Teaching and Learning Across Disciplines

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Learning HCI across institutions, disciplines and countries: a field study of cognitive styles in analytical and creative tasks

Learning HCI across institutions, disciplines and countries: a field study of cognitive styles in analytical and creative tasks

taught, but also on the students that took these courses. Students fell in two categories: on one hand, undergraduate students, mostly full-time, not proficient in English, who know their classmates, enjoy working in groups, and do not generate discussions in class; and on the other hand, postgraduate students, part-time, who work during the day, with good in English due to their work, not very familiar with any of their classmates but who enjoy in-class discussions. This knowledge was then applied to the course de- sign and delivery to make the students feel more comfortable and learn the same topics but in different ways – i.e. while the topics of both courses were very similar, the clas- ses’ format and evaluation were different for both classes. The overall results indicate students were satisfied with nearly 70% feeling they have met the learning outcomes comfortably. However, both cohorts indicated the need for more exposure to the prac- tical elements of usability evaluation and interface design. On a similar approach, Day and Foley [26] report on how changing teaching methods by increasing online lectures to allow more co-located hands-on learning activities had a positive effect in the success rates for an HCI course.

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Critical social theory and transformative learning : evidence in pre-service teachers' service-learning reflection logs

Critical social theory and transformative learning : evidence in pre-service teachers' service-learning reflection logs

The development of reflective practice (eg., John Dewey and Donald Schőn) as a key learning objective has been used across various disciplines including occupational therapy (Kinsella, 2001), social work (Morley, 2007), management (Pavlovich, 2007), athletic training (Walker, 2006), communication sciences (Goldberg, Richburg & Wood, 2006), and pre-service teacher education (Baker & Shahid, 2003). Put simply, reflection is the formation of a thought or idea as a consequence of meditation. In the case of the service-learning program we report on here, pre- service teachers examine their own experiences, forming thoughts and ideas about them in relation to the material that they are studying at university. As Russell (2005, pp. 203-4) argues, ‘Reflective practice can and should be taught – explicitly, directly, thoughtfully and patiently – using personal reflection-in-action to interpret and improve one’s teaching of reflective practice to others’. Reflection, particularly self-reflection, can be linked with critical social theory and thus to transformational learning (Gur-Ze’ev, Masschelein & Blake, 2001; Thompson, 1990, pp. 320-327). As Thompson (1990, p. 330) states, the critical social theorists:

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Assessing Learning and Teaching across Geoscience Courses and Curricula

Assessing Learning and Teaching across Geoscience Courses and Curricula

Student-centered teaching strategies play an important role in increasing undergraduate student learning (Freeman et al., 2014; Freeman, Haak, & Wenderoth, 2011; NRC, 2015). Student-centered classrooms typically feature teaching strategies that require active participation from the learner, often in collaboration with peers, and may include answering questions, peer discussion, problem solving, writing, and reflection on learning (Mcconnell et al., 2017). Such strategies can also help reduce the achievement gap among student populations, and have been shown to yield positive results for minority and first-generation students (Freeman et al., 2014; Haak, HilleRisLambers, Pitre, & Freeman, 2011). Various stakeholders have called for the increased adoption of these instructional strategies in college STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) courses (Handelsman et al., 2004; NRC, 1999; PCAST, 2012). However, survey results reveal that the systematic implementation of student-centered teaching is still some distance in the future as approximately half or less of faculty across a variety of STEM disciplines report using these methods (Borrego, Froyd, & Hall, 2010; Henderson & Dancy, 2009; Manduca et al., 2017).

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On the Pursuit of Academic Research across all the Disciplines

On the Pursuit of Academic Research across all the Disciplines

Over the course of many centuries, constellations of people have emerged in Western Europe and elsewhere who have given special emphasis to a rather strict approach of thinking in terms of underlying forms in relation to empirical observations, while practicing and developing it in specific ways. This approach was first institutionalized in specific houses of learning, in Europe most notably universities and royal academies. Over the course of time, also other institutions emerged where empirical science (in an increasingly broad sense) is practiced, such as today in a great many research institutions. To be sure, the European universities were preceded by similar scholars and institutions in many parts of the world. Yet the European model, especially the ‘Humboldtian’ model of open-minded research and teaching first institutionalized by Wilhem von Humboldt (1757- 1835) and his colleagues at Berlin University in the early nineteenth century, has become very influential, while it has been copied all around the world. Because of its relentless emphasis on rational thinking, Robert Pirsig called the university system the ‘Church of Reason’ (1976, p.140). This specific approach of thinking in terms of underlying forms about empirically observed reality is the essence of the academic pursuit of understanding reality.

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Locating and building knowledges outside of the academy: Approaches to engaged teaching at the University of Sheffield

Locating and building knowledges outside of the academy: Approaches to engaged teaching at the University of Sheffield

Through developing a curriculum that enables public engagement, universities can encourage students to understand learning as something that happens in all parts of their lives, rather than something that occurs only during the period of a lecture or seminar session. Their conversations, relationships and ethics all matter. The consequence of this is not that research of this kind should become more risk averse, or limited in its scope, with tutors trying to control the outcomes, but rather that it should embrace its richer, and more contingent foundation. The social aspect of the project is incredibly important as it allows for meanings, values and relationships to sustain beyond the length of the course or direct involvement of the students. In an ideal case, students develop their sense of responsibility and gain insight into what the partners are giving; project partners also see themselves as Ôdoing goodÕ by helping

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Data Mining Technology across Academic Disciplines

Data Mining Technology across Academic Disciplines

There were 75 business faculty surveyed by email and 48 responded (64%) providing information on data mining books or related software. Of the 235 computer sci- ence/engineering faculty surveyed who were teaching data mining courses, 127 responded (54%). For inquiries from statistics departments, 31 of the 44 surveyed re- sponded (a 70% email response rate of either book or software or both). All library/information science pro- grams had online information. Although the degree of response combined both texts and software, the text titles and the type of software were recorded separately. 3.1. Courses by Discipline

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Working in the border zone: developing cultural competence in higher education for a globalized world

Working in the border zone: developing cultural competence in higher education for a globalized world

Learning how to do situated interdisciplinary research entails not only different cognitive processes, but a capacity to engage in dialogue and exchange with those in other disciplines (Manathunga et al., 2006, pp. 368- 369). Manathunga et al liken the stages of interdisciplinary thinking to an “intercultural border crossing”, where the first stage of cultural relativism or acceptance of different beliefs and practices is succeeded by “radically revaluing one’s own inquiry to incorporate the questions, methods, and perspectives of others” (p. 369, quoting Cornwell and Stoddard, 2001). Drawing on examples at undergraduate level, the authors suggest that interdisciplinary courses are valuable in developing these skills “because they expose students to multiple, sometimes conflicting perspectives and encourage them to actively construct and apply knowledge” (p. 369).

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Educating

Educating

disciplines at the University of Exeter have carried out a series of research projects on their learning and teaching environment, selecting concerns raised through student-staff liaison committees, and providing recommendations and solutions to improve their experience (Dunne and Zandstra, 2011); less structured processes occur in many higher education institutions as a product of student feedback. In an increasing number of institutions in the USA, students are becoming partners in pedagogical planning, co-creating teaching approaches and co-designing courses and curricula with staff (e.g. Werder and Otis, 2010; Bovill et al., 2011a, b; Cook-Sather 2011). As students become agents of change, their role with respect to teachers, and vice versa, becomes less exclusionary. Similarly, working with students as change agents can support an increasing interconnectedness between the classroom, the wider contexts of higher education institutions, and community spaces and practices that exist outside of the institutions.

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Cultural and Creative Industries in Modern Languages

Cultural and Creative Industries in Modern Languages

The MLANG discipline evolution: When MLANG was first introduced into British universities in the early twentieth century, its disciplinary emphasis was placed on ancient languages, reflected in prestigious elite learning, curriculum content structure and pedagogical approach (Coleman 2011: 121-123). The purpose of MLANG was not for practical proficiency, as Classical Greek and Latin were not widely used in conversation, but rather for a command of the written language in all its stylistic complexity and subtlety, acquired through deductive grammar and translation, and in order to appreciate great literature in its original form. In the UK, as in the rest of Europe, a Modern Languages degree has traditionally meant a diet of literature, whether students wanted it or not. Increasingly, scholars, as well as students, questioned the necessity and effectiveness of foreign languages and subject

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Is it Time to Change? Infusing the Transdisciplinary Approach into Social Work Studies

Is it Time to Change? Infusing the Transdisciplinary Approach into Social Work Studies

This requires they not only have a firm grasp of conventional social work skills, but also have another skill set: one that equips them with proficiency to cross disciplinary lines and build interconnected relationships with other professions. Within academia, experts from varying fields are calling for a new workforce of members who retain their own refined disciplinary knowledge but also have the capacity to traverse disciplinary thinking and thus be effective in authentic life situations that address complicated human dilemmas (Hyun, 2011;McClam& Flores- Scott, 2012;Steiner &Posch, 2006).World-wide, authorities from diverse disciplines are coming to the same conclusion: Addressing significant problems and coming up with endurable answers requires the development of cross-disciplinary teaching, learning, and research approaches (Belsky, 2002; Fry, 2001; Klein, 2004; Tress & Tress, 2001; Woods& Snyder, 2009).

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Bridging a discipline divide through the lens of community of inquiry

Bridging a discipline divide through the lens of community of inquiry

Within a teacher education course learners engaged in an online collaborative project. Within a structured environment the learners investigated authentic issues of teaching and learning within 21 st century classrooms (e.g., pedagogical approaches to decrease cyberbullying, and enhancing the learning outcomes of second language learners and autistic learners). The learning experience was a blended one in that the course was in face-to-face mode; however the majority of the activities related to this learning experience were conducted online. This project enabled the learners to engage with peers, practising teachers and academics. The cohort was in the second year of their four year education program. These learners had no or very limited previous online learning experiences. Participation within this project was assessed by learners self selecting and submitting what they perceived to be their best quality postings throughout the structured experience.

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VAK Beat the Teacher Pyramid

VAK Beat the Teacher Pyramid

across it for marking draw goals, put the 'ball' in the middle and put the children in 2 groups or teams. They can either work as a team to answer questions or you can pick some out individually from each team if they get a question right they get to move a line across and if they get 3 in a row they get to shoot to save the other team must get their

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Decision making with visualizations: a cognitive framework across disciplines

Decision making with visualizations: a cognitive framework across disciplines

observed across domains is a containment conceptualization of boundary representations in visuali- zations. Tversky (2011) makes the analogy, “Framing a picture is a way of saying that what is inside the picture has a different status from what is outside the picture” (p. 522). Similarly, Fabrikant and Skupin (2005) describe how, “They [boundaries] help partition an information space into zones of relative semantic homogeneity” (p. 673). However, in visualization design, it is common to take continuous data and visually represent them with boundaries (i.e. summary statistics, error bars, isocon- tours, or regions of interest; Padilla et al., 2015; Padilla, Quinan, Meyer, & Creem-Regehr, 2017). Binning con- tinuous data is a reasonable approach, particularly when intended to make the data simpler for viewers to under- stand (Padilla, Quinan, et al., 2017). However, it may have the unintended consequence of creating artificial boundaries that can bias users—leading them to respond as if data within a containment is more similar than data across boundaries. For example, McKenzie, Hegarty, Barrett, and Goodchild (2016) showed that participants were more likely to use a containment heuristic to make decisions about Google Map’s blue dot visualization when the positional uncertainty data were visualized as a bounded circle (Fig. 9 right) compared to a Gaussian fade (Fig. 9 left) (see also Newman & Scholl, 2012; Ruginski et al., 2016). Recent work by Grounds, Joslyn, and Otsuka (2017) found that viewers demonstrate a “deterministic construal error” or the belief that visuali- zations of temperature uncertainty represent a determin- istic forecast. However, the deterministic construal error was not observed with textual representations of the same data (see also Joslyn & LeClerc, 2013).

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External pressures on teaching: three years on

External pressures on teaching: three years on

There is a clear statement that the HEFCE will work to integrate ‘the skills and attributes which employers need, such as communication, enterprise and working with others’ into HE courses in every subject. Although it might at first seem that this would be more difficult in non-vocational disciplines such as ours, we already foster many skills which are highly valued by potential employers of our graduates, and the main need is not to do things we are not already doing, but rather for both staff and students to articulate employment- related skills more explicitly. We hope that our new employability guides and case studies will be helpful in this respect. See:

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Artist as rhetor: strategies for the visual communication of artistic & scientific concepts

Artist as rhetor: strategies for the visual communication of artistic & scientific concepts

philosophers. 708 For Sven Dupré this transmission of knowledge through books, drawings and objects including images, which were bought together by artists as working collections, represented the intellectualisation of the artist’s profession. 709 With the emergence of the artist’s treatises the transmission of artisanal knowledge had progressed from a tradition which consisted of communication from master to apprentice, to the dissemination of knowledge to a wider group of practitioners and scholars through various forms of written and pictorial media. Pamela Long suggests that the arts themselves were enhanced when artisan practitioners and humanists produced treatises on various mechanical arts. 710 Despite research revealing that benefits to the arts were primarily achieved through patronage, whereby the enhanced value of the arts reflected on the cultural aims of both the patron and the society to which they belonged, artist’s publications functioned to advance ideas such as Dürer’s notions of art as a knowledge discipline. Long considers these publications important for the advancement of knowledge because it was through the ‘formulation of their principles in treatises, authors created potentially learned disciplines out of arts previously concerned primarily with craft production and construction’. 711 Although artisanal literacy had expanded from primarily a ‘material

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Information Literacy: Research and Collaboration across Disciplines

Information Literacy: Research and Collaboration across Disciplines

CS: And to note but another barrier, a significant failure of the coupling between the research paper and the one-shot library session is an intense privi- leging of academic enactments of IL. First, as already noted, this is an environ- ment foreign to first-year students and one which requires a great deal of accul- turation in order for students to authentically engage. Second, it ignores the expertise and experiences that students have in other contexts and through other information interactions. Third, it does not support students’ future needs in alternate contexts. At the core of IL is discerning what to learn, seeking patterns across information (people, text, places), generating knowledge, and acting in the world (Elmborg, 2003, p. 73). If we focus our efforts in IL on academic con- texts, students may come to view its importance as relevant only in that context, rather than being transferable and broadly relevant. Take, for example, Project Information Literacy’s “Passage Studies,” which found employer dissatisfaction with recent graduates’ IL in the workplace. Employers interviewed in this study value employees who are agile, collaborative, flexible, nimble, patient, persistent, and resourceful. However, recent graduates lacked sophisticated habits of ana- lyzing information across sources, distinguishing important information from “noise,” synthesizing information for problem solving, and finding patterns. This example captures only one alternate information landscape, the workplace, but there are many others that students will encounter after graduation in which a critical disposition towards information will be vital (Cyphert & Lyle, Chapter 3, this collection).

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On  several  layers,  students  are  thus  unequally  distant  from  the  educational  and  didactic  policies  of  HE  institutions  (Bourdieu  et  al.  1977).  However,  studies  accounting  for  this  heterogeneity  in  the  field  of  HE  didactics  remain  scarce,  especially  with  regard  to  the  mass degree programs of economics  and business  (Bank  et  al.  2011;  Birke  et  al.  2011).  New  learning  styles  responding  to  sociocultural  heterogeneity,  such  as  problem‐based learning (Allen et al. 2011; Singaram et al.  2011)  appear  to  be  most  highly  represented  in  medical  education (Das Carlo et al. 2003) and engineering (Quinn  et al. 2008).  However, educational sciences and teacher‐ training  seminars  that  integrate  student  research  projects  into  seminar  structures  are  also  quite  established  (Fichten  2010;  Roters  et  al.  2009;  Schneider  et al.  2004).  Equally,  such theory‐practice‐traditions  may  be  found  in  social  work  studies  (Müller  2009).  Student  training  research  projects  are  especially  popular  at  German  universities  and  are  found  across  faculties,  including  the  social  sciences  (Huber  et  al.  2009).  This  national  tradition,  which  differs  from  the  approach  at  Danish  universities,  may  be  explained  by  the  claim  that  “research‐oriented  learning  is  part  of  academic  studies”  (Huber  2004:  31,  translated  from  the  original  German,  K.L./R.L)  and  more  a  leitmotiv  of  education  than  a  question  of  didactics  (Wildt  2002).  Such  research‐ integrating  concepts  are  applicable  for  a  case  study  approach  to  business  and  the  social  sciences  as  well  (McMay  et  al.  2013).  However,  in  such  settings  of  business education, where a fundamental understanding  of scientific  theory  is  the  learning  outcome,  the  concept  of RPT is  most suitable. RPT  is supervised and framed by  the  lecturer  but  leaves  the  choice  of  learning

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Here the term “didactics” implies "...a notion that captures all the knowledge that has to do with a [University] classroom, and everything happening inside it” (Menck 2000, 3). “Didaktik is at the centre of most school teaching and teacher education in Continental Europe, but at the same time almost unknown in the English speaking world.” (Hopmann 2007; cp. Westbury et.al. 2000) The German term Fachdidaktik from the continental tradition of didactics (Swedish: Fackdidaktik, Marton 1986) has been translated as “subject matter didactics” or, where it relates to the social sciences, “curriculum studies in the field of social sciences/civics”. The term Hochschulfachdidaktik used here, a composite term of Hochschule (Higher Education) and Fachdidaktik, is rare even in the German language. The European Wergeland Center in Oslo launched the CLEAR project (Concept Learning for Empowerment through Analysis and Reflection formerly known as the Intercultural Glossary Project) to provide an online resource for education professionals. It faciliates discussions around such key concepts, as well as methods for the study of concepts:

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Panel Discussion:  Creating A Spirit Of Inquiry In The Classroom

Panel Discussion: Creating A Spirit Of Inquiry In The Classroom

The interactions throughout the session provide an opportunity to create relationships between students, teachers, panelists and ideas (Windschitl, 1999). While knowledge is created from the beginning of the panel discussion, the knowledge that is created during the sharing of views and opinions by students, panelists, and even the teacher is of the utmost value. It is within these interactions that the social constructivist view of creating knowledge and ideas is most apparent (Powell & Kalina, 2009). Here are the students who are experts at learning, and teacher and panelists who are experts in the area of community health nursing talking and learning with each other about the concerns and problems students have when entering the community health nursing culture (Driver, 1994, as cited in Merriam, Caffarella, & Baumgartner, 2007).

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Information Literacy: Research and Collaboration across Disciplines

Information Literacy: Research and Collaboration across Disciplines

CS: And to note but another barrier, a significant failure of the coupling between the research paper and the one-shot library session is an intense privi- leging of academic enactments of IL. First, as already noted, this is an environ- ment foreign to first-year students and one which requires a great deal of accul- turation in order for students to authentically engage. Second, it ignores the expertise and experiences that students have in other contexts and through other information interactions. Third, it does not support students’ future needs in alternate contexts. At the core of IL is discerning what to learn, seeking patterns across information (people, text, places), generating knowledge, and acting in the world (Elmborg, 2003, p. 73). If we focus our efforts in IL on academic con- texts, students may come to view its importance as relevant only in that context, rather than being transferable and broadly relevant. Take, for example, Project Information Literacy’s “Passage Studies,” which found employer dissatisfaction with recent graduates’ IL in the workplace. Employers interviewed in this study value employees who are agile, collaborative, flexible, nimble, patient, persistent, and resourceful. However, recent graduates lacked sophisticated habits of ana- lyzing information across sources, distinguishing important information from “noise,” synthesizing information for problem solving, and finding patterns. This example captures only one alternate information landscape, the workplace, but there are many others that students will encounter after graduation in which a critical disposition towards information will be vital (Cyphert & Lyle, Chapter 3, this collection).

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