus learn about their learning situation, as well as students’ evaluation of their own teachings. With these efforts, teachers can find flaws in their current teaching and make corresponding improvements to enhance their professional teaching level .
other region of Nepal(Bharati & Chalise, 2017). The NELTA has been proactive in organising ELT conferences, workshops and seminar nationally and regionally. Having its operational branches in 42 (out of 75) districts across the country, it also collaborates and coordinates with other governmental and non-governmental organisations to support PD activities for EFL teachers. A majority of the teachers opined these PD activities were beneficial to them. The main reason for this could be that many participants were able to participate in such activities as most of them are conducted in urban settings. However, these urban-centred PD activities may not offer much benefit to the teachers working in rural settings (Shah, 2015). Furthermore, not all institutes, particularly with low resources, may encourage their teachers to attend such PD activities. The reason for this are, firstly, institutes might be hesitant to support their teachers with registration fee, travel and accommodation required for workshops/conferences/seminars, secondly, they would be understaffed while someone attends these sessions thereby adding extra load to other teachers. Availability of resources and academic environment are amongst key determinants of teachers’ PD programs (Fisher & Fraser, 1991). A typical problem seen in terms of EFL teachers PD in developing countries is lack of financial resources (Komba & Nkumbi, 2008; Leu, 2004). In Nepal, a small survey found that a majority of EFL teacher seem to lack institutional support for their PD (Shah, 2015). A study from Tanzania shows that teachers are rarely supported by schools to attend workshops and seminars (Komba & Nkumbi, 2008).
By searching the literature, Song, S. T. (2008) showed that the professionaldevelopment level of preschool teachers should be improved from the profes- sional quality and management of preschool teachers . Zhou, X. (2009) be- lieves that the three major dimensions of the macro level (national), the meso level (kindergarten), and the micro level (preschool teachers) should be taken together to promote the countermeasure problem of the professional develop- ment of preschool teachers . Chen, S. (2010) proposed that educational ad- ministrative units, teacher training institutions, kindergartens and teachers should perform their respective duties, so as to form a joint effort to promote the professionaldevelopment of preschool teachers . Deng, Z. J. (2014) pointed out that various kindergartens should choose targeted and creative promotion strategies based on the characteristics of their own kindergarten management system, so as to promote the professionaldevelopment of preschool teachers . Patiman, C. (2014) argues that the development and improvement of pre- school teachers’ professionaldevelopment should start from the level of gov- ernment and educational authorities, the level of kindergarten organization and culture, and the level of individual teachers . Yan, H. (2017) combs and con- structs six main paths of professionaldevelopment: self-development internal drive, kindergarten-based support, expert team, post-employment training, funding guarantee, policies and regulations .
Based on Mezirow’ contribution (2011), critical reflection involves the presupposition critique on which educators’ beliefs have been constructed. Therefore, we could understand the nature of adult learners’ education based on our critical reflection that guides the process of teaching and learning in is helpful to differentiate between two dimensions of teachers’ classroom managements: the expectations that govern the classroom management sequence, and teachers’ perspectives that guide the experience in classroom environment (Mezirow, 2011). Through these two dimensions, educators could redefine their personal identity, self-concept and values (Mezirow, 2011), it is the perceptive that provides classroom experience (Boekaerts Reflection is generally used as an order mental process (Mezirow, 2011). Boud, Keogh, and Walker (1985) reported that reflection is “a generic term for those intellectual and affective activities in which individuals engage to explore their experiences in order to direct them to new understanding and appreciation” (p. 3). Therefore, reflection could include making inferences and evaluations as well as remembering and problem solving. It refers to assessing the grounds ions) of one’s belief (p 9). Reflection is understood as an action predicated on the assumption’s assessment. Thoughtful action is reflexive to critically examine the justification of one’s belief (Mezirow, 2011). Critical reflections and thoughtful interpretations are the gates for INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
This draws attention to the extent to which all education professionals, ranging from the school administrators who are the front-line mediators for children, parents, teachers, and visitors on a day-to-day basis, to specialists such as education psychologists, social workers or careers advisers, need to support the goals of MLM education, and how pupils’ families and the wider community are engaged in the initiative. De Korne (2010: p. 117), writing about provision for indigenous languages in the USA and Canada, and citing Abele et al. (2000), May and Aikman (2003) and Crawford (1998), argues that community control or engagement with MLM education should be seen as a critical factor in achieving success. Huss (2008: p. 76) similarly comments: ‘‘…it is important to stress the need of the endangered language communities to form and steer their own language revitalization movements in order to gain lasting results.’’ This raises questions—beyond the scope of this article—about who can be regarded as constituting the ‘language community’, particularly in contexts where there is no clear ethnic affiliation with the language, and where revitalisation initiatives seek to enrol families with very varied histories of speaking the language—including those with no history at all—as appears largely to be the case in the European examples reviewed here.
It seems clear that although textbooks are important, simply providing “better” textbooks will not by itself improve learning. Teachers have much greater effects on student attainment than textbooks or other resources, so textbooks need to be seen as part of a programme of change that includes professionaldevelopment (PD); indeed, good textbooks might be enablers of this. The closest thing in England in recent years to wholesale adoption of a single textbook scheme is the National Numeracy Strategy (DfEE, 1999; DfEE, 2001), where the Framework comprised something closer to a curriculum than to a textbook, with pedagogical advice and a considerable range and variety of examples of tasks. In the primary phase, at least, the Strategy appears to have had a large system-wide effect of about 0.18 (see Brown et al., 2003), and it is noteworthy that the NNS was partially research-based (Brown, et al., 1998) and enjoyed PD, external support and headteacher engagement. The importance of these factors should not be underestimated.
There is some similarity in the elements across the three path models. In both the Desimone model and the Clarke and Hollingsworth model, the importance of the change environment is identified, discussed principally as the school context. However, the individual teacher and her agency to influence her own professional learning are more visible in Clarke and Hollingsworth's model (a point we return to below). Furthermore, Clarke and Hollingsworth offer greater consideration of ways that professional learning and growth may occur in response to a wider range of external stimuli including, for example, informal interactions. Guskey and Desimone, in contrast, focus more strongly on responses to formal professionaldevelopment activities with external stimuli. Further, they seek to identify mediating factors that influence teacher learning.