personal beliefs and culture of the people who are considered nativespeakers of any specific language determine many of the paralinguistic roles of the language. The target language culture has also been stated as having a role in teachers’ beliefs as it helps teachers understand what to teach and how to teach it (Ahn, 2013; Holliday, 2018; Zahavi, 2015). A large percentage of the native teachers argued that language learners want to learn the accent, pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar used by nativespeakers in real life situations. The non-native teachers further emphasized this issue and stated that this is a must in classrooms. This is supported by studies such as Lee (2018), McKay (2003), Kilickaya (2009), and Tajeddin et al. (2018). McKay (2003) and Kilickaya (2009) found that most modern Englishlanguage teachers have a strong belief in helping their students acquire a native-like accent and proficient language use. Tajeddin et al. (2018) also found that non-nativelanguage users prefer the use of native American or British accents in their classrooms and consider these accents as the norm in language classes.
This chapter presents the organization and the analysis of the data for this research. Data are in the form of talk segments that are derived from entire telephone conversations recorded in a commercial call center (SENTO) and a helpdesk of an educational institute (ITC) – both located in Enschede, the Netherlands. The presentation of the data is in accordance with the sequence of the problem statements of the research, which have been stated in the previous chapters. Segments that contain cases of misunderstanding and non‐understanding are of primary interest for this study, thus they are the relevant data in this presentation. Since another significant area of interest for this research are the approaches (such as repair and prevention) people use in dealing with cases of misunderstanding and non‐understanding in helpdesk encounters, segments with the aforementioned instances are also included for analysis.
Because the present experiment involves production of novel words, the findings of Barcroft and Sommers (2005) and Rost and McMurrary (2010) are perhaps most relevant. In the Barcroft and Sommers study, simply increasing certain types of phonetic variability, while holding talker constant, did not lead to improve second language vocabulary learning by college –aged participants on measures such as latency and accuracy. However, presenting L2. learners with the some item produced by multiple talkers did improve vocabulary performance. A related pattern of results was found by Rost and McMurray in their study of early word learning by 14-month-old infants. Infants did not show evidence of recognizing single feature mismatches between novel objects and their labels (/bulk/and/puk) when trained on production from a single talkers, even when the stimuli were manipulated to have considerable variation in the acoustic cues distinguishing the relevant sounds (i.e., VOT, burst amplitude, FO).
can. The visual display accompanying these instructions (Figure 1) contained a cube, two cans of different sizes, one other container object and two unrelated non-containers. Additionally, the cube was either small so that it could fit into either of the cans (two- compatible referent condition), or large so that it could fit only into the larger can (one- compatible referent condition). The linguistic manipulation (the definiteness of the nominal phrase (NP) referring to the target) was crossed with object affordances (the number of potential target referents). The results showed that participants indeed utilised in real time the information signalled by articles to anticipate the forthcoming referent, in that their looks toward the target diverged faster from other possible referents when the information signalled by the article matched the object affordances than when it mismatched it. Specifically, on hearing inside the can, where the definite NP signals that the referent is uniquely identifiable, participants resolved reference sooner when there was a single pragmatically appropriate target in the display (large cube fitting only the larger can) than when there were two (small cube fitting both cans). At the same time on hearing inside a can, where the indefinite NP can implicate non-uniqueness, reference resolution was facilitated when there were two objects compatible with the instruction compared to when there was only one compatible object in the display. These findings clearly demonstrate that while non-linguistic information such as object affordances can be exploited early to predict which entity will be referred to, in
only. Therefore, the Dutch participants will be left out of account in the following. All non- native Dutch speakers were Germans who began to acquire Dutch after the age of 18. The language proficiency of the bilingual speakers was sufficient to be admitted to a Dutch- language university. The mean age of the German subjects was 21 with a standard deviation of 1.53 years, and 83.3 % were female. Those participants that subscribed for the study to receive credit points (27 out of 36 in the total sample) were a random selection of bachelor and master students of the behavioral science faculty. The remaining subjects were acquired by convenience sampling and did not exclusively study behavioral sciences. Students with dyslexia and epilepsy were excluded from the study. Each subject provided written informed consent before participation. The ethics committee of the Faculty of Behavioral Sciences approved the experimental procedure.
To fulfill the research goals, three different groups of participants were participated in the study namely, EFL learners (EFLL), nativespeakers of English (NSE), and nativespeakers of Persian (NSP). The participants of the first group (EFLL) were 30 male and female students selected randomly from the cohort of students majoring in TeachingEnglish as a foreign language (TEFL) at one of the three universities of Khorasgan Azad University, the University of Isfahan, and Najafabad Azad University. All these participants, who were supposed to be at upper intermediate to advanced level, were also given the Quick Placement Test (UCLES, 2001) to guarantee their homogeneity in terms of English proficiency level. Based on the results, the scores obtained by the students fell within the range of 40 to 54 (out of 60) implying that EFL learners were at upper intermediate to advanced level. To provide a good touchstone against which the performance of non-native EFL learners would be evaluated, the second group of participants including 30 male and female nativespeakers of English were invited to participate in the study among the population of American, Canadian, and Australian nationals. Finally, the last group, as Persian nativespeakers group, consisted of 30 male and female nativespeakers of Persian. The rationale behind the Inclusion of the third study group was comparison of Persian nativespeakers’ semantic formulas with those of the EFL learners. These participants had no or little exposure to Englishlanguage in their whole life and were selected randomly from the students of other majors in the three abovementioned universities. It is worth mentioning that the three groups were matched in terms of age ranged from 23 to 30 years old.
Perhaps more impressive is the agreement within certain classes of annotators. Although the agree- ment for annotators with the same proficiency level is lower (0.575 ± 0.07), the agreements within education levels and age bands are noticeably higher, reaching 0.638 ± 0.08 and 0.671 ± 0.08, respec- tively. The highest agreement is reached by annotators with the same nativelanguage: 0.718 ± 0.1. Inspecting the annotations, we found that the speakers of certain languages are sometimes challenged by words which, in most cases, are not considered complex by nativespeakers of any other languages. Table 2 illustrates the words with the highest percentage of variance (Brysbaert and New, 2009) between the number of times that they were deemed complex by the speakers of a specific nativelanguage, and the rest of the annotators.
Several methodological shortcomings might threaten the validity of our results, includ- ing the small number of items on the PISA scale and the lack of external validation crite- ria. In order to examine the two-dimensionality of the latent constructs English reading in German National Educational Standards and PISA, there should be a similar num- ber of items on both factors. External variables such as the achievement on the German PISA reading literacy test might help interpret the correlation between the two Englishlanguage constructs. Moreover, the comparison of performance in our sample with PISA results is limited in terms of comparability because of different sampling rationales and different background models: PISA included students with special educational needs, whereas the German NA calibration study did not. Thus, the underperformance of Ger- man non-nativespeakers compared to nativespeakers may be even more severe than our results indicate. In addition, the background model that was used to draw plausible values (PVs) in PISA could not be fully replicated in the present study. Due to a lack of comprehensive background information on the students, only the two variables with the highest percentage of variance explained were included (school track and grade; R 2 = .53).
The subjects of this study consist of two groups of students in Khartoum State (the capital of Sudan). The first group of students consisted of Sudanese students who are non-nativespeakers of English and whose first language is Arabic. They study at Zat Alnatagian secondary school for girls. The second group consisted of students who are nativespeakers of English from England and USA. They study at British Education Schools in Khartoum. The Sudanese group consisted of 19 female students who were enrolled in the second year at the age of (14-15). The English group consisted of 19 male and female English students who were enrolled in the second year at an age ranging from 14 years to 15 years.
Writing is simply a productive skill in a written manner, where a writer generates ideas and thoughts in an organized and constructed way. Many attempts have been made by researchers to define writing, one of the most working definitions is that of White and Arndt (1991, p. 3) who state that writing is “a form of problem-solving which involves such process as generating ideas, discovering a voice with which to write, planning, goal setting, monitoring and evaluating what is going to be written, and searching with language with which to express exact meanings". Writing is deemed by many language experts as the most complicated skill for both foreign language learners and nativespeakers (Harris and Cunningham, 1994, Rababah, 2003, Alkhresheh, 2010). As it was described by Llach, (2011) writing is a troublesome skill for any languagespeakers, specifically for non-nativespeakers. Based on the figures obtained from National Assessment of Educational Progress (2002), roughly 69% of eighth graders and 77% of twelfth graders in the United States of America are not writing well. In addition, the statistics showed that 50% of college students were unable to produce English sentences without committing errors. The above mentioned figures indicate that writing is a serious problem encountered by native and non-nativespeakers on a similar footing. As foreign language learners, Jordanian learners of English encounter various difficulties in English writing (Rababah, 2001, 2003; Zughoul,1991). Admittedly, Writing is highly troublesome and challenging for Jordanian English learners, since English is not widely practiced in the country in addition to the shortcomings of adopted teaching methods, which are solely based on dictating and instructing. This study highlights errors made by Jordanian English learners in order to determine how successful in writing they are. Thereby, collective efforts need to be made by language instructors, curriculum designers and officials at education sector in order to improve students' writing in the first language L1 and the second language L2 as well.
Computer-Mediated-Communication is bereft of any intonation markers usually found in face-to-face conversations. As a result, how a sender meant to send out a message, versus how their addressee reads it sometimes fails to align. This can lead to uncooperative and confusing online communication. This paper set out to examine if (and what) effects different punctuation types have on the interpretation of meaning in WhatsApp communication, and whether one’s age or nativelanguage influences the perception of these markers. Unlike previous studies conducted on this topic which focussed only on students, this study was conducted among 123 respondents from a wide variety of ages and countries. Through an online survey, participants were asked for their opinions and thoughts to different types of punctuation used in recurring but otherwise identical messages. Results indicated that different punctuation types elicit strong and differing views, based on what punctuation type is used, and that these types influence their feelings towards the message as well as to the personal state of their interlocutor. The most significant findings were found for ellipsis points and messages lacking any punctuation: ellipses can lead to very negative interpretations in respondents, and a lack of punctuation can lead to respondents feeling sidelined. Interpretations of certain punctuation types are influenced by a reader’s age and nativelanguage. Using Yus’ theory of a phatic internet and cyber literacy, this paper posits that the reason respondents assign these meanings to different types of punctuation is to avoid misunderstandings, form identities, and stay on good terms with people in a world in which most daily conversation happens online.
The second aspect of the same problem is the delivery of the words which cannot be seen in isolation from pronunciation. In Arabic too dialects influenced by regions or patios vary in tone and delivery. There are Arabic nations that pronounce one single word differently, for example, Moya, means water. In certain regions of the Arab world it is delivered as “Miayaa, Mouaa. For a foreign speaker the two different pronunciations tend to confuse as to the actual delivery of the word and thus it is only possible that different versions of a particular word does exist. Another issue is local impact that tampers with the delivery of the words. In this case the Irish pronunciation becomes just a case in point. Irish speakers speak English but their delivery of words is very different and to the extent that it almost sounds a different language or at least the standard dictionaries do not approve of them. Given such intricacies it only compounds the task of the non-native trainers while training the non-nativespeakers or learners.
Language is the center of human life. It is one of the most important ways of expressing our love or our hatred for people; it is vital to achieving many of our goals and careers; it is a source of artistic satisfaction or simple pleasure. We use language for planning our lives and remembering our past; we exchange ideas and experiences through language; we identify ourselves with people who speak the same language (cook, 1996) knowing other languages may mean getting a job, a chance to get educated; the ability to take a fuller part in the life of one‟s literary and cultural horizons; the expression of one‟s political opinions or religious beliefs. It affects people‟s careers and possible futures, their lives and the very identifies. In a world when propably more people speak two languages than speak one, language learning and languageteaching are vital to the everyday lives of millions(cook, 1996).
The Arabic short story has an important impact in the field of teaching Arabic to non-Arabic speakers; therefore, this research aims to provide a methodological vision to show the effective role of the short story in the field of teaching Arabic to non-nativespeakers, starting from the theoretical application through which the researchers address the issue of the Literary text in general and its connection with teaching a foreign language. The research also adopts in-field application based on social survey sample. The instrument of the research is a questionnaire designed for non-native learners of Arabic at the Languages Center at the University of Jordan. The research has concluded that teaching the short story is effective due to its functional, recreational, cultural, linguistic and aesthetic qualities based on the challenges facing the teaching-learning process of a second language.
Two groups of graduate students participated in this study. The first group consisted of 17 students from an Iranian graduate university, and the second group was made up of 14 students from an American university. The Iranian participants were MA students at a state university in Tehran majoring in TEFL and American participants were nativespeakers of English who were studying Education at the time of data collection. The Iranian participants were advanced second language users of English and had studied English for four years during their BA. To enter their MA program, they had participated in a highly competitive language proficiency entrance exam. The participants were among the 40 top candidates who were admitted. This indicates that they already had a good command of English. In addition, the participants studied English for about two years during their MA program too. Of 17 students, 9 were females and 8 were males. Their ages ranged from 24 to 28. All of the Iranian participants affirmed that they had not been taught how to write emails in English, though they had passed a letter writing course in their BA in which they were supposed to learn how to write pen and paper letters.
Although the policy of MOE did not work as expected, more and more private English cram schools, language centers, and private schools recruit Englishnativespeakers as English teachers to create the “whole English” con- texts in which English is used as the medium for instruction. Classes instructed by NS English teachers are always popular with not only students but also their parents. Most of the people in Taiwan tend to believe that NS English teachers are better language learning models for learners than NNS English teachers merely because English is their first language. They also agree that students can learn English much better in NS English teachers’ classes rather than in NNS English teachers’ classes. Also, NS English teachers always get higher pay and receive more respect from students and their parents than NNS English teachers (Wu & Ke, 2009). Some NNS English teachers even play a role as NS English teachers’ assistants or tutors, responsible for translating what NS Eng- lish teachers say in class into Chinese to help students’ learning. It seems to imply that NS English teachers are superior to NNS English teachers.
We obtained a set of voice recordings from 54 non-nativeEnglishspeakers with varied degree of proficiency (see Ta- ble 1 for details). Each speaker was asked to read aloud a set of 11 sentences from two short stories written in the En- glish language widely used in phonetics and speech pathol- ogy research. The data recorded consisted of 5 sentences taken from the fable “The North Wind and the Sun”, and 6 sentences extracted from “The Rainbow”. All record- ing sessions took place in a room at the Technische Uni- versit¨at M¨unchen (Germany) using the same hardware and software. The full database comprises 594 recordings (11 sentences * 54 speakers), totalling to 1.4 hours of speech. 2.2. Annotation procedure
As an international language, English has become more and more important for non-native speak- ers. However, almost all English documents are written for the nativespeakers. To some degree, some documents can not be understood quite well by non-nativespeakers. This paper concentrates on exploring the differences in cue usage at dis- course level between native and non-native speak- ers. The aim is to find the decision-making mech- anisms of text generation for users at different reading levels.
A request functions as a linguistic device to get someone do or stop doing something. Requesting requires that EFL learners be highly pragmatically competent to be able to avoid pragmatic failure. Requesting is classified into the speech act category of directives (Schmidt & Richards, 1980). Table 4 summarized the results of request strategy use. It is obvious that the participants have followed certain patterns and structures to realize the speech act of request. The first three most frequent request strategies were mood-derivable, query-preparatory and strong hints. The roots of these forms of requests, particularly mood-derivable and query-preparatory in which such structures as 'Could/Can I …', 'Could/Can you …' and imperatives were used extensively, can be easily traced back to the high school textbooks of English domestically produced in Iran and taught nationwide. These textbooks contain a large number of such structures especially in the beginning stages of Englishlanguageteaching. These findings are in line with Byon (2004), Alfattah (2009), Al-Marrani and Sazalie (2010), Ahangari and Shoghli (2011), Jalilifar (2009) and Jalilifar et al. (2011).
This study investigates the beliefs of native and non-nativeEnglish speaking teachers on teachingEnglish in kindergartens. A qualitative case study design is used to construct individual portraits and a cross-case analysis of several kindergarten teachers and analyze data following the qualitative data analysis methods by Taylor and Bodgan (1998). Data collected by interview and classroom observation show 4 different beliefs to be salient across the cases: language learning, the role of the teacher, the role of the learner, and self-efficacy. Data analysis shows teacher beliefs that are complex and closely related to the teacher’s life and learning experiences, multiple identities, and different environmental affordances and constraints. Therefore, the teachers’ subjective account from an emic perspective is useful for describing this complexity. The findings of this study have implications for constructing "a technical culture" (Kleinsasser, 1993), in which teachers may find themselves, that supports the teacher, and that contributes to quality teaching and professional growth.